Hinduism and Sikhism
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The historical interaction between Sikhism and Hinduism occurred because both were founded on the Indian Subcontinent and the creators of Sikhism were born into Hindu families and Hindu castes (mostly Kshatriya) also known as 'Khatri' of the Punjab region of India. Thus Sikhism took birth and evolved in the Hindu cultural and political arena, just like Jainism and Buddhism before it.
- 1 Hindus and Sikhism in Punjab
- 2 History of similarities and differences
- 3 Maharaja Ranjit Singh
- 4 Similarities
- 5 Differences
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
Hindus and Sikhism in Punjab
In the days of Mughal oppression, which intensified in the 18th century as the Sikhs openly defied Mughal leadership both local and upward, many Punjabi Hindu families would offer their firstborn sons to join the Khalsa Army to aid in this cause. There are numerous examples of Hindu and Sikh shrines being located in close proximity together, and Punjabi Hindus hold the Sikh Golden Temple site in high regard.
History of similarities and differences
Guru Nanak, was born in a Hindu Khatri family. However, he declared that all are equal in the eyes of God in his famous proclamation "I am not a Hindu, nor am I a Muslim." A unity between Hindus and Muslims under the teachings and revelations of the Guru. The Guru had familiar and common beliefs as in Hindu concepts like Karma, Dharma, Reincarnation, and meditating on God's name.
Before Guru Nanak's death, he instructed his disciple Guru Angad Dev to carry on the teachings of his religion as Guru Angad had shown selflessness, compassion and endless service and was attuned to the teachings of his Master, Guru Nanak. Sri Chand, one of his sons, founded the Udasi order. Various orders have arisen since the beginning of Sikhism, such as the Radhasoamis and the Nirankaris. It is debatable whether these religions constitute offshoots of Sikhism or merely differing Sikh philosophies. The Khalsa, ordained by Guru Gobind Singh, is regarded by many Sikhs as being the completion of the development of the Sikh religion.
Guru Tegh Bahadur
In 1675 Aurangzeb caused the martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur. He had gone to Aurangzeb on behalf of Kashmiri Pandits, who requested him to plead against their forceful conversion. Aurangzeb asked Guru Tegh Bahadur to convert and had him executed after he refused to convert to Islam. According to Kushwant Singh, when "Guru Tegh Bahadur was summoned to Delhi, he went as a protector of the Kashmiri Hindu community and encourage them to stand against the increasing oppression of the Mughals. He was executed in the year 1675. His son who succeeded him as Guru later described his father's martyrdom as in the cause of the humanity. Guru Tegh Bahadar undertook the supreme sacrifice for the protection of the most fundamental of human rights - the right of a person to freely practice his or her religion without interference or hindrance. This is why Guru Tegh Bahadur is also known as Tegh Bahadur, Hind Di Chadar" (Tegh Bahadur, Protector of Hindus). Many Sikhs view Guru Tegh Bahadur as "Insaaf Di Kand" (blockade of injustice), stopping the unjust conversions to Islam.
Guru Tegh Bahadur is also honored by Punjabi Hindus and the Guru Tegh Bahadur Martyrdom Day is also observed by many Punjabi Hindus.
Maharaja Ranjit Singh
Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji, also called "Sher-e-Punjab" ("The Lion of the Punjab") (1780–1839) was a Sikh emperor and the founder of Sikh Empire. Ranjit Singh crowned himself as the ruler of Punjab and willed the Koh-i-noor back to its original location at Jagannath Temple in Orissa while on his deathbed in 1839. The spire and the dome of the Kashi Vishwanath Temple, Varanasi are plated with 1000 kg of gold donated by him in 1835.
The Sikh scholar Harjot Oberoi has argued that in the nineteenth century, the Singh Sabha movement began to view the non-monolithic world view of Sikhism with suspicion, hostility, and a narrower view.
Here are some of the similarities between Hinduism and Sikhism:
- At the time of the Gurus, most Hindu Punjabi families would remain "Hindu" while the eldest son was a "Sikh." Hindus enlisting their eldest sons in the Khalsa was done for protection against the Mughals.
