Sigmund Mowinckel

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Sigmund Olaf Plytt Mowinckel
Mowinckel.jpg
Born (1884-08-04)4 August 1884
Died 4 June 1965(1965-06-04) (aged 80)
Oslo
Education University of Oslo
Title Reverend Doctor

Sigmund Olaf Plytt Mowinckel (4 August 1884 – 4 June 1965) was one of the world's most significant Psalms scholars.

Life[edit]

He was educated at the University of Oslo (1908; ThD 1916) (in those days Oslo was still officially called Kristiania), and from 1917 onwards he was a lecturer there. He retired in 1954.

From the 1920s onwards Mowinckel headed a school of thought on the Psalms which sometimes clashed with the Form Critical conclusions of Hermann Gunkel (see Form criticism) and those who followed in Gunkel's footsteps (Hans Joachim-Kraus etc.). In broad terms, Gunkel strongly advocated a view of the Psalms which focussed on the two notable names for God occurring therein: Yahweh (JHWH sometimes called tetragrammaton) and Elohim. The schools of Psalm writing springing therefrom were termed "Yahwist" and "Elohist".

Mowinckel's approach to the Psalms differed quite a bit from Gunkel's. Mowinckel explained the psalms as wholly cultic both in origin and in intention. He attempted to relate more than 40 psalms to a hypothetical autumnal New Year festival.

In addition to his work on Psalms, his major monograph on the Old Testament roots of Messianism, He That Cometh: The Messiah Concept in the Old Testament and Later Judaism, trans. G. W. Anderson (Oxford: B.Blackwell, 1956) is of enormous significance in scholarship until this day.

Published works (early editions)[edit]

  • Statholderen Nehemia (Kristiania: a. 1916)
  • Esra den skriftlærde (Kristiania: a. 1916)
  • Kongesalmerne i det Gamle Testamentet (Kristiania: (1916)
  • Der Knächt Jahves (1921)
  • Psalmenstudien I: 'Awan und die individuellen Klagepsalmen (Kristiania: SNVAO* 1921)
  • Psalmenstudien II: Das Thronbesteigungsfest Jahwas und der Ursprung der Eschatologie (Kristiania: SNVAO* 1922)
  • Psalmenstudien III: Kultprophetie und kultprophetische Psalmen (Kristiania: SNVAO*, 1923)
  • Psalmenstudien IV: Die technischen Termini in den Psalmenuberschriften (Kristiania: SNVAO*, 1923)
  • Psalmenstudien V: Segen und Fluch in Israels Kult und Psalmdichtung (Kristiania: SNVAO*, 1924)
  • Psalmenstudien VI: Die Psalmdichter (Kristiania: SNVAO*, 1924)
  • Diktet om Ijob og hans tre venner (Kristiania: 1924)
  • Profeten Jesaja (Oslo: 1925)
  • Jesaja: Profetien fra Jesaja til Jeremia (Oslo: 1926)
  • Motiver og stilformer i profeten Jeremias diktning (1926)
  • Le Decalogue (Paris: 1927)
  • Det Gamle Testament som Guds Ord (Oslo: 1938)
  • Gamla testamental som Guds ord (Stockholm: 1938)
  • Die Erkentis Gottes bei den alttestamentlichen Propheten [translation: "The recognizable God in/within the Old Testament prophets" or perhaps "The recognition of God beside/by the Old Testament prophets"] Supplementary volume to Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift (Oslo: 1941).
  • Prophecy and Tradition (1946)
  • Han som kommer : Messiasforventningen i Det gamle testament og på Jesu tid (1951)(translated He That Cometh: The Messiah Concept in the Old Testament and Later Judaism, trans. G. W. Anderson [Oxford: B.Blackwell, 1956]
  • Offersang og sangoffer : salmediktningen i Bibelen [translated: "Song of sacrifice and Sacrifice of song" or "Offering song and Song offering": "Psalm Poetry in the Bible"] (Oslo: H. Aschehoug & Co, 1951).
  • Der achtundsechsigste Psalm [ANVAO**, II, 1953, I] (Oslo: 1953)
  • Religion och Kultus (1953).
  • Real and Apparent Tricola in Hebrew Psalm Poetry [ANVAO**, II, 1957] (Oslo: 1958)
  • The Spirit and the Word: Prophecy and Tradition in Ancient Israel. Edited by K. C. Hanson. Fortress Classics in Biblical Studies (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002)

NOTE [*]: SNVAO signifies the Norwegian publisher/publications Skrifter utgitt av Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo, II. Hist.-Filos. Klasse

NOTE [**] ANVAO signifies the Norwegian publisher/publications Avhandliger utgitt av Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo. II. Hist. Filos. Klasse.

