Tourism

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Sightseeing)
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about travel. For other uses of Tourism and Tourist, see Tourist (disambiguation).
Modern tourists taking photos from an open-topped tour bus in Paris.

Tourism is the travel for recreation, leisure, religious, family business purposes, usually of a limited duration. Tourism is commonly associated with trans-national travel, but may also refer to travel to another location within the same country. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".[1]

Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. Tourism can be domestic or international, and international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments. Today, tourism is a major source of income for many countries, and affects the economy of both the source and host countries, in some cases it is of vital importance.

Tourism suffered as a result of a strong economic slowdown of the late-2000s recession, between the second half of 2008 and the end of 2009, and the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus.[2][3] It then slowly recovered, with international tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone 1 billion tourists globally for first time in history in 2012.[4] International tourism receipts (the travel item of the balance of payments) grew to US$1.03 trillion (€740 billion) in 2011, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010.[5] In 2012, China became the largest spender in international tourism globally with US$102 billion, surpassing Germany and United States. China and emerging markets significantly increase their spending over the past decade, with Russia and Brazil as noteworthy examples.[6]

Etymology[edit]

1922 postcard of tourists in the High Tatras, Slovakia.

The word tourist was used by 1772 [7] and tourism by 1811.[8]

William F.Theobald (1994) suggested that "etymologically, the word tour is derived from the Latin, 'tornare' and the Greek, 'tornos', meaning 'a lathe or circle; the movement around a central point or axis'. This meaning changed in modern English to represent 'one's turn'. The suffix –ism is defined as 'an action or process; typical behaviour or quality', while the suffix, –ist denotes 'one that performs a given action'. When the word tour and the suffixes –ism and –ist are combined, they suggest the action of movement around a circle. One can argue that a circle represents a starting point, which ultimately returns back to its beginning. Therefore, like a circle, a tour represents a journey in that it is a round-trip, i.e., the act of leaving and then returning to the original starting point, and therefore, one who takes such a journey can be called a tourist."[9]

Today, three schools discuss on the roots of tourism. The French School, led by A. Houlot argued that the term tourism comes from the old Aramaic Tur, which was used for the trip, exploration and movement of people in the Bible. This word had been used, for the first time, when Moses begins his expedition to the lands of Canaán.[10] Nevertheless, another school of thought - the Onomastic School - considers the origin of the concept not from a linguistic perspective but rather links it to the last name of the French aristocracy Della Tour. According to this school, after Carlos V signs a treaty with England in 1516, in celebration of this event, the future king gives the Della Tour family exclusive rights to conduct commercial transport and related businesses.[11] Last but not least, a third school focuses on the Anglo-Saxon world, situating the Theobald´s development under the lens of scrutiny. Surmising that the roots of the word tourism comes from the Ancient Anglo-Saxon term Torn, these scholars found evidence to think the term was coined in the 12th century which by farmers to denote those travels with intentions to return. Over centuries, the meaning of the word has been shifted to be politically adopted. By the middle of the 18th century, the English noblemen used the term “turn” to refer to the trips undertaken for education, search and culture exploration. In reality, the purpose of the noblemen’s trip to the different parts of Kingdom was to acquire knowledge that was later useful for governing.[12]

Significance of tourism[edit]

Strandkorb chairs on Usedom Island, Germany. Not only the service sector grows thanks to tourism, but also local manufacturers (like those producing the strandkorb), retailers, the real estate sector and the general image of a location can benefit a lot.

Tourism is an important, even vital, source of income for many countries. Its importance was recognized in the Manila Declaration on World Tourism of 1980 as "an activity essential to the life of nations because of its direct effects on the social, cultural, educational, and economic sectors of national societies and on their international relations."[1][13]

Tourism brings in large amounts of income into a local economy in the form of payment for goods and services needed by tourists, accounting for 30% of the world's trade of services, and 6% of overall exports of goods and services.[5] It also creates opportunities for employment in the service sector of the economy associated with tourism.[14]

The service industries which benefit from tourism include transportation services, such as airlines, cruise ships, and taxicabs; hospitality services, such as accommodations, including hotels and resorts; and entertainment venues, such as amusement parks, casinos, shopping malls, music venues, and theatres. This is in addition to goods bought by tourists, including souvenirs, clothing and other supplies.

Definitions[edit]

In 1936, the League of Nations defined a foreign tourist as "someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours". Its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months.[9]

In 1941, Hunziker and Krapf defined tourism as people who travel "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity."[15][16] In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes."[17] In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home.[18]

In 1994, the United Nations identified three forms of tourism in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics:[19]

  • Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country.
  • Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country.
  • Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another country.

The terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel has a similar definition to tourism, but implies a more purposeful journey. The terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited by tourists.

