The Sikh Gurus established Sikhism over the centuries, beginning in the year 1469. Sikhism was founded by the first guru, Guru Nanak, and subsequently, each guru, in succession, was referred to as "Nanak", and as "Light", making their teachings, in the holy scriptures, equivalent. There are a total of 11 gurus: ten human gurus and the eleventh, or current and everlasting Sikh Guru, is the integrated Sikh scriptures known as the Adi Granth or Guru Granth Sahib.
Sikhism was established by Guru Nanak and ten other Sikh Gurus starting in 1469. Guru Nanak was the first Guru, and Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Guru, bestowed the Guruship forevermore to the Sikh holy scripture, the Guru Granth Sahib as the 11th Guru, the living word. The Khalsa is known as the Guru Panth, the final temporal Guru/leader of the Sikhs and embodiment of the Guru. Sikhs follow the teachings of the Gurus, which is believed upon remembering, leads to salvation.
The name "Nanak" was used by all the subsequent Gurus who wrote any sacred text in the Sikh holy scripture called the Guru Granth Sahib. The second Sikh Guru, Guru Angad, is also called the "Second Nanak" or "Nanak II". Sikhs hold that all subsequent Gurus carried the same message as that of Guru Nanak, and so they have used the name "Nanak" in their holy text, instead of their own names. Hence all are referred to as the "Light of Nanak".
|#||Name||Date of birth||Guruship on||Date of death||Age at death||Major Contributions & Death||Father||Mother|
|1||Guru Nanak||15 April 1469||20 August 1507||22 September 1539||69||* Founded Sikhism * Died of natural causes||Mehta Kalu||Mata Tripta|
|2||Guru Angad||31 March 1504||7 September 1539||29 March 1552||48||* Prohibited visit & worship of Muslims religious places by Sikhs * Humayun sought help from Guru Ji against Sher Shah Suri * Died of natural causes||Baba Pheru||Mata Ramo|
|3||Guru Amar Das||5 May 1479||26 March 1552||1 September 1574||95||* Established Manji & Piri system of religious missions for men and women respectively * Strengthened the Langar community kitchen system * Asked Akbar to stop the persecution of Hindus and Sikhs by removing oppressive and discriminatory Islamic Jizya tax on Hindus * Died of natural causes||Tej Bhan Bhalla||Bakht Kaur|
|4||Guru Ram Das||24 September 1534||1 September 1574||1 September 1581||46||* Formulated Anand Karaj Sikh marriage ceremony * Asked Akbar to stop the persecution of Hindus and Sikhs by removing oppressive and discriminatory Islamic Jizya tax on Hindus * died of natural causes||Baba Hari Das||Mata Daya Vati|
|5||Guru Arjan||15 April 1563||1 September 1581||30 May 1606||43||* 1st Sikh guru killed by Muslims * Mughal Emperor Jahangir ordered him to be tortured and sentenced to death||Rām Dās||Mata Bhani|
|6||Guru Har Gobind||19 June 1595||25 May 1606||28 February 1644||48||* Instituted the practice of maintaining armed legion of Sikh warrior-saints as protector of oppressed Hindus and Sikhs * Waged wars against Muslim rulers Jahangir and Shah Jahan * Died of natural causes||Arjun Dēv||Mata Ganga|
|7||Guru Har Rai||16 January 1630||3 March 1644||6 October 1661||31||* Established Sheltered Dara Shikoh; persecuted by vengeful Aurangzeb who framed charges of anti-Islamic blasphemy against Guru Ji and Skih verses of Guru Granth Sahib * Died of natural causes||Baba Gurditta||Mata Nihal Kaur|
|8||Guru Har Krishan||7 July 1656||6 October 1661||30 March 1664||7||* Forcibly summoned to Delhi by persecutor Aurangzeb under framed charges * Died of Smallpox at the age of 8||Hari Rā'i||Mata Krishan Kaur|
|9||Guru Tegh Bahadur||1 April 1621||20 March 1665||11 November 1675||54||* Called Hind-di-Chadaar (Protector of India) * Protected Kashmiri Pandits against forced conversions by Muslims * Contributed many hymns (Shlokas) to Guru Granth Sahib * Spread Skihism far and wide to Bihar and Assam * Persecuted, imprisoned, tortured and executed by Aurangzeb||Hari Gōbind||Mata Nanki|
|10||Guru Gobind Singh||22 December 1666||11 November 1675||7 October 1708||41||* Founded Khalsa in 1699 * Last Sikh Guru in human form * Passed the Guruship of the Sikhs to the Guru Granth Sahib * Died of complications from stab wounds inflicted by Pashtun assassins sent by Mughal governor Wazir Khan||Tēġ Bahādur||Mata Gujri|
|11||Guru Granth Sahib||n/a||7 October 1708||n/a||n/a||Final and last, eternal living guru||-||-|