- Many Hindus, particularly Punjabi Hindus, visit Sikh temples. For instance, the Hemkhund Sahib is a high-altitude lake in the Indian State of Uttarakhand is regarded as a pilgrimage site by the adherents of Hindus  and a Lakshman Temple and Sikh Gurudwaara exist close together on the banks of the same lake there.
- When a Sikh dies, cremation is the preferred method. This is the same in Hinduism, although this is a cultural similarity between many cultures.
- Sikhs may also do the 'immersion of corpse remains' in a river after cremation, as Hindus do, although this is not a requirement; ashes may be deposited anywhere sentimental.
- Both have almost the same wedding rituals and traditions, especially North Indian weddings such as Lavan Phere, Paani Vaarna, Mangni/Shagun, Rokka, among many others. The groom carries a sword and is accompanied by a younger nephew or cousin known as a sarbala.
In the Hindu and Sikh traditions, there is a distinction between religion and culture, and ethical decisions are grounded in both religious beliefs and cultural values. Both Hindu and Sikh ethics are primarily duty based. Traditional teachings deal with the duties of individuals and families to maintain a lifestyle conducive to physical, mental and spiritual health. These traditions share a culture and world view that includes ideas of karma and rebirth, collective versus individual identity, and a strong emphasis on spiritual purity.
The notion of dharma, karma, prasad, moksha and a belief in rebirth are very important for many Hindus and Sikhs as they make ethical decisions surrounding birth and death. Unlike the linear view of life taken in Abrahamic religions, for Hindus and Sikhs life, birth and death are repeated, for each person, in a continuous cycle. What a person does in each life influences the circumstances and predispositions experienced in future lives. In essence, every action or thought, whether noble or sinful, has consequences that are carried forward into the next life. When a similar situation is encountered, memories of past lives arise in the consciousness as an impulse to perform actions or think thoughts similar to the earlier ones. This impulse does not necessarily compel the person to repeat the act or thought. As proclaimed in the Guru Granth Sahib:
- Mortals obtain a human body as a result of good deeds but he reaches the gate of salvation with God's kind grace. (Guru Nanak).
Common Sikh views of Hinduism
The holy text of Sikhism, the Guru Granth Sahib, its older version, the Adi Granth, and other Sikh texts like Dasam Granth have numerous references to the major pan-Hindu deities. The Guru Granth has hundreds of time the mention of Rama and Krishna or Hari in particular. This was inevitable since Sikhism was born during the period of the Bhakti Movement, and was a preeminent facet of the same. This is the same reason why along with the teachings of the Gurus themselves, the Guru Granth Sahib also contain teachings of quite a few major saints of the Bhakti movement, known collectively as the "bhagats (i.e. "bhagavats or godly men). However, in modern times, most Sikhs interpret the references to Hindu deities in the Guru Granth Sahib as being for the most part metaphorical, not literal. This is illustrated in a quote on page 1374, among others:
- Kabeer, it does make a difference, how you chant the Lord's Name, 'Raam'. This is something to consider.
Everyone uses the same word for the son of Dasrath and the Wondrous Lord. Kabeer, use the word 'Raam', only to speak of the All-pervading Lord. You must make that distinction. One 'Raam' is pervading everywhere, while the other is contained only in himself. (1374). However, metaphorical use of words such as 'Ram' and 'Shiv' are also common in Hinduism. Vedantic seers such as Adi Shankaracharya have seen the Absolute as formless and criticized idol worship and other rituals.
References to Vedas
The Guru Granth Sahib encourages openmindedness towards all belief systems:
- Do not say that the Vedas, the Bible and the Koran are false. Those who do not contemplate them are false.(1350)
It ought to be understood that heaven and hell as treated as mere transient stages in both Hinduism and Sikhism, and are as such contrasted with the finality of spiritual liberation.
- ਵਿਸਮਾਦੁ ਨਾਦ ਵਿਸਮਾਦੁ ਵੇਦ ॥ - Wonderful is the sound current of the Naad, wonderful is the knowledge of the Vedas.
- Page 791 - ਬੇਦ ਪਾਠ ਮਤਿ ਪਾਪਾ ਖਾਇ ॥ - Reading the Vedas, sinful intellect is destroyed.
