Sinclair Research

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Sinclair Research Ltd
Type Limited company
Industry Computing
Electronics
Founded Cambridge, England (1973)
Headquarters London, England
Key people Sir Clive Sinclair, Founder
Nigel Searle, Director (1979 to 1986)
Jim Westwood
Rick Dickinson, Designer
Products Sinclair ZX Spectrum
Sinclair QL
Revenue £102 million GBP (1985)
Employees 140 (1980s)
3 (1990)
1 (1997)
Website Sinclair Research

Sinclair Research Ltd is a British consumer electronics company founded by Sir Clive Sinclair in Cambridge. Originally incorporated in 1973 as Ablesdeal Ltd. and renamed to Westminster Mail Order Ltd and then Sinclair Instrument Ltd. in 1975, it remained dormant until 1976, when it was activated with the intention of continuing Sinclair's commercial work from his earlier company Sinclair Radionics; it adopted the name Sinclair Research in 1981.

In 1980, Clive Sinclair entered the home computer market with the ZX80 at £99.95, at the time the cheapest personal computer for sale in the UK. In 1982 the ZX Spectrum was released, later becoming Britain's best selling computer, competing aggressively against Commodore and Amstrad.

At the height of its success, and largely inspired by the Japanese Fifth Generation Computer program, the company established the "MetaLab" research center at Milton Hall (near Cambridge), in order to pursue artificial intelligence, wafer-scale integration, formal verification and other advanced projects. The combination of the failures of the Sinclair QL computer and the TV80 led to financial difficulties in 1985, and a year later Sinclair sold the rights to their computer products and brand name to Amstrad.[1] Sinclair Research Ltd still exists today as a one man company, continuing to market Sir Clive Sinclair's newest inventions.

History[edit]

Profit and turnover data[2]
Period Profit Turnover
1980 Increase £131,000 £640,000
1981 Increase £818,000 £4.6m
1982 Increase £8.55m £27.17m
1983 Increase £13.8m £54.53m
1984 Increase £14.28m £77.69m
1985 Decrease −£18m £102m
1988 to 1989 Decrease −£183,015 £7,825
1989 to 1990 Increase £618,389 £4,754
1989 to 1990 Decrease −£271,734 £5,486
1991 to 1992 Decrease −£592,600 £1,115
1992 to 1993 Decrease −£169,197 £379,836
1993 to 1994 Decrease −£194,826 £510,943
1994 to 1995 Decrease −£303,630 £435,742
1995 to 1996 Decrease −£122,873 £255,826

Founding and early years[edit]

On 25 July 1961, Clive Sinclair founded his first company, Sinclair Radionics Ltd. in Cambridge. Sinclair Radionics developed hi-fi products, radios, calculators and scientific instruments. When it became clear that Radionics was failing, he took steps to ensure that he would be able to continue to pursue his commercial goals: in February 1975, he changed the name of Ablesdeal Ltd. (an off-the-shelf company he bought in September 1973 for just such an eventuality) to Westminster Mail Order Ltd; this was changed to Sinclair Instrument Ltd in August 1975.

Finding it inconvenient to share control after the National Enterprise Board became involved in Radionics in 1976, Sinclair encouraged Chris Curry, who had been working for Radionics since 1966, to leave and get Sinclair Instrument up and running. The company's first product was a watch-like Wrist Calculator.

Development of the ZX80[edit]

In July 1977, Sinclair Instrument Ltd was renamed Science of Cambridge Ltd. Around the same time, Ian Williamson showed Chris Curry a prototype microcomputer based on a National Semiconductor SC/MP microprocessor and parts from a Sinclair calculator. Curry was impressed and encouraged Sinclair to adopt this as a product. In June 1978, Science of Cambridge launched the microcomputer in kit form as the MK14.

In May 1979, Jim Westwood, Sinclair's chief engineer, designed a new microcomputer based on the Zilog Z80 microprocessor. Sinclair Instrument Ltd introduced this computer as the ZX80 in February 1980, as both a kit and ready-built.[3]

In November 1979, Science of Cambridge Ltd was renamed Sinclair Computers Ltd.

