Sindh was a province of British India from 1936 to 1947 and Pakistan from 1947 to 1955. Under the British, it encompassed the current territorial limits excluding the princely state of Khairpur with the capital at Karachi. After Pakistan's creation, the province lost the city of Karachi, as it became the capital of the newly created country.
The province was bordered by the Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan to south and east, the princely states of Bahawalpur and Khairpur to the northeast and Karachi and the princely states of Kalat and Las Bela to the west. On the southwest lay the Arabian Sea but the coast was mostly composed of the Indus delta.
After conquest by the British in 1843 Sindh had been part of the Bombay Presidency, however on 1 April 1936 Sindh Division was separated from the Bombay Presidency and made into a province of British India.
By the time of independence in 1947 Sindh had had a Muslim majority for centuries but there were significant minorities of Hindus throughout the province. In 1947 due to communal tensions and the influx of two million Muslim refugees from India many Hindus were forced to flee to India.
The refugees from India were mostly Urdu speakers, and although the official language of Sindh was Sindhi, many schools in big cities of Sindh and switched to Urdu schools.