World tourism statistics and rankings[edit]

Total volume of cross-border tourist travel[edit]

International tourist arrivals reached 1.035 billion in 2012, up from over 983 million in 2011, and 940 million in 2010.[4][5][14] In 2011 and 2012, international travel demand continued to recover from the losses resulting from the late-2000s recession, where tourism suffered a strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009. After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008, and ended up only 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in 2007.[2] The negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, and a 5.7% decline in international tourism receipts.[3]

World’s top 10 tourism destinations[edit]

The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten countries as the most visited in terms of the number of international travellers in 2013.

Rank Country UNWTO
Region[20]
International
tourist
arrivals
(2013)[21]
International
tourist
arrivals
(2012)[21]
Change
(2012 to
2013)
(%)
Change
(2011 to
2012)
(%)
1  France Europe 84.7 million 83.0 million Increase 2.0 Increase 1.8
2  United States North America 69.8 million 66.7 million Increase 4.7 Increase 6.3
3  Spain Europe 60.7 million 57.5 million Increase 5.6 Increase 2.3
4  China Asia 55.7 million 57.7 million Decrease 3.5 Increase 0.3
5  Italy Europe 47.7 million 46.4 million Increase 2.9 Increase 0.5
6  Turkey Europe 37.8 million 35.7 million Increase 5.9 Increase 3.0
7  Germany Europe 31.5 million 30.4 million Increase 3.7 Increase 7.3
8  United Kingdom Europe 31.2 million 29.3 million Increase 6.4 Decrease 0.1
9  Russia Europe 28.4 million 25.7 million Increase 10.2 Increase 13.5
10  Thailand Asia 26.5 million 22.4 million Increase 18.8 Increase 16.2

International tourism receipts[edit]

International tourism receipts grew to US$1.159 trillion (€873 billion) in 2011, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 5.3% from 2012.[5] The World Tourism Organization reports the following countries as the top ten tourism earners for the year 2013, with the United States by far the top earner.

Rank Country UNWTO
Region[20]
International
tourism
receipts
(2013)[21]
International
tourism
receipts
(2012)[21]
Change
(2012 to
2013)
(%)
Change
(2011 to
2012)
(%)
1  United States North America $139.6 billion $126.2 billion Increase 10.6 Increase 9.2
2  Spain Europe $60.4 billion $56.3 billion Increase 7.4 Decrease 6.3
3  France Europe $56.1 billion $53.6 billion Increase 4.8 Decrease 2.2
4  China Asia $51.7 billion $50.0 billion Increase 3.3 Increase 3.2
 Macau, China Asia $51.6 billion $43.7 billion Increase 18.1 Increase 13.7
5  Italy Europe $43.9 billion $41.2 billion Increase 6.6 Decrease 4.2
6  Thailand Asia $42.1 billion $33.8 billion Increase 24.4 Increase 24.4
7  Germany Europe $41.2 billion $38.1 billion Increase 8.1 Decrease 1.9
8  United Kingdom Europe $40.6 billion $36.2 billion Increase 12.1 Increase 3.3
 Hong Kong, China Asia $38.9 billion $33.1 billion Increase 17.7 Increase 16.2
9  Australia Oceania $30.9 billion $31.7 billion Decrease 2.8 Increase 4.5
10  Turkey Europe $27.9 billion $25.3 billion Increase 6.8 Increase 2.4

International tourism expenditure[edit]

The World Tourism Organization reports the following countries as the top ten biggest spenders on international tourism for the year 2013.

Rank Country UNWTO
Region[20]
International
tourism
expenditure
(2013)[21]
International
tourism
expenditure
(2012)[21]
Market
Share
(%)
Change
(2012 to
2013)
(%)
1  China Asia $128.6 billion $102.0 billion 11.1 Increase 23.8
2  United States North America $86.2 billion $83.5 billion 7.4 Increase 3.3
3  Germany Europe $85.9 billion $81.3 billion 7.4 Increase 2.3
4  Russia Europe $53.5 billion $42.8 billion 4.6 Increase 28.9
5  United Kingdom Europe $52.6 billion $51.3 billion 4.5 Increase 3.5
6  France Europe $42.4 billion $39.1 billion 3.7 Increase 4.9
7  Canada North America $35.2 billion $35.0 billion 3.0 Increase 3.2
8  Australia Oceania $28.4 billion $28.0 billion 2.4 Increase 8.8
9  Italy Europe $27.0 billion $26.4 billion 2.3 Decrease 1.0
10  Brazil South America $25.1 billion $22.2 billion 2.2 Increase 12.9

MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index[edit]

Based on air traffic, the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index reports the following cities as the top ten most popular destinations of tourism worldwide in 2014.[22]

Rank Country UNWTO
Region[20]
International
tourist arrivals[22]
1 United Kingdom London Europe 18.69 million
2 Thailand Bangkok Asia 16.42 million
3 France Paris Europe 15.57 million
4 Singapore Singapore Asia 12.47 million
5 United Arab Emirates Dubai Asia 11.95 million
6 United States New York City North America 11.81 million
7 Turkey Istanbul Europe 11.60 million
8 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Asia 10.81 million
9 Hong Kong Hong Kong Asia 8.84 million
10 South Korea Seoul Asia 8.63 million