- Page 941 - ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਪਰਚੈ ਬੇਦ ਬੀਚਾਰੀ ॥ - The Gurmukh is pleasing to the True Guru; this is contemplation on the Vedas.
- Page 942 - ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਸਾਸਤ੍ਰ ਸਿਮ੍ਰਿਤਿ ਬੇਦ ॥ - The Gurmukh understands the Simritees, the Shaastras and the Vedas.
- Page 1188 - ਬੇਦ ਵਖਾਣਿ ਕਹਹਿ ਇਕੁ ਕਹੀਐ ॥ - The Vedas say that we should chant the Name of the One Lord.
In regard to their shortcomings:
- Page 148 - ਵੇਦ ਕਹਹਿ ਵਖਿਆਣ ਅੰਤੁ ਨ ਪਾਵਣਾ ॥ - The Vedas speak and expound on the Lord, but they do not know His limits.
- Page 355 - ਅਸਟ ਦਸੀ ਚਹੁ ਭੇਦੁ ਨ ਪਾਇਆ ॥ - The eighteen Puraanas and the four Vedas do not know His mystery.
- Guru Nanak, on page 1021 - ਬੇਦ ਕਤੇਬੀ ਭੇਦੁ ਨ ਜਾਤਾ ॥ - Neither the Vedas (four Hindu texts) nor the four Katebas [Semitic texts: the Torah, the Zabur (Psalms), the Injil (Gospel), and the Quran] know the mystery (of the Creator of the Cosmos).
- Page 1126 - ਸਾਸਤ੍ਰ ਬੇਦ ਤ੍ਰੈ ਗੁਣ ਹੈ ਮਾਇਆ ਅੰਧੁਲਉ ਧੰਧੁ ਕਮਾਈ ॥੩॥ - The Shaastras and the Vedas keep the mortal bound to the three modes of Maya, and so he performs his deeds blindly. ||3||
- Page 1237 - ਨਵ ਛਿਅ ਖਟ ਕਾ ਕਰੇ ਬੀਚਾਰੁ ॥ ਨਿਸਿ ਦਿਨ ਉਚਰੈ ਭਾਰ ਅਠਾਰ ॥ ਤਿਨਿ ਭੀ ਅੰਤੁ ਨ ਪਾਇਆ ਤੋਹਿ ॥ - You may study the nine grammars, the six Shaastras and the six divisions of the Vedas. You may recite the Mahaabhaarata. Even these cannot find the limits of the Lord.
Page 747, Line 18 - One may read all the books of the Vedas, the Simritees and the Shaastras, but they alone will not bring liberation.
The references above to not knowing the limits of God are a reference to the Sikh perception that the existence of demigods or devas puts a limit on the absolute power of God.
Bhairao, Fifth Mehl - I do not perform Hindu worship services, nor do I offer the Muslim prayers... Guru Arjan Dev Page 1078 - Even the Vedas do not know the Guru's Glory. They narrate only a tiny bit of what is heard—The Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Nanak and other Sikh Gurus rejected many tenets of Brahmanical Hinduism, such as:
- Sikhism is a monotheistic religion; Sikhs believe there is only one God, who has infinite qualities and names. Hinduism is a diverse system of thought with beliefs spanning monotheism, polytheism, panentheism, pantheism, monism and historically atheism (see Hindu views on monotheism), the Hindu concept of Parmatma is similar to that of the Sole Creator in Sikh texts.
- The Janeo (Hindu sacred thread), or 'confirmation' ritual of Hinduism.
- Karma and reincarnation - Sikhism believes one's previous lives Karma do not matter, but what one does in this life determines one's status. In contrast, reincarnation – known as Punarjanma – is one of the core beliefs of Hinduism that is generally accepted by many of its practitioners.
- Sikhs do not believe that going on pilgrimages or bathing at holy rivers will give you mukti (salvation) but only meditation on the naam (name) of Waheguru will.
One may read all the books of the Vedas, the Simritees and the Shaastras, but they alone will not bring liberation.—Page 747, Line 18
The majority accept that the two belief systems have been separate from the beginning of Sikhism. Sikhs believe that the Gurus were receiving the beliefs and practices from God as the Gurus constantly stated that they were not part of the Hindu or Muslim religions. One belief in Sikhism that is commonly cited in support of this is the belief in equality between men and women, regardless of background or race.
