Ulyanovsk

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For the warship, see Soviet aircraft carrier Ulyanovsk.
Ulyanovsk (English)
Ульяновск (Russian)
-  City[1]  -
Ульяновск.jpg
View of Ulyanovsk
Map of Russia - Ulyanovsk Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Ulyanovsk Oblast in Russia
Ulyanovsk is located in Ulyanovsk Oblast
Ulyanovsk
Ulyanovsk
Location of Ulyanovsk in Ulyanovsk Oblast
Coordinates: 54°19′N 48°22′E / 54.317°N 48.367°E / 54.317; 48.367Coordinates: 54°19′N 48°22′E / 54.317°N 48.367°E / 54.317; 48.367
Coat of arms of Ulyanovsk.png
Flag of Ulyanovsk.svg
Coat of arms
Flag
City Day June 12[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of July 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Ulyanovsk Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated to city of oblast significance of Ulyanovsk[1]
Administrative center of Ulyanovsk Oblast,[2] city of oblast significance of Ulyanovsk[1]
Municipal status (as of July 2011)
Urban okrug Ulyanovsk Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center of Ulyanovsk Urban Okrug[3]
Head[citation needed] Alexander Pinkov[citation needed]
Representative body City Duma[citation needed]
Statistics
Area 316.9 km2 (122.4 sq mi)[4]
Population (2010 Census) 613,786 inhabitants[5]
Rank in 2010 20th
Density 1,937 /km2 (5,020 /sq mi)[6]
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[7]
Founded 1648[citation needed]
City status since 1796[citation needed]
Previous names Simbirsk[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[8] 432xxx
Dialing code(s) +7 8422[9]
Official website
Ulyanovsk on WikiCommons

Ulyanovsk (Russian: Ульяновск; IPA: [ʊlʲˈjænəfsk]) is a city and the administrative center of Ulyanovsk Oblast, Russia, located on the Volga River 893 kilometers (555 mi) east from Moscow. Population: 613,786 (2010 Census);[5] 635,947 (2002 Census);[10] 625,155 (1989 Census).[11]

The city, originally founded as Simbirsk (Симби́рск), is the birthplace of Vladimir Lenin (originally named Ulyanov), for whom it was renamed in 1924. It is also famous for its writers such as Ivan Goncharov, Nikolay Yazykov and Nikolay Karamzin as well as painters (Arkady Plastov and Nikas Safronov).

History[edit]

Simbirsk was founded in 1648 by the boyar Bogdan Khitrovo.[citation needed] The fort of "Simbirsk" (alternatively "Sinbirsk") was strategically placed on a hill on the Western bank of the Volga River. The fort was meant to protect the eastern frontier of the Russian Empire from the nomadic tribes and to establish a permanent Imperial presence in the area.

The Bogdan Khitrovo Monument in downtown Ulyanovsk

In 1668, Simbirsk withstood a month-long siege by a 20,000-strong army led by rebel Cossack commander Stenka Razin. Also in Simbirsk another country rebel, Yemelyan Pugachev, was imprisoned before execution. At the time Simbirsk possessed a wooden kremlin, which was destroyed by a fire during the 18th century.

As the eastern border of the Russian Empire was rapidly pushed into Siberia, Simbirsk rapidly lost its strategic importance, but nonetheless began to develop into an important regional center. Simbirsk was granted city status in 1796.

Monument to Nikolai Karamzin

In the summer of 1864, Simbirsk was severely damaged by fire; however, it was quickly rebuilt and continued to grow. The Holy Trinity Cathedral was constructed in a restrained Neoclassical style between 1827–1841. The population of Simbirsk reached 26,000 by 1856 and 43,000 by 1897.

In 1924, the city was renamed Ulyanovsk in honor of Vladimir Ulyanov, better known as Lenin, who was born in Simbirsk in 1870. Two other Russian political leaders, Alexander Kerensky and Alexander Protopopov, were also born in Simbirsk.

The construction of the Kuybyshev hydroelectric plant (completed in 1957) 200 kilometers (120 mi) downstream of Ulyanovsk resulted in the flooding of significant tracts of land both north and south of Ulyanovsk and increasing the width of the Volga by up to 35 kilometers (22 mi) in some places. To this day, some populated neighborhoods of Ulyanovsk remain well below the level of the reservoir, protected from flooding by a dam: it is estimated that its catastrophic failure would submerge parts of the city comprising around 5% of its total population with as much as 10 meters (33 ft) of water. During the Soviet period, Ulyanovsk was an important tourist center, drawing visitors from around the country because of its revolutionary importance. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the tourist importance of Ulyanovsk sharply decreased. In the 1990s, the city went through the hardest times—a slump in production in all branches, mass unemployment, and a population impoverishment. Besides the policy of the regional authorities of that time leaning against the grants and the Soviet system of managing, has led to serious crisis of a city infrastructure. In the first decade of the 2000s the economy started to grow.