MasterCard reports the following cities as the top ten biggest earners on tourism worldwide in 2014.[22]

Rank Country UNWTO
Region[20]
International
tourists spending[22]
1 United Kingdom London Europe $19.3 billion
2 United States New York City North America $18.6 billion
3 France Paris Europe $17.0 billion
4 Singapore Singapore Asia $14.3 billion
5 Thailand Bangkok Asia $13.0 billion
6 South Korea Seoul Asia $11.5 billion
7 Spain Barcelona Europe $11.2 billion
8 United Arab Emirates Dubai Asia $10.9 billion
6 Taiwan Taipei Asia $10.8 billion
9 Turkey Istanbul Europe $9.4 billion

History[edit]

Antiquity[edit]

Travel outside a person's local area for leisure was largely confined to wealthy classes, who at times travelled to distant parts of the world, to see great buildings, works of art, learn new languages, experience new cultures, and to taste different cuisines. As early as Shulgi, however, kings praised themselves for protecting roads and building waystations for travelers.[23] During the Roman Republic, medicinal spas and coastal resorts such as Baiae were popular for the rich. Pausanias (geographer) wrote his Description of Greece in the 2nd century AD. In ancient China, nobles sometimes made a point of visiting Mount Tai and, on occasion, all five Sacred Mountains.

Middle Ages[edit]

By the Middle Ages, Christianity, Buddhism, and Islam all had traditions of pilgrimage that motivated even the lower classes to undertake distant journeys for health or spiritual improvement, seeing the sights along the way. The Islamic hajj is still central to its faith and Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Wu Cheng'en's Journey to the West remain classics of English and Chinese literature.

The 10th- to 13th-century Song dynasty also saw secular travel writers such as Su Shi (11th century) and Fan Chengda (12th century) become popular in China. Under the Ming, Xu Xiake continued the practice.[24] In medieval Italy, Francesco Petrarch also wrote an allegorical account of his 1336 ascent of Mount Ventoux that praised the act of traveling and criticized frigida incuriositas ("cold lack curiosity"). The Burgundian poet Michault Taillevent later composed his own horrified recollections of a 1430 trip through the Jura Mountains.[25]

Grand Tour[edit]

Portrait of Douglas, 8th Duke of Hamilton, on his Grand Tour with his physician Dr John Moore and the latter's son John. Painted by Jean Preudhomme in 1774.
See also: Grand Tour

Modern tourism can be traced to what was known as the Grand Tour, which was a traditional trip of Europe (especially Germany and Italy) undertaken by mainly upper-class European young men of means, mainly from Western and Northern European countries. The custom flourished from about 1660 until the advent of large-scale rail transit in the 1840s, and was associated with a standard itinerary. It served as an educational opportunity and rite of passage. Though primarily associated with the British nobility and wealthy landed gentry, similar trips were made by wealthy young men of Protestant Northern European nations on the Continent, and from the second half of the 18th century some South American, U.S., and other overseas youth joined in. The tradition was extended to include more of the middle class after rail and steamship travel made the journey less of a burden, and Thomas Cook made the "Cook's Tour" a byword.

The Grand Tour became a real status symbol for upper classes' students, in the 18th and 19th centuries. In this period, Johann Joachim Winckelmann's theories about supremacy of classic culture became very popular and appreciated in the European academic world. Artists, writers and travellers (such as Goethe) affirmed the supremacy of classic art whose Italy, France, Spain and Portugal are excellent examples. For these reasons, the Grand Tour's main destinations were to those centres, where upper class students could find rare examples of classic art and history.

The New York Times recently described the Grand Tour in this way:

Three hundred years ago, wealthy young Englishmen began taking a post-Oxbridge trek through France and Italy in search of art, culture and the roots of Western civilization. With nearly unlimited funds, aristocratic connections and months (or years) to roam, they commissioned paintings, perfected their language skills and mingled with the upper crust of the Continent.

—Gross, Matt., "Lessons From the Frugal Grand Tour." New York Times 5 September 2008.

The primary value of the Grand Tour, it was believed, laid in the exposure both to the cultural legacy of classical antiquity and the Renaissance, and to the aristocratic and fashionably polite society of the European continent.

Emergence of leisure travel[edit]

Main article: Leisure travel
Englishman in the Campagna by Carl Spitzweg (c. 1845)

Leisure travel was associated with the Industrial Revolution in the United Kingdom – the first European country to promote leisure time to the increasing industrial population.[26] Initially, this applied to the owners of the machinery of production, the economic oligarchy, the factory owners and the traders. These comprised the new middle class.[26] Cox & Kings was the first official travel company to be formed in 1758.[27]

The British origin of this new industry is reflected in many place names. In Nice, France, one of the first and best-established holiday resorts on the French Riviera, the long esplanade along the seafront is known to this day as the Promenade des Anglais; in many other historic resorts in continental Europe, old, well-established palace hotels have names like the Hotel Bristol, Hotel Carlton, or Hotel Majestic – reflecting the dominance of English customers.

