1st row: Benazir Bhutto, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto
2nd row: Rajkumar Hirani, L.K. Advani
3rd row: Ramesh Sippy
|Regions with significant populations|
|Related ethnic groups|
Some of the places in Sindh have been inhabited as early as the 3rd millennium BC.[by whom?] A large number of Indus valley sites have been found in Sindh. Sindh was ruled by local Hindu and Buddhist rulers until 712 CE, when it was invaded by the Arabs and incorporated into part of the Umayyad Caliphate, resulting in widespread conversions to Islam. However, a substantial number of Sindhis still retain their Hindu beliefs intertwined with elements of Sikhism, and are thus often regarded as simultaneously Hindu and Sehajdhari Sikh.
Following the partition of India in 1947, most Hindu and Sikh Sindhis fled to modern-day India and other parts of the world, though, as of 1998, Hindus still constituted about 6% of the total Sindhi population in Pakistan.
There are 35 Million Sindhis living in Pakistan (33.5 million in sindh, and 1.5 million in other provinces). Karachi is the largest Sindhi Speaking enclave in the world, with 3.5-4.5 Million Sindhis. Hyderabad, Sindh ranks 2nd with 1-1.5 Million Sindhis, Larkana ranks 3rd with 500,000 Sindhis, and Sukkur ranks 4th with 350.000 Sindhis. 12.5% Sindhis in Pakistan are Hindus. Most live in urban areas like Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur, and Mirpur Khas. Hyderabad is the largest centre of Sindhi Hindus with 350.000-500.000.
The original inhabitants of ancient Sindh were believed to be aboriginal tribes speaking languages of the Indus Valley civilization around 3000 BC.
The Indus Valley Civilization went into decline around the year 1700 BC for reasons that are not entirely known, though its downfall was probably precipitated by a massive earthquake or natural event that dried up the Ghaggar River. The Indo-Aryans are believed to have founded the Vedic civilization that existed between the Sarasvati River and Ganges river around 1500 BC. This civilization helped shape subsequent cultures in South Asia.
For several centuries in the first millennium B.C. and in the first five centuries of the first millennium A.D. western portions of Sindh, the regions on the western flank of the Indus river, were intermittently under Persian and Kushan rule, first during the Achaemenid dynasty (500-300 BC), then, from 150 BC under the Parthians, and still later under the Sassanids, before the Islamic invasion of Iran in the 7th century AD. Alexander the Great marched through Punjab and Sindh, down the Indus river, during his invasion of the eastern flank of the Persian empire.
Because of its location at the western edge of South Asia, Sindh was one of the earliest regions to be influenced by Islam after 632 AD - as the Qu'ran was not written until then. Prior to this period, it was heavily Hindu, and Buddhist. After 632 AD, It was part of the Islamic empires of the Abbasids and Umayyids. Fundamentalist rulers played a pivotal role in forcibly converting millions of native Sindhis to Islam. At the same time, Muslim technocrats, bureaucrats, soldiers, traders, scientists, architects, teachers, theologians and Sufis flocked from the rest of the Muslim world to the Islamic Sultanate in Sindh. Settled by Turks, Pashtuns, and Mughals. Habbari, Soomra, Samma, Arghun dynasties ruled Sindh. Many Baloch tribes migrated and settled in Sindh. These Baloch assimilated with Sindhis and now they constitute a significant population of Sindh. Sindh continued to evolve as a frontier state; by the time of British colonial occupation it was ruled by Baloch kings.
Sindh, as a western frontier of South Asia, has always been exposed to the entry of invaders from Central Asia and the Middle East. The region received its name, Sindh, from the River Sindhu (Indus), and the people living in the region are referred to as Sindhi. The terms Hindi and Hindu are derived from the word Sindh, as the ancient Persians pronounce "s" as "h" (e.g. sarasvati as hrauvati). In the same way, Persians called the people of this region as Hindhi people, their language as Hindhi language and the region as Hindh, the name which is used for this region since ancient times and later for the whole northern part of the Indian sub-continent even today. India is also known as Hindustan, a name which has nothing to do with hinduism, but related more to a people and their language named after the main river flowing through this region, the sindhu (Indus).
As regards the composition of the non-ethnic Sindhi population, the two main groups that inhabited Sindh are related to, and common, one with the Punjab and another with Balochistan. The majority group is that of Rajputs and Jats who are the partial descendants of Sakas, Kushans and Huns. During the Kalhora rule, a number of Jat tribes such as the Sials, Joyas and Khawars came from the Punjab and settled in Sindh. They are called the Seraiki (i.e., people from the north), and speak Seraiki. This group overlaps and is sometimes considered transitional between the Punjabis and Sindhi people.