Khushwant Singh has written that despite innovations, "this new community, the [Sikh] Khalsa Panth, remained an integral part of the Hindu social and religious system"; however, Hew Mcleod believes that claims of this nature "can, in large measure, be dismissed".
I have broken with the Hindu and the Muslim,
I will not worship with the Hindu nor like the Muslim go to Mecca, I shall serve God and no other. I will not pray to idols nor say the Muslim prayer. I shall put my heart at the feet of the One Supreme Being, For we are neither Hindus nor Mussalmans.
— Guru Arjun
According to a 1960 book by P. Thomas, Hindu-Sikh intermarriage is rare. However, a 2000 book by R C Dogra says that there has always been inter-marriage between the Hindu and the Sikh communities. Douglas Charing etal., writing in 2004, state that "caste is a more important factor than religion in so far as Hindu-Sikh relationships are concerned". William Owen Cole and Piara Singh Sambhi (1993) write that for many Sikhs, intermarriage between Hindus and Sikhs of same community is preferable to a Sikh marriage between different ones.
The relationship between the Hindus and the Khalsa remained extremely close as long as they were confronting the Mughals, Persian and Afghan invaders. Hindu youths coming to join the Khalsa simply let their hair and beards grow, accepted pahul (baptism) without breaking their family ties, it was during this period that the custom of bringing up one son as a Sikh grew amongst many Punjabi Hindu families. When Sikhs assumed power in Punjab under Maharaja Ranjit Singh (ad 1780-1839), Punjabi Hindus had even more reason to turn to the Khalsa. The Maharaja, though a devout Sikh, would also revere Brahmins, worship in Hindu temples and bathe in the Ganga. He made killing of cows a criminal offence punishable death. Although he rebuilt the Harmandir in Amritsar in marble and gold leaf, when it came to disposing the Koh-i-Noor diamond his first preference was to gift it to the temple at Jaganathpuri.
Foundation of Sikh Panth
- 1478: Guru Nanak Dev stated that he wanted nothing to do with a religion that only allowed the highest classes in society to be regarded as religious.
- 1479: Guru Nanak stand up for the will of God by taking Junior and Kilian (the 2 prophets from Hundi) from the back.
- 1480: Guru Nanak refused to wear Janeu (sacred thread of Hindus) at the age of eleven years.
- 1509: Guru Nanak's Declaration "I am not a Hindu, nor am I a Muslim" Alah rām kė pind parān. ||4||
My body and breath of life belong to Allah - to Ram, God . ||4|| .
- 1509-1539: Guru Nanak preached against idol worship. He did not attach any importance to penance and fasting.
- 1539: The followers of Guru Nanak are called Sikhs
- 1699: Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Guru, established the Khalsa order and the five Ks to ensure that Khalsa kept a distinct identity and were able to defend themselves in war.
- 1873: The first Tat Khalsa Singh Sabha was founded in Amritsar. They worked towards spreading the essence of Sikh scriptures against, what they considered as attempts to subvert Sikhism from within. In a short span of time the number of Singh Sabhas rose to 117 in Punjab.
- 1879: Another Tat Khalsa Singh Sabha; popularly known as Lahore Singh Sabha.
- 1909: Max Arthur Macauliffe published "Sikh Religion:Its Gurus, Sacred Writings, and Authors." He is widely accredited for the translation of the Guru Granth Sahib from Gurmukhi to English.
- 1920: Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee (SGPC) formed.
- 1920s: Nankana Sahib, Punja Sahib, Harimandir Complex (Golden Temple), TarnTaran Sahib taken over from the mahants. The mahants had maintained the shrines since the dissolution of the Sikh Empire.
- 1915, 1931: New Reht Maryada compiled to replace existing Rahits after consultations with distinguished Sikh scholars.
- 1950: Sikh Reht Maryada was approved.
Differences between Sikhism and specific Hindu traditions
The worship of murtis (icons) is an important part of several Hindu traditions, such as Vaishnavism and Shaivism, although some Hindu denominations like Arya Samaj and Satya Mahima Dharma have rejected idol worship.