Panels from the Thomas Cook Building in Leicester, displaying excursions offered by Thomas Cook
Leicester railway station - built in 1894 to replace, largely on the same site, Campbell Street station, the origin for many of Cook's early tours.

A pioneer of the travel agency, Thomas Cook's idea to offer excursions came to him while waiting for the stagecoach on the London Road at Kibworth. With the opening of the extended Midland Counties Railway, he arranged to take a group of 540 temperance campaigners from Leicester Campbell Street station to a rally in Loughborough, eleven miles away. On 5 July 1841, Thomas Cook arranged for the rail company to charge one shilling per person that included rail tickets and food for this train journey. Cook was paid a share of the fares actually charged to the passengers, as the railway tickets, being legal contracts between company and passenger, could not have been issued at his own price. This was the first privately chartered excursion train to be advertised to the general public; Cook himself acknowledging that there had been previous, unadvertised, private excursion trains.[28] During the following three summers he planned and conducted outings for temperance societies and Sunday-school children. In 1844 the Midland Counties Railway Company agreed to make a permanent arrangement with him provided he found the passengers. This success led him to start his own business running rail excursions for pleasure, taking a percentage of the railway tickets.

Four years later, he planned his first excursion abroad, when he took a group from Leicester to Calais to coincide with the Paris Exhibition. The following year he started his 'grand circular tours' of Europe. During the 1860s he took parties to Switzerland, Italy, Egypt and the United States. Cook established 'inclusive independent travel', whereby the traveller went independently but his agency charged for travel, food and accommodation for a fixed period over any chosen route. Such was his success that the Scottish railway companies withdrew their support between 1862 and 1863 to try the excursion business for themselves.

Cruise shipping[edit]

Prinzessin Victoria Luise, the first cruise ship of the world, launched in June 1900 in Hamburg (Germany)

Cruising is a niche form of tourism, a feature of which is that it typically touches more than one country but it typically does not touch any country. It is a popular form of water tourism.

Leisure cruise ships were introduced by the Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company (P&O) in 1844,[29] sailing from Southampton to destinations such as Gibraltar, Malta and Athens.[30] In 1891, German businessman Albert Ballin sailed the ship Augusta Victoria from Hamburg into the Mediterranean Sea. In 1900, one of the first purpose-built cruise ship was Prinzessin Victoria Luise, built in Hamburg.

Modern day tourism[edit]

Many leisure-oriented tourists travel to seaside resorts at their nearest coast or further apart. Coastal areas in the tropics are popular both in the summer and winter.

Winter tourism[edit]

St. Moritz, Switzerland became the cradle of the developing winter tourism in the 1860s; hotel manager Johannes Badrutt invited some summer guests from England to return in the winter to see the snowy landscape, thereby inaugurating a popular trend.[31][32] It was, however, only in the 1970s when winter tourism took over the lead from summer tourism in many of the Swiss ski resorts. Even in winter, up to one third of all guests (depending on the location) consist of non-skiers.[33]

Major ski resorts are located mostly in the various European countries (e.g. Andorra, Austria, Bulgaria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Czech Republic, Cyprus, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Serbia, Sweden, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey), Canada, the United States (e.g. Colorado, California, Utah, Montana, Wyoming, New York, New Jersey, Michigan, Vermont, New Hampshire) Lebanon, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, Chile, and Argentina.

Mass tourism[edit]

Reisepläne (Travel plans) by Adolph Menzel (1875)

Mass tourism developed with improvements in technology, which allowed the transport of large numbers of people in a short space of time to places of leisure interest, so that greater numbers of people could begin to enjoy the benefits of leisure time.

In Continental Europe, early seaside resorts include: Heiligendamm, founded in 1793 at the Baltic Sea, being the first seaside resort; Ostend, popularised by the people of Brussels; Boulogne-sur-Mer and Deauville for the Parisians.

In the United States, the first seaside resorts in the European style were at Atlantic City, New Jersey and Long Island, New York.

Adjectival tourism[edit]

For a more comprehensive list, see List of adjectival tourisms.

Adjectival tourism refers to the numerous niche or specialty travel forms of tourism that have emerged over the years, each with its own adjective. Many of these have come into common use by the tourism industry and academics.[34] Others are emerging concepts that may or may not gain popular usage. Examples of the more common niche tourism markets include:

Other terms used for niche or specialty travel forms include the term "destination" in the descriptions, such as destination weddings, and terms such as location vacation.

Recent developments[edit]

A destination hotel in Germany: Yacht Harbour Residence in Rostock, Mecklenburg.

There has been an up-trend in tourism over the last few decades,[vague] especially in Europe, where international travel for short breaks is common. Tourists have a wide range of budgets and tastes, and a wide variety of resorts and hotels have developed to cater for them. For example, some people prefer simple beach vacations, while others want more specialised holidays, quieter resorts, family-oriented holidays or niche market-targeted destination hotels.

