Simón de Anda y Salazar
|Simón de Anda y Salazar|
|Governor-General of the Philippines|
July 1770 – October 30, 1776
|Monarch||Charles III of Spain|
|Preceded by||José Antonio Raón y Gutiérrez|
|Succeeded by||Pedro de Sarrio|
|Leader of the Spanish Resistance in the Philippines|
October 6, 1762 – January 30, 1764
|Born||October 28, 1701
Subijana, Basque Country, Spain
|Died||October 30, 1776
|Battles/wars||Seven Years' War|
Oidor at the Royal Audience of Manila and Lieutenant Governor
De Anda y Salazar was an Oidor of the Royal Audience of Manila, who was appointed as Lieutenant Governor of the city by the Governor-General of the Philippines and the Audiencia itself during the British occupation of Manila. He departed Manila on October 4, 1762, two days before the city was captured by British forces, and established a new Spanish base in Bacolor, Pampanga. The governor and capitan-general Archbishop Manuel Rojo, was captured by the British, and with the Real Audiencia ceded the islands to them.
Anda organized resistance against the invaders and assumed military power on behalf of the Real Audiencia. All early negotiation between him and the British forces proved unsuccessfully, as he returned unopened all letters sent to him that didn't address him as the legitimate Governor-General of the Philippines, something that the British refused to do until the death of Archbishop Rojo, on January 30, 1764.
On March 1764 orders were brought from both the king of England and the king of Spain by governor designate Brigadier Don Francisco de la Torre, requiring the handover of the city to Spain in accordance with the Treaty of Paris (1763). British Governor Drake was charged with culpability as governor but forestalled an adverse finding by resigning and leaving the Philippines on 29 March 1764. The Manila Council elected Alexander Dalrymple as governor the same day, but the Manila garrison would not obey him. On 1 April 1764 the Manila garrison ceremonially marched out, embarking for home, and giving the Spanish control of Manila with de la Torre as Governor and Captain-General of the Spanish Philippines.
Governor-General of the Philippines
Anda traveled to Spain, and was well received by the Cortes Generales (parliament), and made Councilor of Castile by the King, in spite of having written a letter to him complaining of certain disorders in the Philippines, enumerating among them a number against the friars.
On April 12, 1768, he returned to the Philippines and by Royal Decree became Governor-General in July 1770. He proceeded against his predecessor, and other politicians, and roused the opposition and reformed the Spanish and Philippine army, and engaged in other public works. He opposed the king's order of November 9, 1774, to secularize the curacies held by regulars. After his death, the order was repealed on 11 December 1776.
De Anda y Salazar died on 30 October 1776, in the Hospital de San Felipe, in Cavite at the age of 76 years old.
A monument to his legacy was erected on Bonifacio Drive in Manila, and the municipalities of San Simon in Pampanga, Anda in Bohol and Anda in Pangasinan were named after him. A street has also been named after him in the Basque capital of Vitoria, close to his natal town of Subijana.
- Anda was the lieutenant governor since the fall of Manila to the British on October 4, 1762. The British military handed over civil power to Drake as governor in November 1762. They continued to recognize former governor Rojo as president of the Real Audiencia until his death on January 30, 1764. After the death of Rojo, the British commenced negotiations with Anda but Drake remained as governor of the Philippines until 29 March 1764.
- Nicholas Tracy (1995) Manila Ransomed: The British Assault on Manila in the Seven Years War, ISBN 0-85989-426-6, p102-106
|Dictator of the Spanish Provisional Government of the Philippines
in Bacolor, Pampanga
José Antonio Raón y Gutiérrez
|Governor-General of the Philippines
Pedro de Sarrio