Commercial success and home computers[edit]

ZX Spectrum (1982)

In March 1981, Sinclair Computers was renamed Sinclair Research Ltd and the Sinclair ZX81 was launched. In February 1982 Timex Corporation obtained a license to manufacture and market Sinclair's computers in the USA under the name Timex Sinclair. In April the ZX Spectrum was launched. In July Timex launched the TS 1000 (a version of the ZX81) in the United States. In March 1982 Sinclair made an £8.55m profit on turnover of £27.17m, including £383,000 government grants for flat screen.

In 1982 Clive Sinclair converted the Barker & Wadsworth mineral water bottling factory at 25 Willis Road, Cambridge, into the company's new headquarters. It was sold to Cambridgeshire County Council in December 1985 due to Sinclair's finance troubles.

In January 1983 the ZX Spectrum personal computer was presented at the Las Vegas Consumer Electronics Show. In September the Sinclair TV80 pocket television was launched, but was a commercial failure.

In 1983 the company bought Milton Hall in the village of Milton, Cambridgeshire, for £2m, establishing their MetaLab research and development facility there.

In late 1983 Timex decided to pull out of the Timex Sinclair venture, which had failed to break the United States market as expected due to strong competition. However Timex computers continued to be produced for several years in other countries. Timex Portugal launched improved versions, the TS 2048 and 2068. They also developed and launched the FDD 3000, a floppy disk system, that was not well received by the market.

Mid-1980s developments[edit]

The Sinclair QL was announced on 12 January 1984, shortly before the Apple Macintosh actually went on sale.[4] It suffered from several design flaws,[5] and Your Sinclair noted that it was "difficult to find a good word for Sinclair Research in the computer press".

Fully working QLs were not available until late summer; complaints against Sinclair regarding delays were upheld by the Advertising Standards Authority in May of the year (in 1982 it had upheld complaints about delays in shipping Spectrums). Especially severe were allegations that it was cashing cheques months before machines were shipped. The QL was nowhere near as successful as Sinclair's earlier computers. In the autumn Sinclair were still publicly predicting it would be a "million seller", with 250,000 sold by the end of the year.[6] QL production was suspended in February 1985, and the price was halved by the end of the year.[7]

The ZX Spectrum+, a repackaged ZX Spectrum with a QL-like keyboard, was launched in October 1984 and appeared on W H Smith's shelves the day after release. Retailers stocked the machine in large numbers in expectation of good Christmas sales. However, the machine did not sell in the numbers expected; because retailers still had unsold stock, Sinclair's income from orders dipped alarmingly in January. The Spectrum+ had the same technical specifications as the original Spectrum. However, an enhanced model, the ZX Spectrum 128, was launched in Spain in September 1985, with development funded by the Spanish distributor Investronica.[8] The UK launch was delayed until January 1986, due to the large unsold stocks of previous models held by retailers.[9]

At the January 1985 Las Vegas Consumer Electronics Show, Sinclair re-entered the United States market, announcing the "FM Wristwatch Radio", an LCD wristwatch with a radio attached.[10] However, the watch had several usage problems and never went into full production.

Sir Clive had long held an interest in electric vehicles, and during the early 1980s he worked on the design of a single-seater "personal vehicle", eventually starting a company called Sinclair Vehicles Ltd in March 1983. He launched the Sinclair C5 electric vehicle on 10 January 1985. It was a commercial disaster, selling only 17,000 units and losing Sinclair £7,000,000, with Sinclair Vehicles going into liquidation later the same year. The C5, combined with the failures of the QL and the TV80, caused investors to lose confidence in Sinclair's judgment.

