Sintashta

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Sintashta (Russian: Синташта) is an archaeological site in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia. It is the remains of a fortified settlement dating to the Bronze Age, c. 2800–1600 BC,[1] and is the type site of the Sintashta culture. The site has been characterised "fortified metallurgical industrial center"[2] and the ritual activities evident at associated cemeteries linked to Proto-Indo-Iranian traditions.

Sintashta is situated in the steppe just east of the Ural Mountains. The site is named for the adjacent Sintashta River, a tributary to the Tobol. The shifting course of the river over time has destroyed half of the site, leaving behind thirty one of the approximately fifty or sixty houses in the settlement.[3]

The settlement consisted of rectangular houses arranged in a circle 140 m in diameter and surrounded by a timber-reinforced earthen wall with gate towers and a deep ditch on its exterior. The fortifications at Sintashta and similar settlements such as Arkaim were of unprecedented scale for the steppe region. There is evidence of copper and bronze metallurgy taking place in every house excavated at Sintashta, again an unprecedented intensity of metallurgical production for the steppe.[3] Early Abashevo culture ceramic styles strongly influenced Sintashta ceramics.[4] Due to the assimilation of tribes in the region of the Urals, such as the Pit-grave, Catacomb, Poltavka, and northern Abashevo into the Novokumak horizon, it would seem inaccurate to provide Sintashta with a purely Aryan attribution.[5] In the origin of Sintashta, the Abashevo culture would play an important role.[6]

Five cemeteries have been found associated with the site, the largest of which (known as Sintashta mogila or SM) consisted of forty graves. Some of these were chariot burials, producing the oldest known chariots in the world. Others included horse sacrifices—up to eight in a single grave—various stone, copper and bronze weapons, and silver and gold ornaments. The SM cemetery is overlain by a very large kurgan of a slightly later date. It has been noted that the kind of funerary sacrifices evident at Sintashta have strong similarities to funerary rituals described in the Rig Veda, an ancient Indian religious text often associated with the Proto-Indo-Iranians.[3] Therefore it was speculated that the geographical place of the Sintashta culture may have been the imagined Indo-Iranian homeland, but a direct link with the Sintashta culture has been dismissed.[7]

Radiocarbon dates from the settlement and cemeteries span over a millennium, suggesting an earlier occupation belonging to the Poltavka culture. The majority the dates, however, are around 2100–1800 BC, which points at a main period of occupation of the site consistent with other settlements and cemeteries of the Sintashta culture.[3]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Anthony 2007, p. 375.
  2. ^ Anthony 2007, p. 371.
  3. ^ a b c d Anthony 2007, p. 371–375.
  4. ^ David W. Anthony, "The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World", Princeton University Press, 2007, p 382
  5. ^ Elena E. Kuz'mina, The Origin of the Indo-Iranians, Volume 3, edited by J. P. Mallory, Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands 2007, p 222
  6. ^ David W. Anthony, "The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World", Princeton University Press, 2007, p 382
  7. ^ Aedeen Cremin, Archaeologica, 2007, p.234

References[edit]

  • Anthony, David W. (2007). "Chapter 15: Chariot Warriors of the Northern Steppes". The Horse, the Wheel, and Language. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-05887-0. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Генинг, В. Ф.; Зданович, Г. Б.; Генинг, В. В.; [V. F. Gening, G. B. Zdanovich and V. V. Gening] (1992). Синташта: археологические памятники арийских племен Урало-Казахстанских степей [Sintashta: archaeological sites of the Aryan tribes of the Ural-Kazakhstan Steppe] (in Russian). Chelyabinsk: Южно-Уральское книжное изд-во. ISBN 5-7688-0577-X. 

Coordinates: 52°29′31.50″N 60°10′40.64″E / 52.4920833°N 60.1779556°E / 52.4920833; 60.1779556