Simin Daneshvar

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Simin Dāneshvar
سیمین دانشور
Simin Daneshvar.jpg
Born (1921-04-28)28 April 1921
Shiraz, Persia (Iran)
Died 8 March 2012(2012-03-08) (aged 90)[1]
Tehran, Iran (Persia)[2]
Nationality Iranian
Alma mater University of Tehran
Occupation Academic, novelist, fiction writer, literary translator
Spouse(s) Jalal Al-e-Ahmad (1950−1969, his death)

Simin Dāneshvar[3] (Persian: سیمین دانشور‎)‎ (28 April 1921 – 8 March 2012) was an Iranian[4] academic, novelist, fiction writer and translator, largely regarded as the first major Iranian woman novelist. Daneshvar had a number of firsts to her credit. In 1948, her collection of Persian short stories was the first by an Iranian woman to be published. The first novel by an Iranian woman was her Savushun ("Mourners of Siyâvash", also known as A Persian Requiem,[5] 1969), which went on to become a bestseller. Daneshvar's Playhouse, a collection of five stories and two autobiographical pieces, is the first volume of translated stories by an Iranian woman author.[6]

Biography[edit]

Early life[edit]

Simin Daneshvar was born on 28 April 1921 in Shiraz, Persia. Her father, Mohammad Ali Danesvhar, was a physician. Her mother was a painter. Daneshvar attended the English bilingual school, Mehr Ain. Daneshvar entered the Persian literature department at the University of Tehran in the fall of 1938. In 1941, her third year of university, her father died, and to support herself she began writing pieces for Radio Tehran as the "Nameless Shirazi." She wrote about cooking and food as well as other things. She also began writing for the foreign affairs section of a newspaper in Tehran, since she could translate from English.

Literary career[edit]

In 1948, when she was 27, she published Atash-e khamoosh (Quenched fire). It was the first collection of short stories published by a woman in Iran, and as such gave her a measure of fame, but in later years Daneshvar refused to republish the work because she was embarrassed by the juvenile quality of the writing.[citation needed] Daneshvar continued studying at the university. Her Ph.D. dissertation, "Beauty as Treated in Persian Literature," was approved in 1949 under the supervision of Professor Badiozzaman Forouzanfar. In 1950, Daneshvar married the well-known Iranian writer Jalal Al-e Ahmad. In 1952, she traveled to the United States as a Fulbright Fellow working on creative writing at Stanford University with Wallace Stegner. While there, she wrote in English and published two short stories. When she returned to Iran, she joined the faculty at University of Tehran.

Though she was an exceptional teacher, SAVAK prevented her from ever reaching the status of professor.[citation needed] She had to translate many books in order to support her household, often was earning more than Jalal. In 1961 she published "Shahri chun behesht" (A city like paradise), twelve years after her first short story collection. In 1963 she attended the Harvard University International Summer Session, a seminar of 40 members from around the world. In 1968, she became the chairwoman of the Iranian Writers Union.[7] In 1969, her novel, Suvashun, was published. Her husband died that same year, in their summer home on the Caspian Sea. They had no children. Daneshvar continued teaching until 1981,[7] when she retired. Since then, she has devoted herself to writing.

Death[edit]

Daneshvar was hospitalized in Tehran for acute respiratory problems in 2005. She was released after one month in August 2005. She died at her home in Tehran on 8 March 2012 after a bout with influenza.[8] Her body was buried on 11 March at Behesht-e Zahra. (It had been announced that her body would be buried in Firouzabadi mosque in Ray next to her husband, Jalal Al-e-Ahmad, but this was later denied.)

Works[edit]

As an author and translator, Daneshvar wrote sensitively about the Iranian woman and her life.

Daneshvar's most successful work, Savushun,[9][10] a novel about settled and tribal life in and around her home-town of Shiraz, was published in 1969. One of the best-selling Persian novels, it has undergone at least sixteen reprints and has been translated into many languages. She also contributed to the periodicals Sokhan and Alefba.

In 1981, she completed a monograph on Jalal Al-e Ahmad, Ghoroub-e Jalal (The sunset of Jalal's days).