Articles by Mowinckel[edit]

  • 'Om den jodiske menighets og provinsen Judeas organisasjon ca. 400 f. Kr.', Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift (Kristiania: 1915), pp. 123ff., 226ff.
  • 'Tronstigningssalmerne og Jahves tronstigningsfest', Norsk teologi til reformationsjubileet, specialhefte [i.e. special issue] to Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift (Kristiania: 1917), pp. 13ff.
  • 'Die vorderasiatischen Konigs- und Fursteninschriften' [translation: "The Near Eastern Royal and Princely Inscriptions"], Eucharisterion [Studien zur Religion und Literatur d. Alt und Neu Testaments, H. Gunkel zum 60] ["Studies in the Religion and Literature of the Old and New Testaments, H. Gunkel at 60" --- Gunkel's 60th birthday was in 1922] I, pp. 278ff., a book produced by Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur d. Alten und Neuen Testaments (FRLANT) Band (Vol.) 36 (Göttingen: 1923)
  • 'Det kultiske synspunkt som forskningsprinsipp i den gammelstestamentlige videnskap', Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift (Kristiania: 1924), pp. 1ff.
  • 'I porten' Studier tilegnede Frans Buhl (Copenhagen: 1925)
  • 'Drama, religionsgeschichtlisches' [translation: "Drama, history of religion", RGG2 [appeared in Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart 2.Aufl.] (Tübingen: 1927-32)
  • 'Levi und Leviten' [translation: "Levi and Levites"], RGG2 [appeared in Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart 2.Aufl.] (Tübingen: 1927-32)
  • 'Stilformer og motiver i profeten Jeremias dikning', Edda Vol. 36 (1926), pp. 276ff.
  • 'Salmeboken og gudstjenestesalmen', Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift (Oslo: 1927), pp. 153ff.
  • 'Die letzten Worte Davids' [translation: "The last words of David"], in II Samuel 23:1-7, Zeitschrift fur die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft' Band (Vol.) 45? (Giessen:1927), pp. 30ff.
  • 'A quelle moment le culte de Jahwe a Jerusalem est il officiellement devenu un culte sans images?' [translation: "At what moment did the cult of Jahweh of Jerusalem officially become a cult without images?"] Revue de l'Histoire et des Philosophies Religieuses Vol. 9 (Strasbourg: 1929), pp. 197ff.
  • The following sections/chapters in Det Gamle Testament, oversatt av S. Michelet, Sigmund Mowinckel og Nils Messel (also known simply as GTMMM) Volumes I - III (Oslo: 1929-following years):-: Sections 2. Mos. 18-34; 4. Mos. 20-25; 32-33; 5. Mosebok; Josvaboken; Samuelsboken; Kongeboken; Jesaja; Jeremia; Tolvprofetboken.
  • Book review of Eduard Konig's Das Buch Hiob in Deutsche Litz, 3. Folge, 1. Jahrg. 12, (1930) columns 529ff. [presumably this review relates to E Konig's Das Buch Hiob eingeleitet, ubersetzt und erklart (Gutersloh: Bertelsmann, 1927 or 1929)]
  • 'Die Komposition des Deuterojesajanischen Buches' [translation: "The Composition of the book of Deutero-Isaiah"], Zeitschrift fur die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft' Band (Vol.) 44 (Giessen: 1931)pp. 87ff., 242ff.
  • 'Die Chronologie der israelitischen und judaischen Konige' [translation: "The Chronology of the Kings of Israel and Judah"], Acta Orientalia Vol. 10 (Leiden: 1932) pp. 161ff.
  • 'Fiendene i de individuelle klagesalmer', Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift (Oslo: 1934), pp. 1ff.
  • 'The "Spirit" and the "Word" in the Pre-exilic Reforming Prophets', Journal of Biblical Literature Vol. 53 (1934) pp. 199–227.
  • '"Anden" og "Ordet" hos de foreksilske reformprofeter', Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift (Oslo: 1935), pp. 1ff.
