Symphonia Domestica

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Symphonia Domestica (Domestic Symphony), Op. 53, is a tone poem for large orchestra by Richard Strauss. The work is a musical reflection of the secure domestic life so valued by the composer himself and, as such, harmoniously conveys daily events and family life.

History and composition[edit]

In 1898, Strauss became the chief conductor of the Royal Court Opera in Berlin. It was at this point in his life that the composer took a keen interest in his own circumstances and turned his attention to his status and personal history. When he began composing the Symphonia Domestica, he intended it to be the sequel to A Hero's Life, the next installment of the autobiography of the now-successful artist. Of it, Strauss said "My next tone poem will represent a day in my family life. It will be partly lyrical, partly humorous – a triple fugue will bring together Papa, Mama and Baby."

He worked on the piece during 1903, finishing it on New Year's Eve, in Charlottenburg.[1]

The piece is scored for piccolo, 3 flutes, 2 oboes, oboe d'amore, English horn, clarinet in D, 3 clarinets (1 & 2 in B, 3 in A), bass clarinet in B, 4 bassoons, contrabassoon, 4 saxophones (soprano in C, alto in F, baritone in F, bass in C), 8 horns in F, 4 trumpets in F and C, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, tenor drum, bass drum, triangle, cymbals, antique cymbals, tambourine, glockenspiel, 2 harps, and strings.

Structure[edit]

The program of the work reflects the simplicity of the subject-matter. After the whole extended family (including the aunts and uncles) has been introduced, the parents are heard alone with their child. The next section is a three-part adagio which begins with the husband's activities. The clock striking 7am launches the finale.

The most detailed exposition of the work's structure is that which was provided for the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra's performance on December 12, 1904. On that occasion, the concert programme carried the following outline:

  • I. Introduction and development of the chief groups of themes
The husband's themes: (a) Easy-going; (b) Dreamy; (c) Fiery
The wife's themes: (a) Lively and gay; (b) Grazioso
The child's theme: Tranquil
  • II. Scherzo
Parents' happiness. Childish play. Cradle song (the clock strikes seven in the evening).
  • III. Adagio
Doing and thinking. Love scene. Dreams and cares (the clock strikes seven in the morning).
  • IV. Finale
Awakening and merry dispute (double fugue). Joyous confusion.

Performance[edit]

Strauss reserved the premiere for his American tour in 1904, and Carnegie Hall in New York was booked. He would conduct it himself. Originally the premiere was scheduled for March 9, but the orchestral parts were delayed, so it was postponed to March 21. The later date allowed more rehearsals, of which 15 were required before Strauss was satisfied. The Wetzler Symphony Orchestra was adequate, but not much more. During a performance of his Don Quixote two nights earlier, the orchestra had broken down in the middle of the piece.[1]

Nevertheless, the performance was a great success, so much so that he was prevailed upon to conduct two more performances in Wanamaker's department store in New York, on 16 and 18 April, for a fee of $1,000. An entire sales floor had to be cleared to make way for the huge orchestra, and the concerts attracted audiences of 6,000 people. The New York and German press were very critical, not just of these exhibitions but of the very work itself, regarding them as a blatant commercialization of the sacred art of music and the intimacy of family life. Strauss responded: "True art ennobles this Hall, and a respectable fee for his wife and child is no disgrace even for an artist".[2]

A typical performance of the work lasts approximately forty-four minutes.

In 1925, Strauss wrote a piece for Paul Wittgenstein for piano left-hand and orchestra, using themes from the Symphonia Domestica, titled Parergon zur Symphonia Domestica, Op. 73.

Discography[edit]

Conductor Orchestra Recorded
Eugene Ormandy Philadelphia Orchestra 1938
Carl Schuricht Orchestra of La Scala Opera House, Milan 1941
Richard Strauss Vienna Philharmonic 1944
Wilhelm Furtwängler Berliner Philharmoniker 1944
Franz Konwitschny Staatskapelle Dresden 1956
Clemens Krauss Vienna Philharmonic 1952
Fritz Reiner Chicago Symphony Orchestra 1956
George Szell Cleveland Orchestra 1957
Dimitri Mitropoulos Wiener Philharmoniker 1957
Zubin Mehta Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra 1968
Rudolf Kempe Staatskapelle Dresden 1972
Herbert von Karajan Berliner Philharmoniker 1973
Lorin Maazel Vienna Philharmonic 1983
Zubin Mehta Berliner Philharmoniker 1985
Neeme Järvi Scottish National Orchestra 1986
Gerard Schwarz Seattle Symphony 1988
Edo de Waart Minnesota Orchestra 1990
Wolfgang Sawallisch Philadelphia Orchestra 1993
Lorin Maazel Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra 1995
André Previn Vienna Philharmonic 1995
Vladimir Ashkenazy Czech Philharmonic Orchestra 1997
David Zinman Zurich Tonhalle Orchestra 2002
Antoni Wit Staatskapelle Weimar 2009

There is also a two-piano version, which Martha Argerich and Alexandre Rabinovitch recorded in 1995 for Teldec.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Liner notes from the Turnabout recording of Strauss conducting the work with the Vienna Philharmonic in 1944
  2. ^ LA PHIL

Sources[edit]

  • Content from adaptation of the notes of Ernst Krause.