Simmering (Vienna)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Simmering
11th District of Vienna
Coat of arms of Simmering
Coat of arms
Location of the district within Vienna
Location of the district within Vienna
Country Austria
City Vienna
Government
 • District Director Renate Angerer (SPÖ)
 • First Deputy Eduard Leitenmaier (SPÖ)
 • Second Deputy Paul-Johann Stadler (FPÖ)
 • Representation
   (52 Members)
SPÖ 27, FPÖ 18, ÖVP 4,
Greens 3
Area
 • Total 23.23 km2 (8.97 sq mi)
Population (2014-01-01)[1]
 • Total 93,440
 • Density 4,000/km2 (10,000/sq mi)
Postal code A-1110
Address of
District Office
Enkplatz 2
A-1110 Wien
Website
         www.wien.gv.at/bezirke/simmering/

Simmering is the 11th district of Vienna, Austria (German: 11. Bezirk, Simmering). It borders the Danube and was established as a district in 1892.[2] Simmering has several churches, some museums, schools, old castles, and many cemeteries.[2]

Saints Peter and Paul Church in Kaiserebersdorf

History[edit]

The first indications of the settlement Simmering are from 1028. A brewery was built in 1605 and continued to bring in revenue for the area for more than 300 years. Simmering remained small until 1860, when the Rinnböckhäuser housing development was built, which at the time was the second-largest in Vienna, and resulted in rapid growth in the area.

Kaiserebersdorf (earlier known as Ebersdorf) was one of the original villages in the district and held the residence of the Ebendorfer dynasty. Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II hunted frequently in the area and converted the residence into the hunting lodge Schloss Neugebäude.

On January 1, 1892, Simmering, Kaiserebersdorf, and some very small parts of Kledering, Schwechat, and Albern were incorporated into Vienna as the 11th district.

The first indications of the small town of Albern originate from 1162. The town was small throughout its history. It had to be moved and resettled twice due to flooding from the Danube. On October 15, 1938, the town was moved to the former 23rd district of Schwechat. But after World War II, it was moved to the 2nd district Leopoldstadt so that its refineries would belong to the Soviet-occupied quarter of Vienna. In 1955, in the Austrian State Treaty it became part of Simmering.

Coat of arms[edit]

The coat of arms for the 11th district has three parts, each representing one of the former villages that were united to form the district. The silver "S" on a blue background stands for the former village of Simmering. The rearing unicorn on a golden background stands for Kaiserebersdorf and comes from the coat of arms of the Herr von Hintperg-Ebersdorf, who originally founded the settlement. The third part shows the symbol of the former village of Albern. The crossed fish on red background are reminiscent of the fishing tradition that was important to the people of Albern.

Geography[edit]

St. Laurenz Kirche in the Simmeringer Friedhof

The district lies in the southern part of Vienna. It borders the Danube and Danube Canal to the east and the East railway to the west. Of all the districts, Simmering is the lowest district in terms of elevation. It also contains an unusually large number of cemeteries, one notable one being the Zentralfriedhof.

Transportation[edit]

Simmering has always been on important transport routes to the south and east. These include the following:

Politics[edit]

District Directors since 1945
Eduard Pantucek (SPÖ) 4/1945-7/1945
Max Wopenka (SPÖ) 1945–1952
Josef Haas (SPÖ) 1952–1964
Wilhelm Weber (SPÖ) 1964–1973
Johann Paulas (SPÖ) 1973–1980
Otto Mraz (SPÖ) 1980–1989
Franz Haas (SPÖ) 1989–2001
Otmar Brix (SPÖ) 2001–2003
Renate Angerer (SPÖ) 2003-

Simmering was a stronghold for social democrats as early as the start of the 20th century. In the district vote of 1919, the social democrats won 21 positions in the district government, with the Christian Social Party taking the next largest vote with only 7 seats and the Tschechische Liste (literally Czech list) taking 2 seats. The social democrats of Simmering and of the rest of the so-called "Rotes Wien" (Red Vienna) pushed to build housing developments throughout Vienna and in 1934, 19 Gemeindebauten were built in Simmering.

The rise of Nazism in Vienna was hardly acknowledged in the vote of Simmering, as the party took only 7.2% of the vote in 1932, the worst outcome in the whole city. Even after 1945, the Social Democratic Party (SPÖ) continued to dominate the votes. In the mid-1990s, the SPÖ fell from 59% to 48% of the vote and lost their majority, with the Freedom Party (FPÖ) gaining support to 31% of the vote. The trend reversed itself in 2001, and the SPÖ retook 59.22% of the vote, FPÖ took 21.37%, Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) had 9.82%, the Greens had 6.77%, and the Liberal Forum barely took a seat with 2.02% of the vote.

Infrastructure[edit]

The 11th district has always been known for its industries. In the 19th century, Simmering generated and supplied the electricity for the Straßenbahnen (trams) of Vienna and also had a gas works to supply the city with town gas for its lights. The gas works produced natural gas from 1899 to 1978, but today serves as a distribution post for natural gas brought in. There were huge 70-meter tall gas tanks on the premises, called the Gasometer (featured in the James Bond film The Living Daylights). Reconstruction in 2001 converted the structures from containers to buildings that today house apartments, offices, a shopping centre, and a cinema. The towers of the Gasometer have ranked next to the Zentralfriedhof as a landmark of the 11th district.

The district also hosts other municipal infrastructure, including the EBS (special material recycling center), a sewage treatment facility that treats about 90% of the city's sewage, and also a juvenile detention center.

Gardens[edit]

A scene at the Zentralfriedhof
Gasometer in Simmering

Simmering is home to many large undeveloped stretches of greenery and fields full of vegetable gardens that provide produce for the city.

Industry[edit]

Many industries call Simmering home, including Simmering-Graz-Pauker (SGP, rail car manufacturer), Steyr (armory, weapons, and military vehicle manufacturer), Hoerbiger (compression valve manufacturer), and other companies in the electrical and pharmaceutical industries.

Cultural and medial reflection[edit]

1979 Simmering a poetic documentary film about Simmering was released by Alexander Schukoff and Reinhard Kofler.

Famous people from Simmering[edit]

Sightseeing[edit]

Aerial photo showing the central marshalling yard, the central cemetery, the Simmering power station, and the river Danube in the background
Cemetery of the Nameless

The following are points of interest: [2]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Statistik Austria – Bevölkerung zu Jahresbeginn seit 2002 nach Politischen Bezirken", Statistik Austria.
  2. ^ a b c Wien.gv.at Simmering webpage.

References[edit]

[Parts of this article were translated from German Wikipedia.]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 48°10′26″N 16°24′58″E / 48.174°N 16.416°E / 48.174; 16.416