The developments in technology and transport infrastructure, such as jumbo jets, low-cost airlines and more accessible airports have made many types of tourism more affordable. The WHO estimated in 2009 that there are around half a million people on board aircraft at any given time.[35] There have also been changes in lifestyle, for example some retirement-age people sustain year round tourism. This is facilitated by internet sales of tourist services. Some sites have now started to offer dynamic packaging, in which an inclusive price is quoted for a tailor-made package requested by the customer upon impulse.

There have been a few setbacks in tourism, such as the September 11 attacks and terrorist threats to tourist destinations, such as in Bali and several European cities. Also, on 26 December 2004, a tsunami, caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, hit the Asian countries on the Indian Ocean, including the Maldives. Thousands of lives were lost including many tourists. This, together with the vast clean-up operations, stopped or severely hampered tourism in the area for a time.

Individual low-price or even zero-price overnight stays have become more popular in the 2000s, especially with a strong growth in the hostel market and services like CouchSurfing and airbnb being established.[36]

Sustainable tourism[edit]

Main article: Sustainable tourism

"Sustainable tourism is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems." (World Tourism Organization)[37]

Sustainable development implies "meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987)[38]

Sustainable tourism can be seen as having regard to ecological and socio-cultural carrying capacities and includes involving the community of the destination in tourism development planning. It also involves integrating tourism to match current economic and growth policies so as to mitigate some of the negative economic and social impacts of 'mass tourism'. Murphy (1985) advocates the use of an 'ecological approach', to consider both 'plants' and 'people' when implementing the sustainable tourism development process. This is in contrast to the 'boosterism' and 'economic' approaches to tourism planning, neither of which consider the detrimental ecological or sociological impacts of tourism development to a destination.

However, Butler questions the exposition of the term 'sustainable' in the context of tourism, citing its ambiguity and stating that "the emerging sustainable development philosophy of the 1990s can be viewed as an extension of the broader realization that a preoccupation with economic growth without regard to its social and environmental consequences is self-defeating in the long term." Thus 'sustainable tourism development' is seldom considered as an autonomous function of economic regeneration as separate from general economic growth.

Ecotourism[edit]

Main article: Ecotourism

Ecotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is responsible travel to fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas that strives to be low impact and (often) small scale. It helps educate the traveler; provides funds for conservation; directly benefits the economic development and political empowerment of local communities; and fosters respect for different cultures and for human rights.Take only memories and leave only footprints is a very common slogan in protected areas.[39] Tourist destinations are shifting to low carbon emissions following the tren of visitors more focused in being environmental responsible adopting a sustainable behavior.[40]

Pro-poor tourism[edit]

Pro-poor tourism, which seeks to help the poorest people in developing countries, has been receiving increasing attention by those involved in development; the issue has been addressed through small-scale projects in local communities and through attempts by Ministries of Tourism to attract large numbers of tourists. Research by the Overseas Development Institute suggests that neither is the best way to encourage tourists' money to reach the poorest as only 25% or less (far less in some cases) ever reaches the poor; successful examples of money reaching the poor include mountain-climbing in Tanzania and cultural tourism in Luang Prabang, Laos.[41]

Recession tourism[edit]

Recession tourism is a travel trend, which evolved by way of the world economic crisis. Identified by American entrepreneur Matt Landau (2007), recession tourism is defined by low-cost, high-value experiences taking place of once-popular generic retreats. Various recession tourism hotspots have seen business boom during the recession thanks to comparatively low costs of living and a slow world job market suggesting travelers are elongating trips where their money travels further.

Medical tourism[edit]

Main article: Medical tourism

When there is a significant price difference between countries for a given medical procedure, particularly in Southeast Asia, India, Eastern Europe and where there are different regulatory regimes, in relation to particular medical procedures (e.g. dentistry), traveling to take advantage of the price or regulatory differences is often referred to as "medical tourism".

Educational tourism[edit]

Educational tourism developed, because of the growing popularity of teaching and learning of knowledge and the enhancing of technical competency outside of the classroom environment. In educational tourism, the main focus of the tour or leisure activity includes visiting another country to learn about the culture Study Tours, or to work and apply skills learned inside the classroom in a different environment, such as in the International Practicum Training Program.

Creative tourism[edit]

Friendship Force visitors from Indonesia meet their hosts in Hartwell, Georgia, USA.

