Map showing Simoradz in gmina Dębowiec
|Area||6.9537 km2 (2.6848 sq mi)|
|• Density||140/km2 (370/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
The village lies in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia, on one of hills of Silesian Foothills, which height is 350 meters above mean sea level. Its name originates from old Moravian language "sim oradz", meaning to till a land.
It was first mentioned in a written document from 1286, which recalls the local parson who was supposed to read a curse on Henryk IV Probus in the church in Racibórz. Around 1300 the village was recolonised from Polish rights to German rights. It was again mentioned in a Latin document of Diocese of Wrocław called Liber fundationis episcopatus Vratislaviensis from around 1305 as Semoraz. It belonged then to the Duchy of Teschen, formed in 1290, and until the 16th century it belonged directly to Cieszyn dukes, then to noble families. The current Saint James church was built in 15th century. During Protestant Reformation many of the local citizens changed their denomination to Lutheranism and took over the local church. It was returned to Catholics in 1654. The first school in Simoradz was established in 1763, and waited to 1793 for a dedicated building next to the church. The Revolutions of 1848 brought many changes. Feudalism was abolished, the village was organised into a municipality ruled by an elected vogt. The first vogt was chosen to be Paweł Ciemała. In 1873 the new vogt was Ludwik Rużiczka, a merchant from Wien, who changed the official language of the gemeinde to German. Rużiczka was replaced by Jerzy Raszka in 1888, who made back Polish language official in municipality. He also wrote down a memoir of the municipality. A new school was built in 1903.
According to the Austrian census of 1910 the village had 569 inhabitants, 564 of whom had permanent residence there. The census asked people their native language, and results show that 560 (98,4%) were Polish-speaking, 3 (0.5%) were German-speaking and 1 (0.2%) was Czech-speaking. The dominant religious groups were Protestants with 356 (62.6%), followed by Roman Catholics with 207 (36.4%) and the Jews with 6 (1.1%).
In 28th to 30th of January 1919 the battle between Polish and Czechoslovak troops took place here as part of the border conflicts. Eventually the village became part of the Second Polish Republic. In the years 1926-1928 local Lutherans built a cemetery chapel, since 1995 a Holy Spirit Church.
- Panic, Idzi (2010). Śląsk Cieszyński w średniowieczu (do 1528) [Cieszyn Silesia in Middle Ages (until 1528)] (in Polish). Cieszyn: Starostwo Powiatowe w Cieszynie. p. 297. ISBN 978-83-926929-3-5.
- Ludwig Patryn (ed): Die Ergebnisse der Volkszählung vom 31. Dezember 1910 in Schlesien, Troppau 1912.
- Michna, Gustaw (2010). Z przeszłości Simoradza. Simoradz: Galeria "Na Gojach". ISBN 978-83-60551-26-4.
- Official website (Polish)
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