Sikhs regards Idol worship as false practice and followers are considered as animals having low intellect, hence strongly rejects in worship of any sort of physical idol, symbol, picture, or statue. Pictures of gurus and the book itself are not directly prayed to or revered in place of Sikhism's formless God. Pictures of gurus are not a requirement in the Gurdwara, and they are often not even displayed in the Darbar Sahib (prayer hall), but by the eating areas and the shoe-removing areas. This shows the low level of spiritual reverence for physical representations of the Gurus, as opposed to prayer (prayer is not a "verbal idol"). Fanning of the Guru Granth Sahib is a tradition carried over from Punjab to protect the Granth and its reader from airborne debris, as outside worship was common. Only recital of prayers and listening to hymns make up Sikh prayer. As the following quote states:
"ਦੇਵੀ ਦੇਵਾ ਪੂਜੀਐ ਭਾਈ ਕਿਆ ਮਾਗਉ ਕਿਆ ਦੇਹਿ ॥ ਪਾਹਣੁ ਨੀਰਿ ਪਖਾਲੀਐ ਭਾਈ ਜਲ ਮਹਿ ਬੂਡਹਿ ਤੇਹਿ ॥
O brother, you worship gods and goddesses. What can you ask of them and what can they give to you? O brother, the stones/idols you wash with water sink in water (in other words how could these stones help you cross the ocean of worldly temptations)" — Aad Guru Granth Sahib - page 637
Where Kabir states that Idol worshiper will drown in river of darkness, there Guru Gobind Singh does not hesitate calling Idol worshiper, an Animal or low intellect or stone mind. Guru Nanak also used term blind and mute, the blindest of the blind and ignorant fools for idol worshipers.
Some Hindu traditions, such as Vaishnavism, emphasize strict vegetarianism.The tenets of Sikhism do not advocate a particular stance on either vegetarianism or the consumption of meat, but rather leave the decision of diet to the individual. Sikhs who follow sects and groups that have a "Vashnavite" influence (AKJ, GNNSJ, 3HO, Namdhari's etc.) believe that there is to be strict vegetarianism while the majority, that follow the Official Sikh Code of Conduct (Rehat Maryada ) state the fact that, the only meat that is expressly forbidden for Sikhs to consume is Halal/Kosher (Kutha meat, the meat of animals slowly and ceremoniously killed in sacrificing rituals). Several Gurus such as Guru Hargobind Sahib and Guru Gobind Singh hunted frequently and consumed non-Halal. The Guru Granth Sahib states:
The fools argue about flesh and meat, but they know nothing about meditation and spiritual wisdom.
What is called meat, and what is called green vegetables? What leads to sin?They are produced from the blood of their mothers and fathers, but they do not eat fish or meat.
It was the habit of the gods to kill the rhinoceros, and make a feast of the burnt offering.
Those who renounce meat, and hold their noses when sitting near it, devour men at night.
They practice hypocrisy, and make a show before other people, but they do not understand anything about meditation or spiritual wisdom.
O Nanak, what can be said to the blind people? They cannot answer, or even understand what is said.
They alone are blind, who act blindly. They have no eyes in their hearts.— The Guru Granth Sahib, First Mehl
On the views that eating vegetation would be eating flesh, first Sikh Guru Nanak states:
ਪਾਂਡੇ ਤੂ ਜਾਣੈ ਹੀ ਨਾਹੀ ਕਿਥਹੁ ਮਾਸੁ ਉਪੰਨਾ ॥ ਤੋਇਅਹੁ ਅੰਨੁ ਕਮਾਦੁ ਕਪਾਹਾਂ ਤੋਇਅਹੁ ਤ੍ਰਿਭਵਣੁ ਗੰਨਾ ॥
O Pandit, you do not know where did flesh originate! It is water where life originated and it is water that sustains all life. It is water that produces grains, sugarcane, cotton and all forms of life.—First Mehl, AGGS, M 1, p 1290.
