|Estado Libre y Soberano de Sinaloa|
State of Sinaloa within Mexico
|Largest City||Culiacán Rosales|
|Admission||October 14, 1830|
|• Governor||Irma Marquez Trapero|
|• Senators||Francisco Labastida
Margarita Villaescusa (I)
|• Total||57,365 km2 (22,149 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||2,520 m (8,270 ft)|
|• Density||49/km2 (130/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||18th|
|Time zone||MST (UTC−7)|
|• Summer (DST)||MDT (UTC−6)|
|ISO 3166 code||MX-SIN|
|HDI||0.764 very high Ranked 8th|
|GDP||US$ 13,749,376.25 th[a]|
|Website||Official Web Site|
|^ a. The state's GDP was $175,992,016 thousand of pesos in 2008, amount corresponding to $13,749,376.25 thousand of dollars, being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010).|
Sinaloa ( sinaˈloa (help·info)), officially Free and Sovereign State of Sinaloa (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Sinaloa), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 18 municipalities and its capital city is Culiacán Rosales.
It is located in Northwestern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Sonora to the north, Chihuahua and Durango to the east (separated from them by the Sierra Madre Occidental) and Nayarit to the south. To the west, Sinaloa has a significant share of coastline on the Gulf of California.
The state covers an area of 57,377 square kilometers (22,153 sq mi), and includes the Islands of Palmito Verde, Palmito de la Virgen, Altamura, Santa María, Saliaca, Macapule and San Ignacio.
In 1531 Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán with a force of over 10,000 defeated a force of 30,000 Cáhita at the site of Culiacan. Beltran de Guzman established a Spanish and allied Indian outpost at Culiacan. Over the next decade, the Cáhita suffered severe depopulation from smallpox and other diseases the Spanish brought.
The Spanish organized Sinaloa as part of the gobierno of Nueva Galicia. In 1564, the area was realigned: the area of Culiacan and Cosala remained in the control of Nueva Galicia, while the areas to the north, south and west were put in the newly formed Nueva Vizcaya, making the Culiacan area an exclave of Nueva Galicia. The first capital of Nueva Vizcaya was located in San Sebastian, Sinaloa, near Copala, but the capital moved to Durango, Durango in 1583.
Starting in 1599, Jesuit missionaries spread out from a base at what is now Sinaloa de Leyva, and by 1610, the Spanish influence had been extended to the northern edge of Sinaloa. In 1601, the Jesuits' movement into the eastern part of Sinaloa led to the Acaxee going to war. The Spanish eventually managed to reassert authority in the Sierra Madre and executed 48 Acaxee leaders.
After Mexican independence, Sinaloa was joined with Sonora as Occidente State, but it became a separate state in 1830.
Geography and environment
The coastal plain is a narrow strip of land that stretches along the length of the state and lies between the ocean and the foothills of the Sierra Madre Occidental Range, which dominates the eastern part of the state. Sinaloa is traversed by many rivers, which carve broad valleys into the foothills. The largest of these rivers are the Culiacán, Fuerte, and Sinaloa.
Sinaloa has a warm climate on the coastal side, moderately warm in the valleys and foothills, moderately cold in the lower mountains and cold in the higher elevations. Its weather characteristics vary from subtropical, found on the plains, to cold in the nearby mountains. Temperatures range from 22 °C (72 °F) to 43 °C (109 °F) with rains during the summer.
Culturally, it is known for a style of music known as banda, and corrido is also popular. It is the only place in the continent where the ancient ball game of Mesoamerica is still played, in a handful of small, rural communities not far from Mazatlán. The ritual ball game was central in the society, religion and cosmology of all the great Mesoamerican cultures including the Mixtecs, Aztecs, and Maya.
The Sinaloa version of the ball game is called ulama, and is very similar to the original. There are efforts to avoid the extinction of this 3500-year old unique tradition by supporting the communities and children who still play it.
Famous entertainers from Sinaloa have included the actress/comedienne/singer Sheyla Tadeo, born in Culiacan; actors Pedro Infante, Jorge Orta and Sabine Moussier, Mazatlan natives all; and actress/singer Lorena Herrera, also born in Mazatlan.