The two main and highest ranked Rajput or Jamote tribes of Sindh are: the Soomra - descendants of the Soomra Dynasty, who ruled Sindh during (970 - 1351 A.D.) and the second is Samma - descendants of the Samma Dynasty, who ruled Sindh during (1351 - 1521 A.D.). Both these tribes belong to the same blood line as well. Among other Sindhi Rajputs are the Bhachos, Bhuttos, Bhattis, Mahendros, Buriros, Lakha, Sahetas, Lohanas, Mohano, Dahars, Indhar, Chachar, Dhareja, Rathores, Dakhan, Langah, etc. The Sindhi-Sipahi of Rajasthan and the Sandhai Muslims of Gujarat are communities of Sindhi Rajputs settled in India. Closely related to the Sindhi Rajputs are the Jats of Sindh, who are found mainly in the Indus delta region.
The other main group is that of Balochi tribes settled in various parts of Sindh, mostly during the last five hundred years or so. Since they were martial people and ruled over Sindh for some time before the arrival of the British, they acquired vast lands in the province, with the result that a large number of present-day Sindhi landlords are of Baloch origin. According to the 1941 census, which was the last one held before independence, Balochis formed 60% of the total population of Sindh. Balochi tribes are spread over, Iranian Sistan-Balochistan, Afghan-Balochistan, Balochistan, Sindh and the south-western districts of the Punjab. This group is almost entirely Muslim.
A third sub-group of the Sindhi population comprises the descendants of Muslim conquerors, administrators and missionaries who were Arabs, Persians, Afghans and Turks (including the Mughals). They are a small minority settled in cities and towns and have largely blended with the other components of the population while maintaining something of a sub-culture; they are often referred to as Ashraf or the "noble". Of this third element, Muslim Arabs have possibly contributed the most to the development of the modern Sindhi language and literature and to the advancement of its intellectual and cultural activities.
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Another group of people who are largely overlooked in any discussions about groups and culture of Sindh are the Haris, whose name is derived from the term "Harijan." These people are generally believed to be the descendants of indigenous Dravidian populations that were enslaved by various invading people. Many are still living in abject poverty and under slave-like conditions in rural Sindh, because of the benign neglect and only nominal efforts by the government to improve the situation. The majority of Haris are nominally Muslims while practicing what is generally known as folk Hindu beliefs all over rural Pakistan like head tonsuring and sacred thread ceremonies. Many Haris have moved on as artisans and wage laborers.
Nearly 14 million Muslims (Muhajirs) migrated from various parts of India and settled in Sindh after the creation of Pakistan, populating mostly urban centers of the province. They spoke Urdu, Gujarati, Bengali as well as other languages that reflect their different regions of origin.
With Sindh’s stable prosperity and its strategic geograpical possession, it is not surprising that it was subject to successive conquests by foreign empires. In 712 A.D., Sindh was incorporated into the Caliphate, the Islamic Empire, and became the ‘Arabian gateway’ into India (later to become known as Bab-ul-Islam, the gate of Islam). After the conquest by the Arabs, the people of Sindh were influenced by Islam.
Sindhi culture also has certain Persian influences as Sindh was exposed to cultural, religious and linguistic influence from Islamic Persia. Most significantly, numerous Persian loanwords made their way into the Sindhi language along with the Nastaʿlīq script, in which modern Sindhi is written today.
Muslim Sindhis tend to follow the Sunni Hanafi fiqh with a substantial minority of Shia Ithna 'ashariyah. The Sufism has made a deep impact on Sindhi Muslims and Sufi shrines dot the landscape of Sindh.
Sindh is also home to some Hindus.
|“||Before 1947, however other than a few Gujarati speaking Parsees (Zorastrians) living in Karachi virtually all the inhabitants were Sindhis, whether Muslim or Hindu at the time of Pakistan's creation, 75% of the population were Muslims and almost all the remaining 25% were Hindus.||”|
Hindus in Sindh were concentrated in the cities before the partition of India in 1947, during which many had to flee to India to avoid being murdered. According to Ahmad Hassan Dani
|“||Cities and towns of Sindh were dominated by the Hindus. In 1941, for example, Hindus were 64% of the total urban population.||”|
Muslim Sindhis tend to have traditional Muslim first names, sometimes with localized variations. Most Sindhis have tribal and clan names as their surnames. Nearly forty percent of Sindhis have Baloch tribal names.