  • 'Ekstatisk oplevelse og rasjonal bearbeidelse hos de gammeltestamentlige profeter', [translation: "Ecstatic experience and rational elaboration in Old Testament prophecy"] Theologisk Tidsskrift (known as "[D]TT") (Kobenhavn [Copenhagen]:1935), pp. 1ff.
  • 'Extatic Experience and Rational Elaboration in Old Testament Prophecy', Acta Orientalia Vol. 13 (Leiden: 1935), pp. 264–291.
  • 'Hat es ein israelitisches Nationalepos gegeben?' [translation: "Is there a given Israelite national epic?"], Zeitschrift fur die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft' Band (Vol.) 53 (Giessen: 1935) pp. 130ff.
  • 'Zur Geschichte der Dekalogue' [translation: "To a History of the Decalogue (Ten Commandments)"], Zeitschrift fur die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft' Band (Vol.) 55 (Giessen: 1937) pp. 218ff.
  • Book Review of Widengren's Accadian and Hebrew Psalms of Lamentation which appeared in Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift (Oslo: 1940), pp. 155. [G. Widengren's book itself was published at Stockholm, 1937].
  • 'Ras Shamra og det Gamle Testament', Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift Vol. xl, (Oslo: 1939), pp. 16ff.
  • 'Oppkomsten av profetlitteraturen', Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift (Oslo: 1942), pp. 65ff.
  • 'Kadesj, Sinai og Jahve', Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift Vol. 9 (1942), pp. 21ff.
  • 'Nathanprofetien i 2. Sam. 7' [translation: "Nathan's prophecy in II Samuel 7"], Svensk exegetisk årsbok (known as SEÅ) (Uppsala: date ?), pp. 220ff.
  • 'Zum Problem der hebraischen Metrik' [translation: "Towards the Problem of the Hebrew Metric"], Bertholetfestschrift (Tübingen: 1950), pp. 379ff. [Bertholetfestschrift = Festschrift Alfred Bertholet zum 80. Geburtstag, herausgeg. von W. Baumgartner, O. Eissfeldt, K. Elliger, L. Rost>> translation: "Festschrift for Alfred Bertholet on his 80th Birthday--editors: W. Baumgartner, Otto Eissfeldt, K. Elliger and L. Rost"].
  • 'Den senjodiske salmediktning', Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift (Oslo: 1950), pp. 1–54.
  • 'Zur hebraischen Metrik II' [translation: "Towards Hebrew Metric II"], Studia theologica cura ordinum theologorum Scandinavorum edita Vol. VII (1953), pp. 54ff.
  • 'Metrischer Aufbau und Textcritik, an Ps. 8 illustriert' [translation: "Metrical Construction and Textcriticism, illustrated on Psalm 8"], Studia Orientalia Johanno Pedersen Septuagenario...dicata [Studia Orientalia's volume celebrating the 70th birthday of Johannes Pedersen](Havniae [Copenhagen]: 1953), pp. 250ff.
  • 'Der metrische Aufbau von Jes. 62, 1 - 12 und die neuen sog. kurzverse' [translation: "The metrical construction of Isaiah 62: 1 - 12 and the new so-called ? shortverse"], Zeitschrift fur die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft' Band (Vol.) 65 (Giessen: 1953), pp. 167ff.
  • 'Zum Psalm des Habakuk' [translation: "Towards the Psalm of Habakkuk"], Theologische Zeitschrift Band (Vol.) 9 (Basel: 1953), pp. 1ff.
  • 'Psalm Criticism between 1900 and 1935 (Ugarit and Psalm Exegesis)', Vetus Testamentum Vol. 5 (Leiden: Brill, 1955) pp. 13ff.
  • 'Marginalien zur hebraischen Metrik', Zeitschrift fur die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft' Band (Vol.) 67 (Giessen: 1956) pp. 97ff.
  • 'Zu Psalm 16, 3 - 4' [translation: "To/towards Psalm 16: 3 - 4"], Theologische Literaturzeitung (1957), columns 649ff.
  • 'Notes on the Psalms', Studia theologica cura ordinum theologorum Scandinavorum edita Vol. XIII (1959), pp. 134ff.
  • 'Drive and/or Ride in the O.T.', Vetus Testamentum Vol. 12 (Leiden: Brill, 1962) pp. 278–299ff.

Other relevant articles from periodicals[edit]

  • 'Mowinckel und Deutschland' written by R. Smend, Studia Theologica, Volume 53, Number 2, 20 December 1999, pp. 79–96(18) (Routledge, 1999), pp. 79 – 96.