Significance of numbers in Judaism
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Numbers play an important part in Judaic ritual practices and are believed to be a means for understanding the divine. A Mishnaic textual source, Pirkei Avot 3:23, makes clear that the use of gematria is dated to at least the Tannaic period. This marriage between the symbolic and concrete found its pinnacle in the creation of the Tabernacle. The Hebrew word for symbol is ot, which, in early Judaism, denoted not only a sign, but also a visible religious token of the relation between God and man. It's largely held by Jewish leadership that the numerical dimensions of the temple are a "microcosm of creation ... that God used to create the Olamot-Universes."
1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10
11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
22 · 23 · 24 · 25 · 26 · 27 · 28 · 29 · 30 · 33
40 · 42 · 44 • 49 · 50 · 54 · 60 · 63 · 70 · 80
90 · 100 · 120 · 147 · 150 · 175 · 180 · 200
216 · 245 · 248 · 300 · 365 · 374 · 400 · 586
600 · 601 · 613 · 702 · 930 · 950 · 969 ·
See Also · Notes · References
- The gematria (numerical value) of the Hebrew letter א
- Date in the month of Tishrei when Rosh Hashanah occurs
- Yom Kippur is one day worldwide
- The gematria of the Hebrew letter ב
- The tablets of the Ten Commandments
- The loaves of challah on the Shabbat table (lekhem mishna)
- Number of days of Rosh Hashanah worldwide
- Number of days of Shavuot (Diaspora)
- Times of day Shema is recited
- The gematria of the Hebrew letter ג
- A symbol of holiness. The Holy of Holies occupied one-third, and the Holy Place two-thirds, of the entire Temple.
- There were three vessels each for the altar of burnt offering, the altar of incense, and the Ark.
- The candlestick had twice three arms (besides the shaft, which also held a lamp), and each arm had three knobs.
- The priestly blessing consists of three sections (Num. vi. 24, 25)
- In kedusha, word "holy" is recited three times.
- Indicative of a spiritual struggle or journey, especially 3 days/3 nights. See the Akkadian myth of Inanna's descent into the underworld.
- The patriarchs of the Jewish people
- The number of prayers recited daily
- The number of Shabbat meals
- The number of shofar sounds
- The Shalosh Ragalim (Jewish festivals): Pesach, Shavuot, and Sukkot
- Number of aliyot for a Torah reading on a weekday or at mincha
- Date in Tishrei of the Fast of Gedalia
- The gematria of the Hebrew letter ד
- The matriarchs of the Jewish people
- During the Pesach seder: cups of wine, questions, sons
- The Four Species taken on Sukkot
- Number of sides on the Dreidal
- Date in Iyar of Yom Hazikaron
- Date in Tishrei of the Fast of Gedalia when postponed from Shabbat
- Date in December when the prayer for rain is first inserted into the Amidah. This is the only event in Judaism that uses the solar calendar.
- The number of living creatures
- The gematria of the Hebrew letter ה
- The books of the Pentateuch
- The sections of the book of Psalms
- The number of knots in the tzitzit
- Number of aliyot on Yom Tov that does not coincide with Shabbat
- Date in Iyar of Yom Ha'atzmaut
- Number emphasized during Mimouna
- The gematria of the Hebrew letter ו
- Number of days it took God to create the world
- The books of the Mishnah
- Total number of public fast days in a year
- Date in the month of Sivan when Shavuot occurs
- Number of aliyot on Yom Kippur
- The gematria of the Hebrew letter ז
- The number 7 is the Divine number of completion
- The general symbol for all association with God; the favorite religious number of Judaism, typifying the covenant of holiness and sanctification, and also all that was holy and sanctifying in purpose
- The Seven Laws of Noah
- The menorah in the Temple had seven lamps
- Acts of atonement and purification were accompanied by a sevenfold sprinkling
- Every seventh year of the Hebrew calendar is a Sabbatical year
- A full week of shiva is seven days; the term "shiva" refers to the seven-day period
- Number of blessings in the Sheva Brachot
- A woman in niddah following menstruation must count seven "clean days" prior to immersion in the mikvah
- Number of days of Sukkot
- Number of days of Pesach (Israel)
- Blessings in the Amidah of Shabbat, Yom Tov, and Musaf (except Rosh Hashanah)
- Number of aliyot on Shabbat
- The gematria of the Hebrew letter ח
- The day on which a Jewish boy is circumcised
- Total number of days of Yom Tov in a year in Israel
- Number of days of Chanukah
- Number of days of Pesach (Diaspora)
- The number of strings in each corner of the tzitzit
- The gematria of the Hebrew letter ט
- The number of months before a baby is born
- Number of branches of the Chanukah menorah
- Blessings in the Amidah of Musaf on Rosh Hashanah
- Date in the month of Av when Tisha B'Av occurs. The days from Rosh Chodesh Av until Tisha B'Av are considered a period of mourning known as The Nine Days
- The gematria of the Hebrew letter י
- The Ten Commandments
- The Ten Days of Repentance in Tishrei
- Date in the month of Tishrei when Yom Kippur occurs
- Date in the month of Tevet when the fast of the Tenth of Tevet occurs
- Number of Jews required for a minyan
- Ten Martyrs
- The ten utterances (ma’amarim) spoken by God during the creation of the world, manifesting as the ten Sephirot.