On Vegetation, the Guru described it as living and experiencing pain:
Page 143 of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji
Look, and see how the sugar-cane is cut down. After cutting away its branches, its feet are bound together into bundles,
and then, it is placed between the wooden rollers and crushed.Nanak: come, people, and see how the sweet sugar-cane is treated!
What punishment is inflicted upon it! Its juice is extracted and placed in the cauldron; as it is heated, it groans and cries out.
And then, the crushed cane is collected and burnt in the fire below.
- Many Hindu families brought up one of their sons as a Keshdhari Sikh. Khushwant Singh and Kuldip Nayar: Tragedy of Punjab, p.20-21, quoted by V.P. Bhatia: "Secularisation of a Martyrdom", Organiser, 11-11998.
- In some cases Hindu and Sikh shrines are both present in the same compound; for example at Sadhu Bela  and Katas Raj[dead link]
- [dead link]
- Adi Granth Page 1136 ਏਕੁ ਗੁਸਾਈ ਅਲਹੁ ਮੇਰਾ ॥ ਹਿੰਦੂ ਤੁਰਕ ਦੁਹਾਂ ਨੇਬੇਰਾ ॥੧॥ ਰਹਾਉ ॥ I have One, who is both Gusain (Hindu Lord) and Allah, who administers both Hindus and Turks. ਨਾ ਹਮ ਹਿੰਦੂ ਨ ਮੁਸਲਮਾਨ ॥ ਅਲਹ ਰਾਮ ਕੇ ਪਿੰਡੁ ਪਰਾਨ ॥੪॥ I am neither a Hindu or Muslim, but a body made alive by Allah/Ram. ਕਹੁ ਕਬੀਰ ਇਹੁ ਕੀਆ ਵਖਾਨਾ ॥ ਗੁਰ ਪੀਰ ਮਿਲਿ ਖੁਦਿ ਖਸਮੁ ਪਛਾਨਾ ॥੫॥੩॥ Kabir has said this - meeting with Guru/Pir I have recognized the lord. W.H McLeod believes that the verse is by Kabir and not Nanak.
- Vedalankar, Kshitish: Storm in Punjab. Word Publ., Delhi 1985 (1984). (This work contains the full text of Guru Tegh Bahadur's reply to Aurangzeb)
- Ram Prakash: Guru Tegh Bahadur, the Patriot by Excellence. Suruchi Prakashan, Delhi 1987., and Koenraad Elst: Who is a Hindu (2001)
- "When Maharaja Ranjit Singh of the Punjab died, he bequeathed, by his will, the famous diamond Kohinoor to Lord Jagannath..." Report, 1960-1962, India. Hindu Religious Endowments Commission, pp 164, Govt. of India, Ministry of Law, 1962
- "Even two hours earlier of his death he willed the Koh-i-noor diamond to be gifted to Jagannath temple." The rule of Maharaja Ranjit Singh: nature and relevance, pp 145, Dr. Surindara Pāla Siṅgha, Jasabīra Siṅgha Sābara, Guru Nanak Dev University, Guru Nanak Dev University, 2001
- "The Kashi Vishwanath Temple".
- The Sikhism Home Page: Sikh Religious Philosophy
- Sikh Funerals | http://www.staffspasttrack.org.uk/exhibit/ilm/Mourining%20and%20Remembrance/Types%20of%20funerals/Sikh%20Funerals.htm | "Ashes are collected and scattered in running water or on the sea. Sikhs do not hold any river as holy but may deposit the ashes in a place of sentimental value."
- Singh, Baldev (November 2007). "Is Guru Nanak Hindu or Muslim?". SikhSpectrum (30).
- Man's religious quest: a reader By Whitfield Foy Page 265
- Vivekjivandas, Sadhu. Hinduism: An Introduction - Part 1. (Swaminarayan Aksharpith: Ahmedabad, 2010) p. 33-36. ISBN 978-81-7526-433-5
- Chahal, Dr. Devindar Singh (Jan–June 2006). "Is Sikhism a Unique Religion or a Vedantic Religion". Understanding Sikhism 8 (1): 3, 4, 5.
- Khushwant Singh and Bipan Chandra: Many Faces of Communalism. CRRID, Chandigarh 1985.