Ulyanovsk slowly recovered from these downturns into regional manufacturing, educational and transportation hub.

Politics[edit]

The city is headed by a mayor who is the executive branch, and city council which is the legislative branch. The term of the mayor is 5 years. In 2010 the city council abolished the direct elections to the mayor, replacing it with city manager, appointed by the council. Then again, in April 2013 the city charter was amended to re-introduce the direct mayoral election.[12]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Ulyanovsk serves as the administrative center of the oblast.[2] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with thirty rural localities, incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Ulyanovsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Ulyanovsk is incorporated as Ulyanovsk Urban Okrug.[3]

Demographics[edit]

Saint Mary's Lutheran Church

In 2008, there were registered 6,774 births and 8,054 deaths in Ulyanovsk.[13]

Ethnic composition[edit]

Climate[edit]

Ulyanovsk has a humid continental climate (meaning hot summers and cold winters). Average temperature is −11 °C (12 °F) in January and +19 °C (66 °F) in July. Falls are generally warm, with snow beginning to accumulate by mid-November. Winters tend to be cold but with moderate amounts of snowfall and nighttime lows occasionally dipping below −25 °C (−13 °F). Summer weather arrives in mid-May. Precipitation averages about 480 millimeters (19 in). The city is subject to frequent, but moderate, droughts. Springs and summers are sunny, but fall and winter are usually cloudy. Median annual temperature is +5 °C (41 °F).

Climate data for Ulyanovsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.7
(42.3)
5
(41)
16.5
(61.7)
30
(86)
36.3
(97.3)
37.5
(99.5)
38.9
(102)
39.3
(102.7)
33.1
(91.6)
25.7
(78.3)
14.6
(58.3)
6.2
(43.2)
39.3
(102.7)
Average high °C (°F) −7.7
(18.1)
−7.1
(19.2)
−0.4
(31.3)
11.4
(52.5)
20.8
(69.4)
24.2
(75.6)
25.4
(77.7)
23.4
(74.1)
17.3
(63.1)
7.5
(45.5)
−0.4
(31.3)
−5.1
(22.8)
9.5
(49.1)
Average low °C (°F) −15.4
(4.3)
−15.5
(4.1)
−9.2
(15.4)
0.9
(33.6)
7.3
(45.1)
12.2
(54)
13.9
(57)
11.7
(53.1)
7.2
(45)
0.2
(32.4)
−5.9
(21.4)
−11.7
(10.9)
0.5
(32.9)
Record low °C (°F) −39.1
(−38.4)
−39.9
(−39.8)
−31.1
(−24)
−23.2
(−9.8)
−6.9
(19.6)
−2.8
(27)
4.4
(39.9)
−1.3
(29.7)
−5
(23)
−19.4
(−2.9)
−28.6
(−19.5)
−36.9
(−34.4)
−39.9
(−39.8)
Precipitation mm (inches) 29
(1.14)
21
(0.83)
19
(0.75)
29
(1.14)
36
(1.42)
66
(2.6)
87
(3.43)
47
(1.85)
53
(2.09)
41
(1.61)
29
(1.14)
27
(1.06)
484
(19.06)
Source: Russian gidrometeocenter

Economy[edit]

The headquarters of UAZ, now Sollers JSC Corporation
Bank of Russia Building

Ulyanovsk is a major, diversified, industrial hub for aircraft and auto industries. The UAZ automobile manufacturing plant, now a subsidiary of Sollers JSC; Aviastar-SP Aircraft Company, now a part of United Aircraft Corporation; Scientific and Production Association "Mars" (manufactures industrial control systems for the Russian Navy), now part of state-owned conglomerate Agat; Ulyanovsk Cartridge Works (manufactures ammunition for firearms); Ulyanovsk Motor Plant (russian.Ульяновский моторный завод, UMZ) and Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant (russian.Ульяновский механический завод, UMZ, subsidiary of JSC Almaz-Antey) are based in the city along with a variety of light industry and food-processing enterprises.