- Ten generations from Adam to Noah
- Ten generations from Noah to Abraham
- Ten tests of Abraham
- Ten times the Israelites tested God in the desert
- Ten Plagues in Egypt
- There were twelve loaves of show-bread on the shulchan (table) in the Beit Hamikdash
- Sons of Jacob
- Tribes of Israel
- Stones of the Hoshen
- Age at which Bat Mitzvah is attained (Orthodox tradition)
- Number of springs of water at the Israelites' encampment following the incident at Marah
- Thirteen Attributes of Mercy
- Jewish principles of faith according to Maimonides
- Age at which Bar Mitzvah is attained
- Number of days of Yom Tov in a year (Diaspora)
- Months in a leap year on the Hebrew calendar
- Date in Adar (or Adar II in leap years) of the Fast of Esther
- The number of steps in the Passover Seder
- Date in the month of Iyar when Pesach Sheni occurs
- Date in the month of Adar (Adar II in leap years) when Purim occurs
- The number of books in the Mishnah Torah
- One of two numbers that is written differently from the conventions of writing numbers in Hebrew in order to avoid writing the name of God. The other is 16.
- Date of the Hebrew month on which the full moon occurs. Several holidays occur on this date: Pesach, Tu B'Av, Sukkot, Tu B'Shevat, and Shushan Purim.
- One of two numbers that is written differently from the conventions of writing numbers in Hebrew in order to avoid writing the name of God. The other is 15.
- Gematria of "CHAI" חַי, the Hebrew word for life. Numbers evenly divisible by this number are considered good luck.
- The maximum number of minutes matzah is allowed to bake in order to be considered kosher for Pesach
- Date in the month of Iyar when Lag Ba'omer occurs
- The number of years in a cycle in which the date on the lunar calendar matches the date on the solar calendar
- Blessings in the weekday Amidah
- Number of judges needed to carry out a trial for capital punishment in Judaism
- The number of days in some months of the Hebrew calendar
- Number of hours Adam & Eve spent in the Garden of Eden.
- Number of sins which carry Kareth
- The Tzadikim Nistarim (Hebrew: צַדִיקִים נִסתָּרים, hidden righteous ones) or Lamed Vav Tzadikim (Hebrew: ל"ו צַדִיקִים, 36 righteous ones), often abbreviated to Lamed Vav(niks)[a], refers to 36 Righteous people, a notion rooted within the more mystical dimensions of Judaism. The singular form is Tzadik Nistar (Hebrew: צַדִיק נִסתָר). The source is the Talmud itself, explained as follows:
As a mystical concept, the number 36 is even more intriguing. It is said that at all times there are 36 special people in the world, and that were it not for them, all of them, if even one of them was missing, the world would come to an end. The two Hebrew letters for 36 are the lamed, which is 30, and the vav, which is 6. Therefore, these 36 are referred to as the Lamed-Vav Tzadikim. This widely held belief, this most unusual Jewish concept is based on a Talmudic statement to the effect that in every generation 36 righteous "greet the Shechinah," the Divine Presence (Tractate Sanhedrin 97b; Tractate Sukkah 45b).
The Lamed-Vav Tzaddikim are also called the Nistarim ("concealed ones"). In our folk tales, they emerge from their self-imposed concealment and, by the mystic powers, which they possess, they succeed in averting the threatened disasters of a people persecuted by the enemies that surround them. They return to their anonymity as soon as their task is accomplished, 'concealing' themselves once again in a Jewish community wherein they are relatively unknown. The lamed-vavniks, scattered as they are throughout the Diaspora, have no acquaintance with one another. On very rare occasions, one of them is 'discovered' by accident, in which case the secret of their identity must not be disclosed. The lamed-vavniks do not themselves know that they are ones of the 36. In fact, tradition has it that should a person claim to be one of the 36, that is proof positive that they are certainly not one. Since the 36 are each exemplars of anavah, ("humility"), having such a virtue would preclude against one’s self-proclamation of being among the special righteous. The 36 are simply too humble to believe that they are one of the 36.
It is also said that one of these 36 could potentially be the Jewish Messiah if the world is ready for them to reveal themselves. Otherwise, they live and die as an ordinary person. Whether the person knows they are the potential Messiah is debated.
- The term lamedvavnik is derived from the Hebrew letters Lamed (L) and Vav (V), whose numerical value adds up to 36. The "nik" at the end is a Russian or Yiddish suffix indicating "a person who..." (As in "Beatnik"; in English, this would be something like calling them "The Thirty-Sixers".) The number 36 is twice 18. In gematria (a form of Jewish numerology), the number 18 stands for "life", because the Hebrew letters that spell chai, meaning "living", add up to 18. Because 36 = 2×18, it represents "two lives".
