Silver oxide

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To be distinguished from silver(I,III) oxide, used in silver-oxide batteries.
Silver oxide
Silver(I) oxide structure in unit cell
Silver(I) oxide powder
Identifiers
CAS number 20667-12-3 YesY
PubChem 9794626
ChemSpider 7970393 YesY
EC number 243-957-1
MeSH silver+oxide
RTECS number VW4900000
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula Ag2O
Molar mass 231.74 g mol−1
Appearance Black/ brown cubic crystals
Odor Odorless[1]
Density 7.14 g/cm3
Melting point 300 °C (572 °F; 573 K) decomposes from ≥200 °C[3][4]
Solubility in water 0.013 g/L (20 °C)
0.025 g/L (25 °C)[2]
0.053 g/L (80 °C)[3]
Solubility product, Ksp of AgOH 1.52·10−8 (20 °C)
Solubility Soluble in acid, alkali
Insoluble in ethanol[2]
Structure
Crystal structure Cubic
Thermochemistry
Specific
heat capacity
C
65.9 J/mol·K[2]
Std molar
entropy
So298
122 J/mol·K[5]
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
−31 kJ/mol[5]
Gibbs free energy ΔG −11.3 kJ/mol[4]
Hazards
GHS pictograms The flame-over-circle pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)[6]
GHS signal word Danger
GHS hazard statements H272, H315, H319, H335[6]
GHS precautionary statements P220, P261, P305+351+338[6]
EU classification Oxidizing Agent O Irritant Xi
R-phrases R36/37/38
S-phrases S17, S26, S36
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., water Health code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroform Reactivity code 1: Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. E.g., calcium Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
LD50 2.82 g/kg (rats, oral)[1]
Related compounds
Related compounds Silver(I,III) oxide
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
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Infobox references

Silver(I) oxide is the chemical compound with the formula Ag2O. It is a fine black or dark brown powder that is used to prepare other silver compounds.

Preparation[edit]

Silver(I) oxide produced by reacting lithium hydroxide with a very dilute silver nitrate solution

Silver oxide can be prepared by combining aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and an alkali hydroxide.[7] This reaction does not afford appreciable amounts of silver hydroxide due to the favorable energetics for the following reaction:[8]

2 AgOH → Ag2O + H2O (pK = 2.875[9])

Structure and properties[edit]

Ag2O is isostructural with Cu2O. It is therefore expected that Ag2O is insoluble in all solvents,[10] except by reaction. It is slightly soluble in water due to the formation of the ion Ag(OH)2 and possibly related hydrolysis products.[11] It dissolves in ammonia solution to give soluble derivatives.[citation needed] A slurry of Ag2O is readily attacked by acids:

Ag2O + 2 HX → 2 AgX + H2O

where HX = HF, HCl, HBr, or HI, HO2CCF3. It will also react with solutions of alkali chlorides to precipitate silver chloride, leaving a solution of the corresponding alkali hydroxide.[12][11]

Like many silver compounds, silver oxide is photosensitive. It also decomposes at temperatures above 280 °C.[10]

Applications[edit]

This oxide is used in some silver-oxide batteries, as is the peroxide, Ag4O4. In organic chemistry, silver oxide is used as a mild oxidizing agent. For example, it oxidizes aldehydes to carboxylic acids. Such reactions often work best when the silver oxide is prepared in situ from silver nitrate and alkali hydroxide.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Silver Oxide MSDS". http://www.saltlakemetals.com. Salt Lake Metals. Retrieved 2014-06-08. 
  2. ^ a b c Lide, David R. (1998). Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87 ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. pp. 4–83. ISBN 0-8493-0594-2. 
  3. ^ a b Perry, Dale L. (1995). Handbook of Inorganic Compounds (illustrated ed.). CRC Press. p. 354. ISBN 0849386713. 
  4. ^ a b http://chemister.ru/Database/properties-en.php?dbid=1&id=4098
  5. ^ a b Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A23. ISBN 0-618-94690-X. 
  6. ^ a b c Sigma-Aldrich Co., Silver(I) oxide. Retrieved on 2014-06-07.
  7. ^ Janssen, D. E.; Wilson, C. V. (1963), "4-Iodoveratrole", Org. Synth. ; Coll. Vol. 4: 547 
  8. ^ Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.
  9. ^ Biedermann, George; Sillén, Lars Gunnar (1960). "Studies on the Hydrolysis of Metal Ions. Part 30. A Critical Survey of the Solubility Equilibria of Ag2O". Acta Chemica Scandinavica 14: 717. doi:10.3891/acta.chem.scand.14-0717. 
  10. ^ a b Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs, 14th ed. monograph 8521
  11. ^ a b Cotton, F. Albert; Wilkinson, Geoffrey (1966). Advanced Inorganic Chemistry (2nd Ed.). New York:Interscience. p. 1042. 
  12. ^ General Chemistry by Linus Pauling, 1970 Dover ed. p703-704

External links[edit]