The negative present-day cultural impact of the Sinaloa Cartel (Cártel de Sinaloa or CDS) needs to be mentioned; the cartel is reportedly the largest drug trafficking, money laundering and organized crime syndicate in the Western hemisphere, based in the city of Culiacán, Sinaloa,
According to the 2010 census, Sinaloa is home to 2,767,761 inhabitants, 61% of which reside in the capital city of Culiacán and the municipalities of Mazatlán and Ahome. It is a young state in terms of population, 56% of which is younger than 30 years.
Other demographic particulars report 87% of the state following the Catholic faith; 1% of those over five years of age speaking an indigenous language together with Spanish; the main indigenous ethnic groups still residing in the state are the Mixtecs and Mayo, followed by the Nahuatl and the Zapotecs. Life expectancy in the state follows the national tendency of higher rates for women than men, a difference of almost five years in the case of Sinaloa, at 72.5 and 77.4 years respectively.
In ethnic composition, Sinaloa has received large historic waves of immigration from Europe and Asia (mainly China, Japan and the Philippines), and more recent retirees from the U.S. and Canada. Coastal towns and communities have some persons of British–Irish, French, German, Greek, Italian, and Russian ancestry. There was also a sizable influx of Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews.
In terms of education, average schooling reaches 8.5 years; 7% of those over 15 years of age are illiterate, and 5% of children under 14 years of age do not attend school.
Institutions of higher education include Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Sinaloa, Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Campus Mazatlán and Universidad Casa Blanca.
The main productive activities of Sinaloa are agriculture, fishing, livestock breeding, commerce and industry. The products obtained from these activities are used for both local and national consumption. Agriculture produces tomatoes, beans, corn, wheat, sorghum, potatoes, soybeans, sugarcane and squash. Sinaloa is the most prominent state in Mexico in terms of agriculture, and additionally has the second largest fishing fleet. Livestock produces meat, sausages, cheese and milk also sour creme. Cannabis and Opium are also cultivated in high quantities in this region.
Government and politics
The current governor of Sinaloa is Mario López Valdez (PAN), elected for the period 2011–2016. The state is represented in Mexico City by three Senators in the upper house of Mexican Congress: Francisco Labastida Ochoa (PRI), Margarita Villaescusa (Independent) and María Serrano (PAN). It also has fourteen federal deputies in the lower house.
Notable and infamous natives or residents
- "Ley. Reglas para la división del Estado de Sonora y Sinaloa" (in Spanish).
- "Senadores por Sinaloa LXI Legislatura". Senado de la Republica. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
- "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de Sinaloa". Camara de Diputados. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
- "Resumen". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
- "ENOE". Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- "Mexico en Cifras". INEGI. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
- "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso mexicano.". www.pesomexicano.com.mx. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
- Peter Gerhard, The Northern Frontier of New Spain (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982) p. 245
- John Schmal, "The History of Indigenous Sinaloa"
- C.Michael Hogan. 2009
- "The Game". Mesoamerican Heritage Chapter of the Asociacion de Gestores del Patrimonio Historico y Cultural de Mazatlan. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
- Asociacion de Gestores del Patrimonio Historico y Cultural de Mazatlan. 2009
- "Sinaloa Cartel Influence is Steadily Growing In Tijuana". Borderland Beat. 23 February 2011.
- "Mexico's Sinaloa gang grows empire, defies crackdown". Reuters. 19 January 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
- "Mexico: extended population list". GeoHive. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
- "México en cifras". INEGI. Retrieved 2012-02-02.
- C. Michael Hogan. 2009. Elephant Tree: Bursera microphylla, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg
- Asociacion de Gestores del Patrimonio Historico y Cultural de Mazatlán. 2009. The Mesoamerican Ballgame-Ulama
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
- Official website (Spanish)
- The History of Indigenous Sinaloa
- PBS Frontline: The place Mexico's drug kingpins call home
|Gulf of California||Durango|