Creative tourism has existed as a form of cultural tourism, since the early beginnings of tourism itself. Its European roots date back to the time of the Grand Tour, which saw the sons of aristocratic families traveling for the purpose of mostly interactive, educational experiences. More recently, creative tourism has been given its own name by Crispin Raymond and Greg Richards,[42] who as members of the Association for Tourism and Leisure Education (ATLAS), have directed a number of projects for the European Commission, including cultural and crafts tourism, known as sustainable tourism. They have defined "creative tourism" as tourism related to the active participation of travellers in the culture of the host community, through interactive workshops and informal learning experiences.[42]

Meanwhile, the concept of creative tourism has been picked up by high-profile organizations such as UNESCO, who through the Creative Cities Network, have endorsed creative tourism as an engaged, authentic experience that promotes an active understanding of the specific cultural features of a place.[citation needed]

Greg Richards - Conferencia Turismo Creativo

More recently, creative tourism has gained popularity as a form of cultural tourism, drawing on active participation by travelers in the culture of the host communities they visit. Several countries offer examples of this type of tourism development, including the United Kingdom, Austria, France, the Bahamas, Jamaica, Spain, Italy and New Zealand.

The growing interest of tourists[43] in this new way to discover a culture regards particularly the operators and branding managers, attentive to the possibility of attracting a quality tourism, highlighting the intangible heritage (craft workshops, cooking classes, etc.) and optimizing the use of existing infrastructure (for example, through the rent of halls and auditorium).

Experiential Tourism[edit]

Experiential travel (or "immersion travel") is one of the major market trends in the modern tourism industry. It is an approach to travelling which focuses on experiencing a country, city or particular place by connecting to its history, people and culture.[44]

The term “Experiential Travel” is already mentioned in publications from 1985[45] - however it was discovered as a meaningful market trend much later.

Dark tourism[edit]

Main article: Dark tourism

One emerging area of special interest has been identified by Lennon and Foley (2000)[46][47] as "dark" tourism. This type of tourism involves visits to "dark" sites, such as battlegrounds, scenes of horrific crimes or acts of genocide, for example: concentration camps. Dark tourism remains a small niche market, driven by varied motivations, such as mourning, remembrance, education, macabre curiosity or even entertainment. Its early origins are rooted in fairgrounds and medieval fairs.[48]

Doom tourism[edit]

Amalia Glacier, South Patagonia, Chile

Also known as "Tourism of Doom," or "Last Chance Tourism" this emerging trend involves traveling to places that are environmentally or otherwise threatened (such as the ice caps of Mount Kilimanjaro, the melting glaciers of Patagonia, or the coral of the Great Barrier Reef) before it is too late. Identified by travel trade magazine Travel Age West[49] editor-in-chief Kenneth Shapiro in 2007 and later explored in The New York Times,[50] this type of tourism is believed to be on the rise. Some see the trend as related to sustainable tourism or ecotourism due to the fact that a number of these tourist destinations are considered threatened by environmental factors such as global warming, overpopulation or climate change. Others worry that travel to many of these threatened locations increases an individual’s carbon footprint and only hastens problems threatened locations are already facing.[citation needed]

Growth[edit]

The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) forecasts that international tourism will continue growing at the average annual rate of 4%.[51] With the advent of e-commerce, tourism products have become one of the most traded items on the internet.[citation needed] Tourism products and services have been made available through intermediaries, although tourism providers (hotels, airlines, etc.), including small-scale operators, can sell their services directly.[52][53] This has put pressure on intermediaries from both on-line and traditional shops.

It has been suggested there is a strong correlation between tourism expenditure per capita and the degree to which countries play in the global context.[54] Not only as a result of the important economic contribution of the tourism industry, but also as an indicator of the degree of confidence with which global citizens leverage the resources of the globe for the benefit of their local economies. This is why any projections of growth in tourism may serve as an indication of the relative influence that each country will exercise in the future.

SpaceShipTwo is a major project in space tourism.

Space tourism[edit]

Main article: Space tourism

There has been a limited amount of orbital space tourism, with only the Russian Space Agency providing transport to date. A 2010 report into space tourism anticipated that it could become a billion dollar market by 2030.[55]

Sports tourism[edit]

Main article: Sports tourism

Since the late 1980s, sports tourism has become increasingly popular. Events such as rugby, Olympics, Commonwealth games, Asian Games and football World Cups have enabled specialist travel companies to gain official ticket allocation and then sell them in packages that include flights, hotels and excursions.

The focus on sport and spreading knowledge on the subject, especially more so recently, lead to the increase in the sport tourism. Most notably, the international event such as the Olympics caused a shift in focus in the audience who now realize the variety of sports that exist in the world. In the United States, one of the most popular sports that usually are focused on was Football. This popularity was increased through major events like the World Cups. In Asian countries, the numerous football events also increased the popularity of football. But, it was the Olympics that brought together the different sports that lead to the increase in sport tourism. The drastic interest increase in sports in general and not just one sport caught the attention of travel companies, who then began to sell flights in packages. Due to the low number of people who actually purchase these packages than predicted, the cost of these packages plummeted initially. As the number start to rise slightly the packages increased to regain the lost profits. With the certain economic state, the number of purchases decreased once again. The fluctuation in the number of packages sold was solely dependent on the economic situation, therefore, most travel companies were forced to set aside the plan to execute the marketing of any new package features.

