Silk Road (marketplace)
Item description page
|Type of site||Online market|
|Owner||"Dread Pirate Roberts"|
|Launched||February 2011 (relaunched November 2013)|
Silk Road was an online black market, best known as a platform for selling illegal drugs. As part of the Deep Web, it was operated as a Tor hidden service, such that online users were able to browse it anonymously and securely without potential traffic monitoring. The website launched in February 2011; development had begun six months prior.
In 2013 the FBI shut down the website and arrested one Ross William Ulbricht under charges of being the site pseudonymous founder "Dread Pirate Roberts". On 6 November 2013 Silk Road 2.0 came online, run by former administrators of Silk Road. It too was shut down and the alleged operator arrested on 6 November 2014 as part of the so-called "Operation Onymous".
Silk Road was founded in February 2011. The name "Silk Road" comes from a historical network of trade routes, started during the Han Dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD), between Europe, India, China, and many other countries on the Afro-Eurasian landmass. Silk Road was operated by "Dread Pirate Roberts" (named after the fictional character from The Princess Bride), who was known for espousing libertarian ideals and criticizing regulation.
In June 2011, Gawker published an article about the site, which led to "Internet buzz" and an increase in website traffic. Once the site was known publicly, U.S. Senator Charles Schumer asked federal law enforcement authorities such as the DEA and Department of Justice to shut down the website.
In February 2013, an Australian cocaine and MDMA ("ecstasy") dealer became the first person to be convicted of crimes directly related to Silk Road, after authorities intercepted drugs he was importing through the mail, searched his premises, and discovered his Silk Road alias in an image file on his personal computer. Australian police and the DEA have targeted Silk Road users and made arrests, albeit with limited success at reaching convictions. In December 2013, a New Zealand man was sentenced to two years and four months jail after being convicted of importing 15 grams of methamphetamine he had bought on Silk Road.
In May 2013, Silk Road was taken down for a short period of time by a sustained DDoS attack. On 23 June 2013, it was first reported that the United States Drug Enforcement Administration seized 11.02 bitcoins, then worth $814, which the media suspected was a result of a Silk Road honeypot sting.
On 27 June 2014, the U.S. Marshals Service sold 29,657 bitcoins in 10 blocks, estimated to be worth $18 million at current rates, and only about a quarter of the seized bitcoins, in an online auction. Another 144,342 bitcoins, roughly $87 million, found on Ulbricht's computer, were kept. Tim Draper bought the bitcoins with an estimated worth of $17 million at the auction, to lend them to a bitcoin start-up called Vaurum, which is working in developing economies of emerging markets.
Seizure and arrest
On 2 October 2013, Ross William Ulbricht, alleged by the FBI to be the owner of Silk Road and the person behind the pseudonym "Dread Pirate Roberts," was arrested in San Francisco. On 4 October, Ulbricht appeared in federal court in San Francisco and denied all charges, whereupon the hearing was rescheduled for 9 October. On 15 October, at the behest of Ulbricht's lawyer, the trial was delayed until January 2015.
The FBI initially seized 26,000 BTC from accounts on Silk Road, which were worth approximately $3.6 million at the time. An FBI spokesperson said in an interview that they would hold the bitcoins until the judicial process finished and after that, they would liquidate them. Later in October 2013, the FBI reported that they had seized 144,000 BTC worth $28.5 million that they claimed belonged to Ulbricht.
Silk Road 2.0
On 6 November 2013, administrators from the shuttered Silk Road, led by a new pseudonymous Dread Pirate Roberts, relaunched the site. Dubbed "Silk Road 2.0," it recreated the original site's setup and promised improved security. The new DPR took the precaution of distributing encrypted copies of the site's source code to allow the site to be quickly recreated in the event of another shutdown.
On 20 December 2013, it was announced three alleged Silk Road administrators had been arrested; two of these suspects, Andrew Michael Jones and Gary Davis, were named as the administrators "Inigo" and "Libertas" who had continued their work on Silk Road 2.0. Around this time the new Dread Pirate Roberts abruptly gave up control of the site and froze its activity, including its escrow system. A new temporary administrator under the screenname "Defcon" took over and promised to bring the site back to working order.
On 13 February 2014, Defcon announced that Silk Road 2.0's escrow accounts had been compromised through a vulnerability in Bitcoin's protocol called "transaction malleability." While the site remained online, all the bitcoins in its escrow accounts, valued at $2.7 million, were reported stolen. It was later reported that the vulnerability was actually in the site's "Refresh Deposits" function, and that the Silk Road administrators had used their commissions on sales since 15 February to refund users who lost money, with 50 percent of the hack victims being completely repaid as of 8 April.
On 6 November 2014, authorities with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Europol, and Eurojust announced the arrest of Blake Benthall, allegedly the owner and operator of Silk Road 2.0 under the pseudonym "Defcon", the previous day in San Francisco as part of Operation Onymous.