- The gematria of the Hebrew letter מ
- The number of days the spies were in the land of Canaan
- Years in the desert
- Days and nights of rain during the flood that occurred at the time of Noah
- Isaac's age at marriage to Rebecca
- Esau's age at marriage to his first two wives
- Number of days Jonah prophesies will pass before Nineveh is destroyed. They repent in the interim.
- Number of se'ah (volume measurement of water) in a mikveh (ritual bath)
- Number of years of the reign of David, Solomon, and the most righteous judges in the book of Judges
- Number of lashes for one who transgresses a commandment
- Number of days which the Torah was given
- Number of weeks a person is formed in his mother's womb
- Number of curses on Adam
- Letters in one of God's Divine Names
- Number of lines of text written in each column of a Torah scroll
- Total number of candles lit during all 8 nights of Hanukah
- The Merkabah is associated with the four wheels and four faces in Ezekiel's vision. The word Merkabah is also found 44 times in the Old Testament.
- Number of nights of counting of the Omer
- Total number of parashahs
- Total tractates in the six books of the Mishnah
- The gematria of the Hebrew letter ע
- Members of the Sanhedrin
- Life of King David
- Years between the destruction of the first and construction of the Second Temple
- Year (CE) of the Destruction of the Second Temple
- Number of scribes who translated the Septuagint
- Number of date-palms at the Israelites' encampment following the incident at Marah
- Number of people who went to Egypt with Jacob
- The gematria of the Hebrew letter ק
- Total number of times the shofar is sounded on each day of Rosh Hashanah
- Life of Moses
- Life of Jacob
- Number of psalms
- Life of Abraham
- Longest parshshah in the Pentateuch (Naso)
- Longest chapter of Psalms (Chapter 119)
- Longest tractate in the Talmud (Tractate Bava Basra)
- Life of Isaac
- Words in the Shema prayer
- Length of the solar calendar (which has significance in Judaism)
- Total number of negative commandments
- Total number of years the First Temple stood
- Total number of mitzvot
- Life of Adam
- Life of Noah
- Total number of letters in the Torah
- Bible code, a purported set of secret messages encoded within the Torah.
- Biblical and Talmudic units of measurement
- Chol HaMoed, the intermediate days during Passover and Sukkot.
- Chronology of the Bible
- Counting of the Omer
- Gematria, Jewish system of assigning numerical value to a word or phrase.
- Hebrew calendar
- Hebrew numerals
- Jewish and Israeli holidays 2000–2050
- Jewish symbolism
- Lag BaOmer, 33rd day of counting the Omer.
- Notarikon, a method of deriving a word by using each of its initial letters.
- Sephirot, the 10 attributes/emanations found in Kabbalah.
- Weekly Torah portion, division of the Torah into 54 portions.
- Kaplan 1990: p. 57
- Ganz 1981
- Ezekiel 1:5
- Samuel 2007: p. 242
- Samuel 2007: p. 243
- Kaplan 1997
- Dosick 1995: p. 155
- Zwerin, Rabbi Raymond A. (September 15, 2002 / 5763). "THE 36 - WHO ARE THEY?". Temple Sinai, Denver: americanet.com. Archived from the original on Jan 18, 2003. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
- Calculated as: ∑(x=2 to 9) x = 44
- Brown; Driver; Briggs; Gesenius (1988). "Hebrew Lexicon entry for Merkabah". The Old Testament Hebrew Lexicon. Retrieved 2010-10-09.
- "Hebrew Gematria - A Lion's Might". 2010-01-29. Retrieved 2011-04-28.
- Kaplan, Rabbi Aryeh (1990). Sutton, Abraham, ed. Inner Space. Brooklyn, NY: Moznaim. p. 254. ISBN 0-940118-56-4. Retrieved 2010-09-19.
- Ganz, Yaffa (1981). Who Knows One?: A Book of Jewish Numbers. Nanuet, NY: Feldheim Publishers. p. 32. ISBN 0-87306-285-X. Retrieved 2010-09-19.
- Samuel, Gabriella (2007). The Kabbalah Handbook: A Concise Encyclopedia of Terms and Concepts in Jewish Mysticism. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher. p. 467. ISBN 1-58542-560-5. Retrieved 2010-09-19.
- Dosick, Wayne (1995). Living Judaism: The Complete Guide to Jewish Belief, Tradition, and Practice. New York: HarperCollins. p. 155. ISBN 0-06-062179-6. Retrieved 2010-09-19.
- Kaplan, Aryeh (5-1-1997). Sefer Yetzirah. New York: Weiser Books. p. 424. ISBN 0-87728-855-0. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
- Coleman, Wade (2008). Sepher Sapphires, A Treatise On Gematria The Magical Language. Fraternity of the Hidden Light. ISBN 0981897703.