Amstrad acquisition of assets[edit]

Clive Sinclair sold the brand name to Alan Sugar's Amstrad in 1986

On 28 May 1985, Sinclair Research had announced it wanted to raise an extra £10m to £15m to restructure Sinclair Research. Given the loss of confidence in the company, this proved hard to find. In June 1985, business magnate Robert Maxwell announced a takeover of Sinclair Research, through Hollis Brothers, a subsidiary of his Pergamon Press.[11] However the deal was aborted in August 1985.[2]

The future of Sinclair Research remained uncertain until 7 April 1986, when the company sold its entire computer product range and the "Sinclair" brand name to Amstrad for £5 million.[12][13] This deal did not involve the company, merely its name and products.

Sinclair Research was reduced to an R&D business and holding company, with shareholdings in several new "spin-off" companies, formed to exploit technologies developed by the company. These included Anamartic Ltd. (wafer-scale integration), Shaye Communications Ltd. (CT2 mobile telephony) and Cambridge Computer Ltd. (Z88 portable computer and satellite TV receivers).[2]

Return to invention[edit]

Inventors of the A-bike, Sir Clive Sinclair and Alexander Kalogroulis

Since 1986 the company has continued to exist, but in a completely different form. In 1993, 1994 and 1995 Sinclair made continuing losses on decreasing turnover, and began to worry investors since Clive Sinclair himself was using his own personal wealth to fund his inventions. By 1990 Sinclair's entire staff had been reduced to Sinclair himself, a salesman/administrator, and an R&D employee. By 1997 only Sinclair himself was working at his company.

In 1992 the "Zike" electric bicycle was released, Sinclair's second attempt at changing means of transportation. It had a maximum speed of 10 mph (16 km/h), and was only available through mail order. The "Zike" was a commercial failure much like the C5, and sold a total of only 2,000 units.

In 2003 the Sinclair "ZA20 Wheelchair Drive Unit" was introduced, designed and manufactured in conjunction with Hong Kong's Daka Designs, a partnership which also led to the SeaDoo Sea Scooter underwater propulsion unit. In 1999 Sinclair released the world's smallest radio with the "Z1 Micro AM Radio".

On 12 July 2006, the A-bike, a folding bicycle invented by Sir Clive Sinclair, was released and went on sale for £200. It had been originally announced two years previously, in 2004.

In November 2010 Sinclair Research announced [14] the X-1 electric vehicle, to be launched in July 2011 in the UK.[15] However, the product has yet to launch as of July 2014.

Products[edit]

Wrist Calculator

The Wrist Calculator was released by Sinclair Instrument in 1977.[16]

MK14

The MK14 (Microcomputer Kit 14) was a computer kit sold by Science of Cambridge of the United Kingdom, first introduced in 1977 for UK£39.95.

ZX80

The ZX80 home computer was launched in February 1980 at £79.95 in kit form and £99.95 ready-built.[3] In November of the same year Science of Cambridge was renamed Sinclair Computers Ltd.

Timex Sinclair 1000, a U.S. version of the Sinclair ZX81
ZX81

The ZX81 (known as the TS 1000 in the United States) was priced at £49.95 in kit form and £69.95 ready-built, by mail order.

ZX Spectrum (1982)
ZX Spectrum

The ZX Spectrum was launched on 23 April 1982, priced at £125 for the 16 KB RAM version and £175 for the 48 KB version.

TV80

The TV80 was a pocket television. Launched in September 1983. It used a flattened CRT unlike Sinclair's previous portable televisions. The TV80 was a commercial failure selling only 15,000 units and not covering its development costs of £4m.[citation needed]

Sinclair QL

The Sinclair QL was announced in January 1984,[4] priced at £399. Marketed as a more sophisticated 32-bit microcomputer for professional users, it used a Motorola 68008 processor. Production was delayed by several months, due to unfinished development of hardware and software at the time of the QL's launch.[17] Hardware reliability problems and software bugs resulted in the QL acquiring a poor reputation from which it never really recovered.

ZX Spectrum+

The ZX Spectrum+ was a repackaged ZX Spectrum 48K launched in October 1984.