Hindu Sindhis tend to have surnames that end in '-ani' (a variant of 'anshi', derived from the Sanskrit word 'ansh', which means 'descended from'). The first part of a Sindhi Hindu surname is usually derived from the name or location of an ancestor. In northern Sindh, surnames ending in 'ja' (meaning 'of') are also common. A person's surname would consist of the name of his or her native village, followed by 'ja'.
English Novel by Sindhi:
English Novel: Saturday Night by Sindhi Novelist - Suresh Kumar Mansukhani. He is inspired by the English Writer Oscar Wilde's "Lady Windermere's Fan...novel is about Male Hypocricy and Extra Marital Affairs in the Indian Society. Currently working as the Country Manager - Junckers Industrier A/s. - Denmark. Has also written an Article - MULTI MILLION DOLLAR CRIMES THROUGH COMPUTERS IN 1977....Contributed a Chapter in the Book "India at Fifty" published by the Indian Express Group in 1996. Vijay Shree Award Winner in 1996, his biograpghy also features in Marquis Book of Who's Who in the World 2010.
Slslay aaliya naqshband in Sindh was mainly due to Sultan Ul Oliya Khawaja Muhammad Zaman of Luari Sharif. He was the spiritual leader of makhdoom Abdul Rahim Grohri. Once Shah Abdul Latif Bhitaai even came to enter into his school of thought but Sultan ul oliya did not allow him because music is not allowed in Naqshbandi silsila. Sindhi culture has been strongly influenced by Sufism. Jhulelal, the Sufi pioneer of Sindh, is revered by both Hindus and Muslims. A common greeting among Sindhis is "Jhulelal Bera-Hee-Paar".
Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai (1689–1752) was a Sufi scholar and saint, and is considered one of the greatest poets of the Sindhi language. Bhittai settled in the town of Bhit Shah in Matiari where his shrine is located. Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai's most famous written work is the Shah Jo Risalo, which is a masterpiece of Sindhi literature as well. The major themes of his poetry include Unity of God, love for Prophet, religious tolerance and humanistic values. Islamic philosopher Seyyed Hossein Nasr describes Bhittai's works as "direct emanations of Rūmī's spirituality in the Indian world."
Pakistan's political scene has been dominated by Sindhi politicians, including
- Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
- Benazir Bhutto
- Ghous Bux Khan Mahar
- Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto
- Ghulam Hussain Hidayatullah
- G. M. Syed
- Ghulam Noor Rabbani Khar
- Mumtaz Ali Bhutto
- Haider Bux Jatoi founder of 'Jeay Sindh' slogan
- Dr. Mahesh Kumar Malani PPP leader in Tharparkar Sindh
In India, notable Sindhi politicians include
- Lal Krishna Advani (former deputy prime minister of India)
- Acharya Kriplani (President of Indian National Congress during Independence of India)
- K.R. Malkani (former Governor Of Pudduchery)
- Jairamdas Daulatram (former Governor of Assam and Bihar)
- Ram Jethmalani (former law minister of India)
- N.R. Malkani (former member of Rajya Sabha and Winner of Padma Bhushan)
- Ishwardas Rohani (Speaker Of Madhya Pradesh Legislative Assembly)
- Bhanu Kumar Shastri (former Member of Lok Sabha from Udaipur)
- Shrichand Kriplani (member of 14th Lok Sabha).
- Praveen C Kamlani (Member of Legislative Council, Karnataka)
- Govind Gurbani (National President, Sindhi Adhikar Manch Association India)
Historical Sindhi leaders include
Sindhi poets in India include Narain Shyam Nagwani, Golden Peacock and Jnanpeeth award winner.
Famous Hindu Sindhis in the Indian movie industry include:
- Aftab Shivdasani
- Karan Johar
- Ravi Baswani
- Bhudo Advani
- Govardhan Asrani
- Roma Asrani
- Saloni Aswani
- Jackky Bhagnani
- Tamannaah Bhatia,
- Vashu Bhagnani
- Tarun Mansukhani
- Ritesh Sidhwani
- Rajkumar Hirani
- Dalip Tahil
- Ramesh Taurani
- Nikhil Advani
- Hari Shivdasani
- Sadhana Shivdasani
- Karishma Kapoor (Half Sindhi)
- Kareena Kapoor (Half Sindhi)
- Amisha Patel (Half Sindhi)
- Sangeeta Bijlani
- Hiten Tejwani
- Leena Jumani
- Shilpa Saklani
- Rithvik Dhanjani
- Preeti Jhangiani
- Kitu Gidwani
- Hansika Motwani
- Ramesh Sippy
- G. P. Sippy
- Rohan Sippy
- Ramsay Brothers
- Govind Nihalani
- Anjana Sukhani
- Vishal Dadlani
- Vikramaditya Motwane
- Ranveer Singh
- Raveena Tandon
- Mac Mohan
- Vinay Virmani
- Juhi Chawla
- Shiney Ahuja
- Sapna Bhavnani
- Dimple Jhangiani
- Sindhis in India
- Sindhi literature
- Sindhi music
- Sindhi poetry
- Sindhi language media in Pakistan
- Sindhi diaspora
- Population Census Organization, Government of Pakistan - Population by Mother Tongue
- Ethnologue report for India Archived 18 January 2010 at WebCite
- Rising India and indian communities in East Asia - By K. Kesavapany, A. Mani, Palanisamy Ramasamy, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
- Oonk, G. (2007). Exploring Trajectories of Migration and Theory (1st ed.). Retrieved April 3, 2013.