Daneshvar's stories reflect reality rather than fantasy. They contain themes such as child theft, adultery, marriage, childbirth, sickness, death, treason, profiteering, illiteracy, ignorance, poverty and loneliness. The issues she deals with are the social problems of the 1960s and 1970s, which have immediacy and credibility for the reader. Her inspiration is drawn from the people around her. In her own words: "Simple people have much to offer. They must be able to give freely and with peace of mind. We, too, in return, must give to them to the best of our abilities. We must , with all our heart , try to help them acquire what they truly deserve."[11]

Novels[edit]

  • Savushun (1969)
  • Selection [Entekhāb] (2007)
  • the trilogy Wandering [Sargardāni]
    • Wandering Island (Island of Wandering) [Jazire-ye Sargardāni] (1992)
    • Wandering Cameleer [Sāreban-e Sargardān] (2001)
    • Wandering Mountain [Kuh-e Sargardān] (never published, unknown reason)*[12]

Short Story Collections[edit]

  • The Quenched Fire [Atash-e Khamoosh] (1948)
  • A City Like Paradise [Shahri Chun Behesht] (1961)
  • To Whom Shall I Say Hello? [Be Ki Salaam Konam?] (1980)

Translations[edit]

Translations of Daneshvar's work[edit]

  • In English, Savushun' has been translated by M. R. Ghanoonparvar (1990) and, under the title A Persian Requiem, by Roxane Zand (1992).
  • Daneshvar's Playhouse, a collection of short stories that includes "The Loss of Jalal", is translated and arranged by Maryam Mafi (1989).
  • Sutra and Other Stories, a collection of short stories (1994).
  • Translation into Spanish: El bazar Vakil, Grupo Editorial Norma, Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia, 1992. Work by Hernardo Valencia Goekel, from the English version called Daneshvar's Playhouse (1989).
  • Translation into German: Drama der Trauer - Savushun. Glaré Verlag, Frankfurt/Main 1997.
  • In India, Savushun is translated into Malayalam by S.A.Qudsi.
  • In Norway: "En familie fra Shiraz" translated into Norwegian by N. Zandjani. Gyldendal Norsk forlag. Oslo 2007.
  • Also Japanese, Russian, Chinese, and Turkish.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ from ebi amirhosseini (1921-04-28). "Simin Daneshvar: Influential author has died". Iranian.com. Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  2. ^ "سیمین دانشور درسن 90 سالگی درگذشت" (in Persian). Hamshahri Online. 8 March 2012.
  3. ^ Simin (سیمین) means "silvery, lustrous" or "fair", and dāneshvar (دانشور) is a combination of dānesh (دانش) "knowledge, science" and var (ور), a suffix indicative of one's profession or vocation, the combined form meaning "learned person, scholar".
  4. ^ The iconic Persian writer Simin Daneshvar Passes Away in Tehran
  5. ^ A Persian Requiem by Simin Daneshvar
  6. ^ Daneshvar's Playhouse: A Collection of Stories - Fiction Books Translated from Persian From Iran
  7. ^ a b c Lerch, Wolfgang Günter (March 10, 2012). "Die Erste: Zum Tod der Dichterin Simin Daneschwar". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German) (60): 33. 
  8. ^ NYT Obituary: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/17/books/simin-daneshvar-iranian-author-and-translator-dies-at-90.html
  9. ^ In the introduction to Savushun: A novel about modern Iran (Mage Publishers, Washington, D.C., 1991), one reads: "Savushun, the title of the novel, is a folk tradition, surviving in Southern Iran from an undatable pre-Islamic past, that conjures hope in spite of everything."
  10. ^ The word Savushun (سووشون) is said to have its root in the word Sug-e Siyāvoshān (سوگ سياوشان), where sug (سوگ) means "lamentation" and Siyāvoshān, "pertaining to Siyāvosh" (or Siyāvash), a male character from Ferdowsi's Shahnameh who symbolises selflessness and innocence. Thus Sug-e Siyāvoshān is a lamentation in remembrance of the unjust killing of Siyāvosh. The writer of these lines has found a reference in Persian that presents a quotation from Xenophon's Cyropaedia indicating that Sug-e Siyāvoshān has its origin in a lamentation song that Cyrus the Great has sung for his slain Hyrcanian soldiers. This writer has however not been able to trace this quotation in the English translation of Xenophon's Cyropaedia. The last-mentioned Persian quotation is as follows:
    "کورش از کشته شدن سربازان طبري و طالشي مغموم شد و براي مرگ سربازان مازندراني و طالشي سرودي خواند و اين همان سرودي است که در ادوار بعد در مراسم موسوم به 'مرگ سياوش' خوانده مي شد."
    In the first part of the above sentence, reference is made to slain Tabari (i.e. Hyrcanian) and Talyshi soldiers, and in the second part, to slain Mazandarani and Talyshi soldiers. Further, this text explicitly refers to "Death of Siyāvosh" (مرگ سياوش). For completeness, Tabarestān is the earlier name of the present-day Māzandrān Province, although some Eastern regions of the old Tabarestān are at present parts of the present-day Khorasan Province.
  11. ^ Maryam Mafi, afterword to Daneshvar's Playhouse, pp. 179-180
  12. ^ More info at "Kuh-e Sargardān" article, Persian Wikipedia

External links[edit]