ZX Spectrum 128

The ZX Spectrum 128, with RAM expanded to 128 kB, a sound chip and other enhancements, was launched in Spain in September 1985 and the UK in January 1986, priced at £179.95.[9]

Computer peripherals

Sinclair created various peripherals for their computers including memory expansion modules, the ZX Printer, and the ZX Interface 1 and ZX Interface 2 add-ons for the ZX Spectrum. A number of QL peripherals were developed by other companies but marketed under the Sinclair brand. External storage for the Spectrum was usually on cassette tapes, as was common in the era. Rather than an optional floppy disk drive, Sinclair instead opted to offer their own mass storage system, the ZX Microdrive, a tape-loop cartridge system that was rather unreliable. This was also the primary storage device for the QL.

X1 Button Radio (1997)
X1 Button FM Radio

In June 1997 Sinclair Research released the X1 radio for £9.50. This miniature mono FM radio, powered by a CR2032 battery was inserted in the ear and had a fixed volume. The X1 radio had three buttons, an on/off switch, a Scan button and a Reset to restart the scanning process. It came with a short length of aerial and a detachable ear hook.[18]

Sinclair X-1

In November 2010 Sinclair told The Guardian newspaper that he was working on a new prototype electric vehicle, called the X-1, to be launched within a year. "Technology has moved on quite a bit, there are new batteries available and I just rethought the thing. The C5 was OK, but I think we can do a better job now."[19][20] The X-1 was to have been available on July 2011 at the price of £595,[21] however as of March 2014 the product still has not been released.

Cancelled projects[edit]

The following computer products were under development at Sinclair Research during the 1980s but never reached production:

LC3

Standing for "Low Cost Colour Computer", the LC3 was developed during 1983 by Martin Brennan and was intended to be a cheap Z80-based games console implemented in two chips, using ROM and (non-volatile) RAM cartridges for storage. A multi-tasking OS for the LC3 with a full windowing GUI was designed by Steve Berry. It was cancelled in November 1983 in favor of the QL.[17]

SuperSpectrum

Intended to be a 68008-based home computer, equipped with built-in ZX Microdrive, joystick, RS-232 and ZX Net ports. Sinclair's SuperBASIC programming language was originally intended for this model but was later adopted for the QL. SuperSpectrum was cancelled in 1982 after the specification of the ZX83 (QL) had converged with it.[17] This project is not to be confused with Loki, which was described as the "SuperSpectrum" in an article in the June 1986 issue of Sinclair User magazine.

Pandora

This was to be a portable computer with an integral flat-screen CRT display. Initially to be ZX Spectrum-compatible with a faster Z80 CPU, a built-in ZX Microdrive and a new 512×192-pixel monochrome video mode. Due to the limited size of flat CRT that could be manufactured, a series of folding lenses and mirrors were necessary to magnify the screen image to a usable size. The project was cancelled after the Amstrad take-over; however, the Pandora concept eventually transformed into the Cambridge Computer Z88.[22][23][24]

Loki

This project was intended to create a greatly enhanced ZX Spectrum, possibly rivalling the Commodore Amiga. Loki was to have a 7 MHz Z80H CPU, 128 KiB of RAM and two custom chips providing much enhanced graphics and audio capabilities. After the Amstrad buy-out in 1986, two engineers who had worked on the project, John Mathieson and Martin Brennan, founded Flare Technology to continue their work.[23]

Bob/Florin

According to Rupert Goodwins, this was a project to produce an add-on floppy disk drive for the ZX Spectrum.[25]

Tyche

This codename was assigned to a QL follow-on project running from 1984 to 1986. Among the features associated with Tyche were increased RAM capacity, internal floppy disk drives, the Psion Xchange application suite on ROM, and possibly the GEM GUI.[26]

Janus

This name has been associated with a design concept for a "Super QL" based on wafer-scale integration technology.[23][27]

