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The Silmarils (Quenya pl. Silmarilli, radiance of pure light) are three fictional brilliant jewels composed of the unmarred light of the Two Trees in J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium. The Silmarils were made out of the crystalline substance silima by Fëanor, a Noldorin Elf, in Valinor during the Years of the Trees. The Silmarils play a central role in Tolkien's book The Silmarillion, which tells of the creation of Eä (the Universe) and the beginning of Elves, Men, and Dwarves.
The Silmarils are not mere jewels which shine with a great light. The three Silmarils are in some sense both alive and sacred. How Fëanor, admittedly the greatest of the Noldor, was able to create these objects is not fully explained. Even the Valar, including Aulë, master of craftsmanship, could not copy them. In fact, even Fëanor may not have been able to copy them as part of his essence went into their making. Their worth, in Tolkien's universe, was very great, even to the Valar, as they were unique and irreplaceable. The Silmarils themselves are said to produce their own light, which comes from the Two Trees, but also to reflect the light of any other lights that come near them.
Fëanor, son of Finwë, created the Silmarils—"the most renowned of all the works of the Elves"—from the light of the Two Trees. The Silmarils were hallowed by Varda, so that they would burn the hands of any evil creature or mortal who touched them without justly deserving possession.
Together with Ungoliant, the rebellious Vala Melkor destroyed the Two Trees. The Silmarils then contained all the remaining unmarred light of them. Therefore the Valar entreated Fëanor to give them up so they could restore the Trees, but he refused. Then news came that Melkor had killed Fëanor's father Finwë, the High King of the Noldor, and stolen the Silmarils. After this deed, Melkor fled from Valinor to his fortress Angband in the north of Middle-earth. Thereafter he wore the Silmarils in his iron crown.
Fëanor was furious at Melkor, whom he named Morgoth, "Dark Enemy of the World", and at the Valar's perceived desire to take the gems for their own purposes. Together with his sons he swore the Oath of Fëanor, which bound them to fight anyone who withheld the Silmarils from them. This terrible oath resulted in much future trouble including mass-murder and the war of Elf against Elf.
Fëanor led many of the Noldor back to Middle-earth. His flight, which occurred during the First Age of Middle-earth, led to no end of grief for the Elves and eventually for the Men of Middle-earth. Five major battles were fought in Beleriand, but ultimately the Noldor and all the people who took the oath failed in their attempt to regain the Silmarils from Morgoth.
One of the Silmarils was recovered by Beren and Lúthien through great peril and loss, when Luthien sent Morgoth to sleep with her singing and Beren cut it from his crown. The werewolf Carcharoth attacked them as they left Angband, and swallowed Beren's hand containing the Silmaril, which drove him mad. He was later killed by Huan the Hound, who died from his wounds, and Mablung cut the Silmaril out. It was later taken to the Valar in the West by Eärendil, son of Tuor and Idril and husband of Elwing: heir of Beren and Lúthien, as a token of repentance. The Valar then set this Silmaril as a star in the sky. The other two gems remained in Morgoth's hands, and were taken from him by a servant of Manwë at the end of the War of Wrath. However, soon afterwards, they were stolen by Fëanor's two remaining sons, Maedhros and Maglor, as they tried to fulfill the oath they had sworn so many years before. But the jewels burned their hands, in denial of their rights of possession, as they had burned Morgoth's hands before. In agony, Maedhros threw himself and his Silmaril into a fiery pit, and Maglor threw his Silmaril into the sea. Thus the Silmarils remain in the ocean, the earth, and the sky—their light present but inaccessible to those in Middle-earth.
According to a prophecy of Mandos, following Melkor's final return and defeat in the Dagor Dagorath (Battle of Battles), the world will be changed and the Silmarils will be recovered by the Valar. Then Fëanor will be released from the Halls of Mandos and give Yavanna the Silmarils and she will break them and with their light she will revive the Two Trees, the Pelóri Mountains will be flattened and the light of the Two Trees will fill the world in eternal bliss. This concept appears in Tolkien's manuscripts that were published by his son Christopher in The Shaping of Middle-earth but was not implemented in the published Silmarillion.
- Tolkien, Christopher (1981). The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien. Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0-04-826005-3.
- Michael D.C. Drout (10 October 2006). J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment. Routledge. pp. 612–. ISBN 1-135-88034-4.
- Jane Chance (27 August 2003). Tolkien the Medievalist. Routledge. p. 209. ISBN 978-1-134-43971-3.
- Maglor Casts a Silmaril into the Sea as illustrated by Ted Nasmith
- Verlyn Flieger (January 2002). Splintered Light: Logos and Language in Tolkien's World. Kent State University Press. pp. 97–. ISBN 978-0-87338-744-6.
- "Second Prophecy of Mandos". Encyclopedia of Arda. Mark Fisher. 30 June 2010.
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1986), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Shaping of Middle-earth, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 0-395-42501-8
- Randel Helms; John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (16 March 1981). Tolkien and the Silmarils. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-395-29469-7.
- Greg Harvey (27 April 2011). The Origins of Tolkien's Middle-earth For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-06898-4.