Latest trends[edit]

As a result of the late-2000s recession, international arrivals suffered a strong slowdown beginning in June 2008. Growth from 2007 to 2008 was only 3.7% during the first eight months of 2008. This slowdown on international tourism demand was also reflected in the air transport industry, with a negative growth in September 2008 and a 3.3% growth in passenger traffic through September. The hotel industry also reported a slowdown, with room occupancy declining. In 2009 worldwide tourism arrivals decreased by 3.8%.[56] By the first quarter of 2009, real travel demand in the United States had fallen 6% over six quarters. While this is considerably milder than what occurred after the 9/11 attacks, the decline was at twice the rate as real GDP has fallen.[57][58]

However, evidence suggests that tourism as a global phenomena shows no signs of substantially abating in the long term. It has been suggested that travel is necessary in order to maintain relationships, as social life is increasingly networked and conducted at a distance.[59] For many people vacations and travel are increasingly being viewed as a necessity rather than a luxury, and this is reflected in tourist numbers recovering some 6.6% globally over 2009, with growth up to 8% in emerging economies.[56]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b "UNWTO technical manual: Collection of Tourism Expenditure Statistics". World Tourism Organization. 1995. p. 10. Retrieved 26 March 2009. 
  2. ^ a b "International tourism challenged by deteriorating global economy". UNWTO World Tourism Barometer (World Tourism Organization) 7 (1). January 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2011. 
  3. ^ a b "UNWTO World Tourism Barometer Interim Update". UNWTO World Tourism Barometer (World Tourism Organization). August 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2011. 
  4. ^ a b "UNWTO World Tourism Barometer". UNWTO World Tourism Barometer (World Tourism Organization) 11 (1). January 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-09. 
  5. ^ a b c d "International tourism receipts surpass US$ 1 trillion in 2011" (Press release). UNWTO. 7 May 2012. Retrieved 15 June 2012. 
  6. ^ "China - the new number one tourism source market in the world". World Tourism Organization. 2013-04-04. Retrieved 2013-04-09. 
  7. ^ Griffiths, Ralph; Griffiths, G. E. (1772). "Pennant's Tour in Scotland in 1769". The Monthly Review, Or, Literary Journal (London: Printed for R. Griffiths) 46: 150. Retrieved 23 December 2011. 
  8. ^ Harper, Douglas. "tour (n.)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 23 December 2011. 
  9. ^ a b Theobald, William F. (1998). Global Tourism (2nd ed.). Oxford [England]: Butterworth–Heinemann. pp. 6–7. ISBN 0-7506-4022-7. OCLC 40330075. 
  10. ^ Houlot, Arthur. (1961). Le Turisme et La Biblie. Revue l´Académie Internationale du Turisme. Monaco.
  11. ^ Leiper, Neil (1983). An Etimology of Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research (2). New York: Pergamon Press. Volume 10
  12. ^ Korstanje, M. 2007 The Origin and meaning of Tourism: Etymological study. E Review of Tourism Research. Vol 5 (5): 100-108. Texas A&M University, US
  13. ^ "Manila Declaration on World Tourism". World Tourism Conference. Manila, Philippines. 10 October 1980. pp. 1–4. 
  14. ^ a b "2012 Tourism Highlights". UNWTO. June 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012. 
  15. ^ Hunziker, W; Krapf, K (1942). Grundriß Der Allgemeinen Fremdenverkehrslehre (in German). Zurich: Polygr. Verl. OCLC 180109383. 
  16. ^ Spode, Hasso (1998). "Geschichte der Tourismuswissenschaft". In Haedrich, Günther. Tourismus-management: Tourismus-marketing Und Fremdenverkehrsplanung (in German). Berlin: [u.a.] de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-015185-5. OCLC 243881885. 
  17. ^ Beaver, Allan (2002). A Dictionary of Travel and Tourism Terminology. Wallingford: CAB International. p. 313. ISBN 0-85199-582-9. OCLC 301675778. 
  18. ^ International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism. "The AIEST, its character and aims". Retrieved 29 March 2008. 
  19. ^ "Recommendations on Tourism Statistics". Statistical Papers. M (New York: United Nations) (83): 5. 1994. Retrieved 12 July 2010. 
  20. ^ a b c d e See [1] Retrieved 14 November 2012.
  21. ^ a b c d e f "2014 Tourism Highlights". World Tourism Organization. 2013. Retrieved 13 June 2014. 
  22. ^ a b c d http://newsroom.mastercard.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Mastercard_GDCI_2014_Letter_Final_70814.pdf
  23. ^ p. 9