- Memoir of the Emperor Timur (Malfuzat-i Timuri) Timur's memoirs on his invasion of India; describes in detail the massacre of Hindus, forced conversions to Islam and the plunder of the wealth of Hindustan (India). Compiled in the book: "The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period", by Sir H. M. Elliot, Edited by John Dowson; London, Trubner Company; 1867–1877
- Nicholas F. Gier, FROM MONGOLS TO MUGHALS: RELIGIOUS VIOLENCE IN INDIA 9TH-18TH CENTURIES, Presented at the Pacific Northwest Regional Meeting American Academy of Religion, Gonzaga University, May 2006 
- "Refugee Review Tribunal". United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Retrieved 2007-08-01.
- The People and the land of Sindh Archived 14 February 2011 at WebCite
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- The foreign policy of Pakistan: ethnic impacts on diplomacy, 1971-1994 By Mehtab Ali Shah Published in 1997 by I B Tauris and Co Ltd,London PAGE 46
- Proceedings of the First Congress of Pakistan History & Culture held at the University of Islamabad, April 1973 ,Volume 1 University of Islamabad Press, 1975
- Reddy, B. Murlidhar (September 23, 2005). "Hindus in Pakistan allege humiliation". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 2006-08-26.
- Nayyar, A.H. and Salim, A. (eds.)(2003). The subtle Subversion: A report on Curricula and Textbooks in Pakistan. Report of the project A Civil Society Initiative in Curricula and Textbooks Reform. Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Islamabad.
- Hate mongering worries minorities, Daily Times (Pakistan), 2006-04-25
- In Pakistan's Public Schools, Jihad Still Part of Lesson Plan - The Muslim nation's public school texts still promote hatred and jihad, reformers say. By Paul Watson, Times Staff Writer; August 18, 2005; Los Angeles Times. 4 Page article online Retrieved on 02 January 2010
- Primers Of Hate - History or biology, Pakistani students get anti-India lessons in all their textbooks; 'Hindu, Enemy Of Islam' - These are extracts from government-sponsored textbooks approved by the National Curriculum Wing of the Federal Ministry of Education. By AMIR MIR; Oct 10, 2005; Outlook India Magazine Retrieved on 02 January 2010
- Noor's cure: A contrast in views; by Arindam Banerji; July 16, 2003; Rediff India Abroad Retrieved on 02 January 2010
- ‘School texts spreading more extremism than seminaries’ By Our Special Correspondent; Tuesday, 19 May 2009; Dawn Newspaper. Retrieved 01 January 2010
- The threat of Pakistan's revisionist texts, The Guardian, 2009-05-18
- Anwar, Syed. "State of minorities". Retrieved 2006-08-18.
- 25 Hindu girls abducted every month, claims HRCP official The News, Tuesday, March 30, 2010
- US Department of State International Religious Freedom Report 2006
- Abduction of Hindus, Sikhs have become a business in Pak: PML MP Times of India - August 28, 2011
- ‘Pak Hindus not treated equally under law’ Zee News - April 20, 2012
- Hounded in Pakistan Daily Pioneer - March 20, 2012
- Another temple is no more,Dawn
- Hindu temple in Lahore demolished,Rediff.com
- Only Hindu Temple in Lahore demolished,Times of India
- India protests demolition of Hindu temple in Pak,Times of India
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- "Pakistani Hindu Youth Murdered in Sindh". news.outlookindia.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
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- Goodbye To The Hindu Ghettos Tehelka - October 17, 2009 issue
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- Moviebuzz (21 December 2009). "Happy B'day to the Queen of K’wood!". ****Sify. Retrieved 2011-04-19.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Sindhi people|
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