In addition, a global, international airline for unique and heavy cargo , Volga-Dnepr Airlines is based in the city too.

There are many manufacturing facilities of foreign corporations such as Mars, Incorporated,[14] Takata-Petri,[15] Anadolu Efes S.K..,[16] ALFA (Mexico) and others.

Banking is represented by national banks such as Sberbank, VTB Bank, Alfa-Bank, Bin Bank, Ak Bars Bank, MDM Bank, Trust Bank and also regional banks from Ulyanovsk Oblast.

Ulyanovsk has also a strong military base presence in town. The 31st Airborne Brigade of the Russian Airborne Troops of the armed forces is based in Ulyanovsk.

Tourism and Hospitality Industry[edit]

Museum of Ivan Goncharov

Tourism is a growing industry in the city and the surrounding areas because of Volga micro-climate and historical significance of Simbirsk.[17] Hilton Hotel Group and Marriott Hotels & Resorts are building their hotels in the downtown area. The region of Undory, a driving distance from Ulyanovsk is famous for its spas and mineral water. The city offers many options for sports enthusiasts. The countryside is ideal for outdoor and water sports. The springs of Undory have been known for more than 200 years. The water at spa is rich in sodium chloride, and comes from artesian wells.

Retail and Restaurants[edit]

Retail is a growing business segment in this city too. International retailers such as Auchan SA, METRO AG, Media Markt, Decathlon Group as well as local Russian chains such as X5 Retail, Magnit, Lenta (retail), Sportmaster, M.video opened up their stores in Ulyanovsk.

Aqua Mall is an American-type mall concept that opened in Ulyanovsk on the banks of Sviyaga river with modern cinema theater, IMAX. The city has also a large presence of international fast food brands such as MacDonalds, Burger King, Baskin Robbins, Sbarro, KFC and others. Local Russian brands are also well-represented in this market.

Transportation and Logistics[edit]

The President Bridge, the new bridge in Ulyanovsk
The Imperial Bridge across the Volga River in Ulyanovsk

A railway bridge across the Volga was built in 1912–1916 and two automobile lanes were added to it in 1953–1958, allowing for the city to expand on the Eastern (left) bank of the river and transforming it into a local transport hub.

According to Ulyanovsk Region Development Corporation, Ulyanovsk Region is conveniently situated in the center of the European part of Russia, where east west and north south air, rail, car and river routes cross. It has an industrial, transport and business infrastructure and a developed network of roads and railways which provide a good basis for turning Ulyanovsk into a major transport and logistics hub in the Volga federal district working not only for Ulyanovsk Region's plants but the whole Volga federal district. Ulyanovsk transport hub provides all forms of transport (busy river port and passenger terminal, railways with two major passenger and cargo stations, airports and now two major bridges) apart from sea, which can serve Russian and international cargo traffic to Kazakhstan, Central and South East Asia, Europe, China and back.[18]

From the historic perspective, as the aging Ulyanovsk bridge, the only crossing of the Volga in the 400 km stretch from Kazan to Tolyatti, could no longer cope with the growing needs of the city, the construction of President Bridge, a truss bridge began in the late 1980s. Completion was delayed significantly due to catastrophic economic circumstances following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Its official opening ceremony was on November 24, 2009 by the Russian President Dmitry Medvedev – although traffic was using the bridge a few days earlier due arms depot blasts.[19] The bridge has a total length of 5.5 km, making it one of the longest in Europe.[20]

The city is also divided by the river Sviyaga, a tributary of the Volga but whose confluence with it is about 200 km north of the city.

Public transportation in the city is well developed and provided by 17 tram lines, 7 trolleybus routes (and all tram lines are only on the right-bank part of the city, and all the trolley only on the left bank), 50 municipal bus routes, and about 150 fixed-route taxi (marshrutkas) lines. The City of Ulyanovsk has a working plan to build high-speed rail system to connect two banks of the town.

Ulyanovsk is served by the Ulyanovsk Vostochny Airport (the international airport) in the left-bank part of the city and Ulyanovsk Baratayevka Airport (Ulyanovsk Central Airport) in the right-bank part of the city.

Education[edit]

The Administration Building of Ulyanovsk State University

There is also a number of technical and medical colleges in Ulyanovsk.