Proteus

This was rumored to be a hypothetical portable version of the QL similar to Pandora.[28]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ John Minson (May 1986). "Sir Clive Sinclair resigns from the home computer market". CRASH (28). Retrieved 2006-11-12. 
  2. ^ a b c "Sinclair: A Corporate History". Planet Sinclair. Retrieved 2006-12-15. 
  3. ^ a b Clarke, Jerry (October 27, 1980). "Micro Industry in U.K. Shows Stiff Upper Lip". InfoWorld 2 (19): 1, 35. ISSN 0199-6649. 
  4. ^ a b Sue Denham (March 1984). "Sir Clive Makes The Quantum Leap". Your Spectrum (2). Retrieved 2006-04-19. 
  5. ^ "QL News / SinclairWatch". Your Spectrum (5). July 1984. Retrieved 2006-12-15. 
  6. ^ Roger Munford (September 1984). "Circe". Your Spectrum (7). Retrieved 2006-12-15. 
  7. ^ "Timex/Sinclair history". ZQAOnline. Retrieved 2006-12-15. 
  8. ^ "Kept in the Dark". CRASH (22). November 1985. Retrieved 2006-12-15. 
  9. ^ a b "Sinclair ZX Spectrum 128". The Center for Computing History. Retrieved 4 December 2009. 
  10. ^ "FM Wristwatch Radio". Planet Sinclair. Retrieved 2009-12-09. 
  11. ^ "Sinclair to Sell British Unit". The New York Times. 1985-06-18. Retrieved 4 December 2009. 
  12. ^ Graham Kidd (May 1986). "Amstrad has bought Sinclair Research". CRASH (28): 7. Retrieved 2006-08-19. 
  13. ^ "Amstrad axes QL in Sinclair sell out". Sinclair User (50): 7. May 1986. Retrieved 2006-08-19. 
  14. ^ http://www.gizmag.com/sinclair-x1-pedal-electric/16838/ announcement of the X-1
  15. ^ http://www.sinclairzx.com/spec-x-1.html official Sinclair X-1 site
  16. ^ Sinclair Wrist Calculator
  17. ^ a b c Ian Adamson; Richard Kennedy. "The Quantum Leap – to where?". Sinclair and the 'Sunrise' Technology. Retrieved 2006-12-15. 
  18. ^ "Planet Sinclair". Retrieved 12 April 2011. 
  19. ^ Simon Hattenstone, The Guardian (2010-11-13). "Whose bright idea was that?". London. Retrieved 2010-11-13. 
  20. ^ Sinclair Research X-1
  21. ^ Sinclair X-1 Official Web Site
  22. ^ Rupert Goodwins (2002-05-12). "Re: Sinclair Loki Superspectrum". comp.sys.sinclair. Web link. Retrieved 2006-11-23.
  23. ^ a b c "Loki, Janus, Pandora: The Unreleased Sinclair Computers". Planet Sinclair. Retrieved 2006-12-15. 
  24. ^ Rick Dickinson (2007-07-16). "Pandora to Z88". Flickr. Retrieved 2008-04-21. 
  25. ^ Rupert Goodwins (1999-08-18). "Re: Does anyone remember the Spectrum to Spectrum+ upgrade?". comp.sys.sinclair. Web link. Retrieved 2006-11-23.
  26. ^ Tony Tebby. "Q-Emulator 2". "ql-users" mailing list. Retrieved 2006-12-15. 
  27. ^ Rick Dickinson (2007-07-16). "QL and Beyond". Flickr. Retrieved 2008-04-21. 
  28. ^ Rupert Goodwins (1999-10-26). "A little piece of Sinclair history...". comp.sys.sinclair. Web link. Retrieved 2009-05-04.

Further reading[edit]

  • Adamson, Ian; Kennedy, Richard (1986). Sinclair and the "Sunrise" Technology. London: Penguin Books. 224 pp. ISBN 0-14-008774-5.
  • Dale, Rodney (1985). The Sinclair Story. London: Duckworth. 184 pp. ISBN 0-7156-1901-2.
  • Tedeschi, Enrico (1986). Sinclair Archaeology: The Complete Photo Guide to Collectable Models. Portslade: Hove Books. 130 pp. ISBN 0-9527883-0-6.

External links[edit]