  24. ^ Hargett, James. "Some Preliminary Remarks on the Travel Records of the Song Dynasty (960-1279)" in Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews, Vol. 7, No. 1/2, pp. 67–93. 1985. DOI 10.2307/495194. JSTOR 495194.
  25. ^ Deschaux, Robert; Taillevent, Michault (1975). Un poète bourguignon du XVe siècle, Michault Taillevent: édition et étude. Librairie Droz. pp. 31–32. 
  26. ^ a b Singh, L. K. (2008). "Issues in Tourism Industry". Fundamental of Tourism and Travel. Delhi: Isha Books. p. 189. ISBN 978-81-8205-478-3. 
  27. ^ "History: Centuries of Experience". Cox & Kings. Retrieved 23 December 2011. 
  28. ^ Ingle, R., 1991 Thomas Cook of Leicester, Bangor, Headstart History
  29. ^ A Brief History of P&O
  30. ^ "CRUISE NEWS JUNE 2012". Retrieved 2012-12-17. 
  31. ^ "Birthplace of winter tourism". 
  32. ^ "Early Winter Tourism". Tradition & History. St. Moritz: Kulm Hotel. Retrieved 23 December 2011. 
  33. ^ "Winter hiking in Switzerland-Graubünden". http://en.graubuenden.ch. Retrieved 2011-12-23. 
  34. ^ Lew, Alan A. (2008). "Long Tail Tourism: New geographies for marketing niche tourism products". Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing 25 (3-4): 409–419. doi:10.1080/10548400802508515. Retrieved 22 December 2011. 
  35. ^ Swine flu prompts EU warning on travel to US. The Guardian. 28 April 2009.
  36. ^ Marx, Patricia. "Couch-surfing the globe". The New Yorker. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  37. ^ "Sustainable Tourism: Turning the Tide". Towards Earth Summit 2002. Stakeholder Forum for a Sustainable Future. August 2002. Retrieved 22 January 2012. 
  38. ^ "Resolution adopted by the General Assembly". 42/187. Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development. The Conference of NGOs. 11 December 1987. Retrieved 21 January 2012. 
  39. ^ http://pinterest.com/marymo393/take-only-memories-leave-only-footprints-chief-sea/
  40. ^ ENTREPRENEURING SUSTAINABLE TOURISM, Jack Soifer Editor,Lisboa, 2008,isbn 987-989-95976-0-0
  41. ^ Jonathan Mitchel (2009). "Value chain analysis and poverty reduction at scale". Overseas Development Institute. 
  42. ^ a b Wurzburger, Rebecca; et al (2009). Creative Tourism: A Global Conversation: How to Provide Unique Creative Experiences for Travelers Worldwide: As Presented at the 2008 Santa Fe & UNESCO International Conference on Creative Tourism in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Santa Fe: Sunstone Press. ISBN 978-0-86534-724-3. OCLC 370387178. 
  43. ^ Charlie Mansfield Lecturer in Tourism Management and French. "JTCaP Tourism Consumption Online Journal". Tourismconsumption.org. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  44. ^ New York Times “New Frontier for Tourists: Your Home”
  45. ^ Google Books “Insights in strategic retail management”
  46. ^ Quinion, Michael (26 November 2005). "Dark Tourism". World Wide Words. Retrieved 9 April 2010. 
  47. ^ Lennon, J. John; Foley, Malcolm (2000). Dark Tourism. London: Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-5063-6. OCLC 44603703. 
  48. ^ Cooper, Chris; et al (2005). Tourism: Principles and Practice (3rd ed.). Harlow: Pearson Education. ISBN 0-273-68406-X. OCLC 466952897. 
  49. ^ Shapiro, Kenneth (2007-05-11). "TravelAge West – TravelAge West". Travelagewest.com. Retrieved 2012-10-30. 
  50. ^ Salkin, Allen (2007-12-16). "'Tourism of doom' on rise - The New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2012-10-30. 
  51. ^ "Long-term Prospects: Tourism 2020 Vision". World Tourism. 2004. 
  52. ^ Lu, J., & Lu, Z. (2004). Development, Distribution and Evaluation of Online Tourism Services in China. Electronic Commerce Research, 4(3), 221-239.
  53. ^ Karanasios, S., & Burgess, S. (2008). Tourism and Internet adoption: a developing world perspective. International Journal of Tourism Research, 10(2), 169-182.
  54. ^ "airports & tourists". Global Culture. 2007. 
  55. ^ "The Economic Impact of Commercial Space Transportation on the U. S Economy in 2009". Federal Aviation Administration. September 2010. p. 11. Retrieved May 5, 2012. 
  56. ^ a b UNWTO. "UNWTO Tourism Highlights". UNWTO. Retrieved 05/02/2012. 
  57. ^ "Impacts of the World Recession and Economic Crisis on Tourism: North America".  JournalistsResource.org. Retrieved 22 June 2012
  58. ^ Ritchie, J. R. Brent; Amaya Molinar, Carlos Mario; Frechtling, Douglas C. (2011). "Impacts of the World Recession and Economic Crisis on Tourism: North America". Journal of Travel Research 49 (1): 5–15. doi:10.1177/0047287509353193. 
  59. ^ Urry, John (2003). "Social Networks, Travel and Talk". British Journal of Sociology 54 (2): 155–175. doi:10.1080/0007131032000080186. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]