Architecture[edit]

Regional Museum of History and Arts

During the Soviet period, Ulyanovsk lost much of its historical heritage. All traces of the original wooden fort are gone, as are the churches of old Simbirsk; majority of 19th century buildings remain in the city, most notably the houses where Lenin lived between 1870–1887. The reconstruction of the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity was considered, but has since been canceled. However, many historical constructions remain. Among them the house in which writer Ivan Goncharov was born, Protestant church and other buildings.

Ulyanovsk has well-known tourist destinations around the downtown museum district and famous Volga River tours. The Ulyanovsk State historical memorial complex "Lenin`s hometown" is a unique keeper of a regional city center, the center of Simbirsk-Ulyanovsk. The memorial estate has been recreating the unique layer of local culture connected with architecture,education and way of life of Russia since the end of XIXth century till the beginning of XX century.The State historical memorial complex "Lenin`s hometown" was founded in 1984. Now it consists of 14 museums and the Showroom,and has got a young creative collective of 152 people.[21]

Sports[edit]

Volga-Sport-Arena

Volga[22] plays in the Russian Bandy Super League. The other club Simbirsk plays in the 2nd division. An indoor arena for bandy, Volga-Sport-Arena, has been built, as one of the first in Russia. It has a capacity of 5 000.[1] The outdoor stadium will be modernised and have a capacity of 18 000. The Bandy World Championship 2016 will be played in Ulyanovsk.[2] and Dimitrovgrad.

In association football, FC Volga plays in "Urals-Volga" zone of the Russian Second Division.

Notable people[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Ulyanovsk is twinned with:

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #126-ZO
  2. ^ a b Official website of Ulyanovsk Oblast. About Ulyanovsk Oblast (Russian)
  3. ^ a b c Law #043-ZO
  4. ^ Регионы России. Основные социально-экономические показатели городов 2012
  5. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  7. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  8. ^ http://postindex.delovoigorod.ru/ulyanovsk/center/
  9. ^ http://www.hella.ru/code/city/ulyanovsk_code.htm
  10. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  11. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  12. ^ "В Ульяновске вернули прямые выборы мэра". Lenta.ru. April 17, 2013. Retrieved January 26, 2014. 
  13. ^ http://www.regnum.ru/news/1112275.html
  14. ^ http://www.mars.com/global/about-mars/where-we-operate.aspx Where we operate
  15. ^ http://www.takata.com/en/about/locations02.html#l03
  16. ^ http://www.anadoluefes.com/index.php?gdil=in&gsayfa=op&galtsayfa=operasyonlardetay&gicsayfa=rusya&gislem=&gbilgi=
  17. ^ http://www.lonelyplanet.com/russia/volga-region/ulyanovsk
  18. ^ http://www.ulregion.com/en/
  19. ^ http://en.rian.ru/trend/artillery_depot_fire/
  20. ^ Minister of Transport Russian Federation Igor Levitin in the course of working trip to Ulyanovsk Region will estimate the possibility of SEZ creation of port type, PRIME-TASS, Saransk, June 17, 2008
  21. ^ http://www.ulzapovednik.ru/en/
  22. ^ Official home page
  23. ^ ru:Славянофильство

Sources[edit]

  • Законодательное Собрание Ульяновской области. Закон №126-ЗО от 3 октября 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ульяновской области», в ред. Закона №182-ЗО от 2 октября 2013 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 10 Закона Ульяновской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ульяновской области"». Опубликован: "Ульяновская правда", №77 (22.513), 6 октября 2006 г. (Legislative Assembly of Ulyanovsk Oblast. Law #126-ZO of October 3, 2006 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Ulyanovsk Oblast, as amended by the Law #182-ZO of October 2, 2013 On Amending Article 10 of the Law of Ulyanovsk Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Ulyanovsk Oblast". ).
  • Законодательное Собрание Ульяновской области. Закон №043-ЗО от 13 июля 2004 г. «О муниципальных образованиях Ульяновской области», в ред. Закона №98-ЗО от 20 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Ульяновской области "О муниципальных образованиях Ульяновской области" и Закон Ульяновской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ульяновской области"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Деловой Вестник", №78(2818), 20 июля 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Ulyanovsk Oblast. Law #043-ZO of July 13, 2004 On the Municipal Formations of Ulyanovsk Oblast, as amended by the Law #98-ZO of July 20, 2012 On Amending the Law of Ulyanovsk Oblast "On the Municipal Formations of Ulyanovsk Oblast" and the Law of Ulyanovsk Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Ulyanovsk Oblast". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication.).

External links[edit]