Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr.
|Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr.|
Buckner in Okinawa.
|Born||July 18, 1886|
|Died||June 18, 1945
Okinawa, Empire of Japan
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||1908–1945|
|Commands held||22nd Infantry Regiment
Alaska Defense Command
Tenth United States Army
|Awards||Army Distinguished Service Medal; Purple Heart|
Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. (July 18, 1886 – June 18, 1945) was an American lieutenant general during World War II. He served in the Pacific Theater of Operations and commanded the defences of Alaska early in the war. Following that assignment, he was promoted to command the 10th Army, which conducted the amphibious assault (Operation Iceberg) on the Japanese island of Okinawa. He was killed during the closing days of the Battle of Okinawa by enemy artillery fire, making him the highest-ranking U.S. military officer to have been lost to enemy fire during World War II, and one of two U.S. Army Lieutenant Generals who died in a combat zone, the other being Lieutenant General Leslie J. McNair. Buckner was posthumously promoted to the rank of full four-star general on July 19, 1954 by a Special Act of Congress (Public Law 83-508)
Early life and education
Buckner was the son of Confederate General Simon Bolivar Buckner, Sr. and his wife Delia Claiborne. His father was Governor of Kentucky from 1887 to 1891, and was a minor party's candidate for U.S. Vice President in 1896.[clarification needed]
Buckner was raised near Munfordville, Kentucky, and attended the Virginia Military Institute. He was appointed to West Point (class of 1908) by President Theodore Roosevelt. He served two military tours in the Philippines. During World War I, he served as a temporary major, drilling discipline into aviator cadets.
Between the wars, Buckner returned to West Point as an instructor (1919–1923). He was appointed Commandant of the Virginia Military Institute in 1929 under retired Major General John A. Lejeune, who was the superintendent.[clarification needed]
He was promoted to Lieutenant colonel in 1932 and returned to West Point to serve as Commandant of Cadets (1933–1936). Though recognized as tough and fair, his insistence on developing cadets past conventional limits caused one parent to remark, "Buckner forgets that cadets are born, not quarried." He was also an instructor at the General Service Schools at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and was executive officer at the Army War College in Washington, D.C.. He was promoted to colonel in 1937 and commanded the 66th Infantry for part of that year.
Buckner was promoted to Brigadier General in 1940 and was assigned to fortify and protect Alaska as commander of the Army's Alaska Defense Command. He was promoted to Major General in August 1941. Though comparatively quiet, there was some combat when World War II commenced. The Japanese attacked Alaska in the attack on Dutch Harbor 3–5 June 1942, and seized the islands Kiska and Attu as a diversion. The Battle of Attu, Operation Landcrab, occurred in May 1943, and Kiska was invaded in August, 1943. This constituted the Aleutian Islands campaign. In 1943, he was promoted to Lieutenant General.
Battle of Okinawa
In July 1944, Buckner was sent to Hawaii to organize the 10th Army, which was composed of both Army and Marine units. The original mission of the 10th Army was to prepare for the invasion of Taiwan; however, this operation was canceled, and Buckner's command was instead ordered to prepare for the Battle of Okinawa. This turned out to be the largest, slowest, and bloodiest sea-land-air battle in American military history. According to an eyewitness account, on June 18, 1945, Buckner had arrived in his command jeep which was flying its standard 3 star flag, to inspect a forward observation post. Visits from the general were not always welcome as his presence frequently drew enemy fire, which usually happened as General Buckner was departing. Buckner had arrived with his standard bright three stars showing on his steel helmet and a nearby Marine outpost sent a signal to Buckner's position stating that they could clearly see the general's three stars on his helmet. Told of this, Buckner replaced his own helmet with an unmarked one. However, a small  flat trajectory Japanese artillery projectile of unknown caliber (estimated 47mm) struck a coral rock outcropping next to the general and fragments entered his chest. Buckner was carried by stretcher to a nearby aid station, where he died on the operating table. He was succeeded in command by Marine General Roy Geiger. Total American deaths during the battle of Okinawa were 12,513.
Buckner was married to Adele Blanc Buckner (1893–1988). They had three children: Simon Bolivar Buckner III, Mary Blanc Buckner, and William Claiborne Buckner.
Named in honor of Buckner:
- Fort Buckner, an Army sub-post of the Marine Corps' Camp Foster on Okinawa, is home to the 58th Signal Battalion and includes a small memorial to its namesake.
- USNS General Simon B. Buckner (T-AP-123), an Admiral W. S. Benson class troop transport.
- Nakagusuku Bay on the East side of Okinawa was nicknamed "Buckner Bay" in the 1940s by American military personnel. They often refer to it as such to this day, even in official correspondence. 
- West Point's Camp Buckner, where yearlings (incoming sophomores) go through Cadet Field Training (CFT).
- Several places built in Alaska during Cold War-related military construction, including:
- Buckner Gymnasium (also Fieldhouse and Physical Fitness Center) at Fort Richardson (now part of Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson) in Anchorage, Alaska, a post which the general established during World War II.
- The Buckner Building in Whittier, Alaska, once the largest building in Alaska by square footage.
- Buckner Drive in the Nunaka Valley subdivision of Anchorage, originally built as military housing.
- Buckner Drive in Fort Leavenworth's Normandy Village.
- Buckner Gate at Fort Shafter, Hawaii.
- Sarantakes p. 129
- Buck's Battle, Time Magazine
- Ricks, Thomas E. (2012). The Generals. New York City: The Penguin Press. ISBN 978-1-59420-404-3.
- Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr
- PFC Harry M. Sarkisian, 8th Marine Regiment
- Marine Corps Gazette, p.103
- Military Vol XVII, pp22 & 23
- The Patriot Files: "Fort Buckner"
- US Navy Typhoon Havens Handbook: "Buckner Bay"
- "Tour Fort Shafter, Hawaii". Archived from the original on 26 February 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
- Sarantakes, Nicholas (Editor) (2004). Seven Stars, The Okinawa Battle Diaries of Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr. and Joseph Stilwell. Texas A & M University Press, College Station. ISBN 978-1-58544-294-2.
- Sledge, Eugene B. (1990). With the Old Breed: At Peleliu and Okinawa. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-506714-9.
- "Buck's Battle". Time Magazine. 1945-04-16. Retrieved 2008-08-31.
- Haley, J. Fred (November 1982). "The Death of General Simon Bolivar Buckner". Marine Corps Gazette: 103.
- McKenney, Tom C (June 2000). "Lt. Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner's death". Military. No. 1 XVII: 22,23.
- Papers of Simon Bolivar Buckner Jr., Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library
- Family Home Page
- His monument at Kuniyoshi, Itoman city Okinawa, where he died.
- Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. at Find a Grave
- USNS General Simon B. Buckner (T-AP-123)
- General Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. Deadeyes 96th Infantry Division
Newly activated organization
|Commanding General of the Tenth United States Army