Turkey. Top left: view of Sinop North Wall, nearby Demirci and Bezirci area; top right: Sinop Fortress and Port of Sinop;
middle right: View of Plaj Yolu, nearby Sinop Anadolu Imam Hatip College from Baris Manco Park;
bottom left: Panorama view of downtown Sinop, from Hippodrome Hill; bottom right: Hamsilos resort area
|• Mayor||Baki Ergül (Republican People's Party, CHP)|
|• Governor||Ahmet Cengiz|
|• District||438.58 km2 (169.34 sq mi)|
|• District Density||130/km2 (340/sq mi)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|Area code(s)||(+90) 368|
Sinop (Greek: Σινώπη, Sinōpē) is a city with a population of 36,734 on İnce Burun (İnceburun, Cape Ince), by its Cape Sinop (Sinop Burnu, Boztepe Cape, Boztepe Burnu) which is situated on the most northern edge of the Turkish side of the Black Sea coast, in the ancient region of Paphlagonia, in modern-day northern Turkey, historically known as Sinope //. It is the capital of Sinop Province.
Long used as a Hittite port which appears in Hittite sources as "Sinuwa", the city proper was re-founded as a Greek colony from the city of Miletus in the 7th century BC. Sinope flourished as the Black Sea port of a caravan route that led from the upper Euphrates valley (Herodotus 1.72; 2.34), issued its own coinage, founded colonies, and gave its name to a red earth pigment called sinopia, which was mined in Cappadocia, and used throughout the ancient world. Sinope escaped Persian domination until the early 4th century BC, and in 183 BC it was captured by Pharnaces I and became capital of the kingdom of Pontus. Lucullus conquered Sinope for Rome in 70 BC, and Julius Caesar established a Roman colony there, Colonia Julia Felix, in 47 BC. Mithradates Eupator was born and buried at Sinope, and it was the birthplace of Diogenes, of Diphilus, poet and actor of the New Attic comedy, of the historian Baton, and of the Christian heretic of the 2nd century AD, Marcion.
It remained with the Eastern Roman Empire or the Byzantines. Following the sacking of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204, it was captured for the Empire of Trebizond by David Komnenos the capture of the city by the Seljuk Turks of Rûm in 1214.
After 1261, Sinop became home to two successive independent emirates following the fall of the Seljuks: the Pervâne and the Jandarids. The Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II overawed Ismail, the emir of Sinope on his march on Trebizond, and forcing him to surrender the city to the Sultan late June 1461 without a fight. The emir was exiled to Philippopolis (modern Plovdiv) in northern Thrace.
In November 1853, at the start of the Crimean War, in the Battle of Sinop, the Russians, under the command of Admiral Nakhimov, destroyed an Ottoman frigate squadron in Sinop, leading Britain and France to declare war on Russia.
As of 1920, Sinop was described as populated mainly by Greek people with an approximate population of 8,000. It was also considered the "safest" port "between Bosphorus and Batum," at the time. During this period, the port was exporting wheat, tobacco, seeds, timber and hides. They imported produce, coal and hardware.
Sinop hosted a US military base that was important for intelligence during the cold war era. The US base was closed in 1992.
Explorer Bob Ballard discovered an ancient ship wreck north west of Sinop in the Black Sea and was shown on National Geographic.
- Sinop Fortress
- Sinop Fortress Prison
- Balatlar Church
- Temple of Serapis
- Pasha Bastion
- Pervane Medrese
- Alaaddin Mosque
Sinop has warm and humid summers with an average daytime high of 26 °C (78.8 °F) however temperatures rarely exceed 30 °C (86 °F). The highest recorded temperature for Sinop was 34.4 °C (93.92 °F) on 6 July 2000. The winters are cool and wet. The average for winter ranging around 5 °C (41 °F). The lowest recorded temperature for Sinop was -7.5 °C (18.5 °F) on 21 February 1985. Snowfall is quite common between the months of December and March, snowing for a week or two.
|Climate data for Sinop|
|Average high °C (°F)||9.5
|Average low °C (°F)||4.6
|Precipitation mm (inches)||71.2
|Avg. rainy days||15.0||12.9||13.2||11.8||9.9||8.8||5.9||6.5||8.8||12.6||12.5||15.6||133.5|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||71.3||86.8||127.1||153||207.7||264||291.4||263.5||207||145.7||96||68.2||1,981.7|
|Source #1: Sinop Turkish State Meteorological Service|
|Source #2: Weatherbase |
As of 1920, Sinop was producing embroidered cotton cloth. They also were known for boatbuilding. The British described the boats produced in Sinop as being of "primitive design but sound workmanship."
Notable people from Sinop
- Aquila of Sinope (2nd century), Bible translator
- Diogenes of Sinope (412 or 404 BC–323 BC), philosopher
- Mithridates VI of Pontus (134 BC–63 BC), king of Pontus
- Gazi Chelebi (14th century), naval commander
- Saint Helen of Sinope (18th century)
- Marcion of Sinope (ca. 85–160), heretic
- Seydi Ali Reis, Ottoman admiral, writer and scientist, was born into a family who was originally from Sinop.
- Rıza Nur (1879–1942), politician
- Ahmet Muhip Dıranas (1909–1980), poet
- Necmettin Erbakan (1926–2011), former prime minister
- Patriarch Maximus V of Constantinople (1897–1972), Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
- Osman Pamukoğlu (1947–), politician
- Metin Tuğlu (1984–), footballer
- Hakan Ünsal (1973–), footballer
- Sinan Uzun (1990–), footballer
Sinope has given its name to the outermost satellite of Jupiter. A crater on Mars is named after Sinop.
Sinop has 10 sister cities:
- Bogota, Colombia
- Çorlu, Turkey
- Riffa, Bahrain
- Izki, Oman
- Järve, Estonia
- Lyon, France
- Mosjøen, Norway
- Murmansk, Russia
- Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom
- Varna, Bulgaria
- "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
- "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- J. Garstang, The Hittite Empire, p. 74
- Xenophon, Anabasis 6.1.15; Diodorus Siculus 14.31.2; Strabo 12.545
- Daniel V. Thompson, The Materials and Techniques of Medieval Painting, (Dover Publications, New York, 1956) ISBN 0-486-20327-1
- V. V. Vasiliev, "The Foundation of the Empire of Trebizond (1204-1222)", Speculum, 11 (1936), pp. 26-29
- Steven Runciman, The Fall of Constantinople (London: Cambridge, 1969), pp. 174
- Prothero, G.W. (1920). Anatolia. London: H.M. Stationery Office.
- Sinop (en)
- About Sinop (en)
- Prothero, G.W. (1920). Anatolia. London: H.M. Stationary Office. p. 112.
- John Garstang, The Hittite Empire (University Press, Edinburgh, 1930).
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