In March 2013, the site had 10,000 products for sale by vendors, 70% of which were drugs. In October 2014, there were 13,756 listings for drugs, grouped under the headings stimulants, psychedelics, prescription, precursors, other, opioids, ecstasy, dissociatives, cannabis and steroids/PEDs. The site's terms of service prohibit the sale of certain items. This includes child pornography, stolen credit cards, assassinations, and weapons of mass destruction. There were also legal goods and services for sale, such as apparel, art, books, cigarettes, erotica, jewelry, and writing services. A sister site, called "The Armory", sold weapons (primarily guns) during 2012, but was shut down due to a lack of demand.
Based on data from 3 February 2012 to 24 July 2012, an estimated $15 million in transactions were made annually on Silk Road. Twelve months later, Nicolas Christin, the study's author, said in an interview that a major increase in volume to "somewhere between $30 million and $45 million" would not surprise him. Buyers and sellers conducted all transactions with bitcoins (BTC), a cryptocurrency that provides a certain degree of anonymity. Silk Road held buyers' bitcoins in escrow until the order had been received and a hedging mechanism allowed sellers to opt for the value of bitcoins held in escrow to be fixed to their value in US$ at the time of the sale to mitigate against Bitcoin's volatility. Any changes in the price of bitcoins during transit were covered by Dread Pirate Roberts.
The criminal complaint published when Ulbricht was arrested included information the FBI gained from a system image of the Silk Road server collected on 23 July 2013. It noted that, "From February 6, 2011 to July 23, 2013 there were approximately 1,229,465 transactions completed on the site. The total revenue generated from these sales was 9,519,664 Bitcoins, and the total commissions collected by Silk Road from the sales amounted to 614,305 Bitcoins. These figures are equivalent to roughly $1.2 billion in revenue and $79.8 million in commissions, at current Bitcoin exchange rates...", according to the September 2013 complaint, and involved 146,946 buyers and 3,877 vendors. According to information users provided upon registering, 30 percent were from the United States, 27 percent chose to be "undeclared," and beyond that, in descending order of prevalence: the United Kingdom, Australia, Germany, Canada, Sweden, France, Russia, Italy, and the Netherlands. During the 60-day period from 24 May to 23 July, there were 1,217,218 messages sent over Silk Road's private messaging system.
The Farmer's Market was a Tor site similar to Silk Road, but which did not use bitcoins. It has been considered a 'proto-Silk Road' but the use of payment services such as Paypal and Western Union allowed law enforcement to trace payments and it was subsequently shut down by the FBI in 2012. Other sites already existed when Silk Road was shut down and The Guardian predicted that these would take over the market that Silk Road previously dominated. Sites named Atlantis, closing in September 2013, and Project Black Flag, closing in October 2013, each took their users' bitcoins. In October 2013, the site named Black Market Reloaded closed down temporarily after the site's source code was leaked.
- Bitcoin protocol
- Operation Web Tryp
- The Hidden Wiki
- War on Drugs
- Sheep Marketplace
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- Dread Pirate Roberts (2011-06-26). "New seller accounts". Silk Road forums. Retrieved 2013-08-05. "[...] we shut down new seller accounts briefly, but have now opened them up again. This time, we are limiting the supply of new seller accounts and auctioning them off to the highest bidders. Our hope is that by doing this, only the most professional and committed sellers will have access to seller accounts. For the time being, we will be releasing one new seller account every 48 hours, though this is subject to change. If you want to become a seller on Silk Road, click "become a seller" at the bottom of the homepage, read the seller contract and the Seller's Guide, click "I agree" at the bottom, and then you'll be taken to the bidding page. Here, you should enter the maximum bid you are willing to make for your account upgrade. The system will automatically outbid the next highest bidder up to this amount. [...]"
- Dread Pirate Roberts (2011-07-01). "New seller accounts". Silk Road forums. Retrieved 2013-08-05. "[...] We received a threat from a very disturbed individual who said they would pose as a legitimate vendor, but send carcinogenic and poisonous substances instead of real products and because seller registration is open, they would just create a new account as soon as they got bad feedback. This was shocking and horrifying to us and we immediately closed new seller registration. Of course we need new sellers, though, so we figured that charging for new seller accounts would deter this kind of behavior. [...]"
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- Dan Murphy, "A Silk Road to total freedom? Or to total thuggery? The dark side of Internet culture's obsession with anonymity," // Christian Science Monitor.com, 4 October 2013.
- Eileen Ormsby, The drug's in the mail // The Age, Victoria, 27 April 2012
- Eileen Ormsby, «The new underbelly» // The Sydney Morning Herald, 1 June 2012
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- "Silk Road, the underground website where you can buy any drug imaginable, is back and busier than ever". The Huffington Post. 1 May 2014.
- "'Silk Road' website called the Amazon of heroin, cocaine". ABC Action News. YouTube. 10 June 2011
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- Australian Penthouse story: "The High Road: Silk Road, an online marketplace like no other", January 2012
- SILK ROAD: A VICIOUS BLOW TO THE WAR ON DRUGS
- Shopping on The Dark Web: Pure Drugs and Plastic Explosives reportage from Sabotage Times
- "Unravelling the dark web" (GQ)
- "Silk Road: Theory & Practice"
- "Direct Criminal complaint, Southern District of New York (27 September 2013)"
- "United States of America v. Ross William Ulbricht" Grand Jury Indictment, District of Maryland (1 October 2013)