- Hew McLeod (1997). Sikhism. New York: Penguin Books. p. 95. ISBN 0-14-025260-6.
- Thomas, P.: Hindu Religion Customs and Manners pub. 1960. pg. 50
- R. C. Dogra & Urmila Dogra: Hindu and Sikh wedding ceremonies pub. 2000. Star Publications. ISBN 9788176500289.
- Douglas Charing, W. Owen Cole, William Owen Cole: Six world faiths pub. 2004, page 309. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 9780826476838.
- William Owen Cole, Piara Singh Sambhi: Sikhism and Christianity: a comparative study, Volume 1993, Part 2, pub. 1993. Macmillan. Page 22. ISBN 9780333541067.
- Page 1136
- Singh, Patwant (2000). The Sikhs. Knopf. p. 184. ISBN 0375407286.
- Line 10, Tav Parsad Svaiyey, Dasam Granth
- Bachitar Natak, Line 99, Dasam Granth
- A History of the Sikh People by Dr. Gopal Singh, World Sikh University Press, Delhi ISBN 9788170231394 However, it is strange that nowadays in the Community-Kitchen attached to the Sikh temples, and called the Guru's Kitchen (or, Guru-ka-langar) meat-dishes are not served at all. May be, it is on account of its being, perhaps, expensive, or not easy to keep for long. Or, perhaps the Vaishnava tradition is too strong to be shaken off.
- "Misconceptions About Eating Meat - Comments of Sikh Scholars," at The Sikhism Home Page
- Guru Granth Sahib, An Analytical Study by Surindar Singh Kohli, Singh Bros. Amritsar ISBN 8172050607 The ideas of devotion and service in Vaishnavism have been accepted by Adi Granth, but the insistence of Vaishnavas on vegetarian diet has been rejected.
- Randip Singh, Fools Who Wrangle Over Flesh, Sikh Philosophy Network, 7 December 2006. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
- Sikhs and Sikhism by I.J. Singh, Manohar, Delhi ISBN 9788173040580 Throughout Sikh history, there have been movements or subsects of Sikhism which have espoused vegetarianism. I think there is no basis for such dogma or practice in Sikhism. Certainly Sikhs do not think that a vegetarian's achievements in spirituality are easier or higher. It is surprising to see that vegetarianism is such an important facet of Hindu practice in light of the fact that animal sacrifice was a significant and much valued Hindu Vedic ritual for ages. Guru Nanak in his writings clearly rejected both sides of the arguments - on the virtues of vegetarianism or meat eating - as banal and so much nonsense, nor did he accept the idea that a cow was somehow more sacred than a horse or a chicken. He also refused to be drawn into a contention on the differences between flesh and greens, for instance. History tells us that to impart this message, Nanak cooked meat at an important Hindu festival in Kurukshetra. Having cooked it he certainly did not waste it, but probably served it to his followers and ate himself. History is quite clear that Guru Hargobind and Guru Gobind Singh were accomplished and avid hunters. The game was cooked and put to good use, to throw it away would have been an awful waste.
- http://www.sgpc.net/sikhism/sikh-dharma-manual.html The Sikh Code of Conduct
- I. J. Singh. Sikhs and Sikhism. Delhi: Manohar. ISBN 9788173040580.
- J.S. Grewal. Sikh History from Persian Sources: Translations of Major Texts. ISBN 978-8185229171. "Many person became his disciples. Nanak believed in the Oneness of God and in the way that it is asserted in Muhammadan theology. He also believed in transmigration of souls. Holding wine and pork to be unlawful, he had [himself] abandoned eating meat. He decreed avoidance of causing harm to animals. It was after his time that meat-eating spread amongst his followers. Arjan Mal, who was one of his lineal successors, found this to be evil. He prohibited people from eating meat, saying 'This is not in accordance with Nanak's wishes.Later, Hargobind, son of Arjan Mal, ate meat and took to hunting. Most of their [the Gurus] followers adopted his practice."
- Page 1289 Guru Granth Sahib
- "Sri Guru Granth Sahib". Sri Granth. Retrieved 2009-08-09.
- Sikh Gurus. "Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji". pp. 142 to 143. Retrieved 25 November 2009.
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