|Classification and external resources|
Left-sided maxillary sinusitis marked by an arrow. Note the absence of the air transparency indicating the presence of fluid in contrast to the other side.
Sinusitis, also known as rhinosinusitis, is inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. It can be due to infection, allergy, or autoimmune problems. Most cases are due to a viral infection and resolve over the course of 10 days. It is a common condition, with over 24 million cases annually in the U.S.
Sinusitis (or rhinosinusitis) is defined as an inflammation of the mucous membrane that lines the paranasal sinuses and is classified chronologically into several categories:
- Acute rhinosinusitis — a new infection that may last up to four weeks and can be subdivided symptomatically into severe and non-severe;
- Recurrent acute rhinosinusitis — four or more separate episodes of acute sinusitis that occur within one year;
- Subacute rhinosinusitis — an infection that lasts between four and 12 weeks, and represents a transition between acute and chronic infection;
- Chronic rhinosinusitis — when the signs and symptoms last for more than 12 weeks; and
- Acute exacerbation of chronic rhinosinusitis — when the signs and symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis exacerbate, but return to baseline after treatment.
All these types of sinusitis have similar symptoms, and are thus often difficult to distinguish. Acute sinusitis is very common. Roughly ninety percent of adults have had sinusitis at some point in their life.
Acute sinusitis is usually precipitated by an earlier upper respiratory tract infection, generally of viral origin, mostly caused by rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, and influenza viruses, others caused by adenoviruses, human parainfluenza viruses, human respiratory syncytial virus, enteroviruses other than rhinoviruses, and metapneumovirus. If the infection is of bacterial origin, the most common three causative agents are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Until recently, Haemophilus influenzae was the most common bacterial agent to cause sinus infections. However, introduction of the H. influenza type B (Hib) vaccine has dramatically decreased H. influenza type B infections and now non-typable H. influenza (NTHI) are predominantly seen in clinics. Other sinusitis-causing bacterial pathogens include Staphylococcus aureus and other streptococci species, anaerobic bacteria and, less commonly, gram negative bacteria. Viral sinusitis typically lasts for 7 to 10 days, whereas bacterial sinusitis is more persistent. Approximately 0.5% to 2% of viral sinusitis results in subsequent bacterial sinusitis. It is thought that nasal irritation from nose blowing leads to the secondary bacterial infection.
Acute episodes of sinusitis can also result from fungal invasion. These infections are typically seen in patients with diabetes or other immune deficiencies (such as AIDS or transplant patients on immunosuppressive anti-rejection medications) and can be life-threatening. In type I diabetics, ketoacidosis can be associated with sinusitis due to mucormycosis.
By definition chronic sinusitis lasts longer than three months and can be caused by many different diseases that share chronic inflammation of the sinuses as a common symptom. Symptoms of chronic sinusitis may include any combination of the following: nasal congestion, facial pain, headache, night-time coughing, an increase in previously minor or controlled asthma symptoms, general malaise, thick green or yellow discharge, feeling of facial 'fullness' or 'tightness' that may worsen when bending over, dizziness, aching teeth, and/or halitosis. Each of these symptoms has multiple other possible causes, which should be considered and investigated as well. Often chronic sinusitis can lead to anosmia, a reduced sense of smell. In a small number of cases, acute or chronic maxillary sinusitis is associated with a dental infection. Vertigo, lightheadedness, and blurred vision are not typical in chronic sinusitis and other causes should be investigated.
Chronic sinusitis cases are subdivided into cases with polyps and cases without polyps. When polyps are present, the condition is called chronic hyperplastic sinusitis; however, the causes are poorly understood and may include allergy, environmental factors such as dust or pollution, bacterial infection, or fungus (either allergic, infective, or reactive).
Chronic rhinosinusitis represents a multifactorial inflammatory disorder, rather than simply a persistent bacterial infection. The medical management of chronic rhinosinusitis is now focused upon controlling the inflammation that predisposes patients to obstruction, reducing the incidence of infections. However, all forms of chronic rhinosinusitis are associated with impaired sinus drainage and secondary bacterial infections. Most individuals require initial antibiotics to clear any infection and intermittently afterwards to treat acute exacerbations of chronic rhinosinusitis.
A combination of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria, are detected in conjunction with chronic sinusitis. Also isolated are Staphylococcus aureus (including methicilin resistant S.aureus ) and coagulase-negative Staphylococci and Gram negative enteric organisms can be isolated.
Attempts have been made to provide a more consistent nomenclature for subtypes of chronic sinusitis. The presence of eosinophils in the mucous lining of the nose and paranasal sinuses has been demonstrated for many patients, and this has been termed eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis (EMRS). Cases of EMRS may be related to an allergic response, but allergy is not often documented, resulting in further subcategorization into allergic and non-allergic EMRS.
A more recent, and still debated, development in chronic sinusitis is the role that fungi play in this disease. It remains unclear if fungi are a definite factor in the development of chronic sinusitis and if they are, what the difference may be between those who develop the disease and those who remain free of symptoms. Trials of antifungal treatments have had mixed results.
There are several paired paranasal sinuses, including the frontal, ethmoidal, maxillary and sphenoidal sinuses. The ethmoidal sinuses is further subdivided into anterior and posterior ethmoid sinuses, the division of which is defined as the basal lamella of the middle turbinate. In addition to the severity of disease, discussed below, sinusitis can be classified by the sinus cavity which it affects:
- Maxillary – can cause pain or pressure in the maxillary (cheek) area (e.g., toothache, or headache) (J01.0/J32.0)
- Frontal – can cause pain or pressure in the frontal sinus cavity (located above eyes), headache, particularly in the forehead (J01.1/J32.1)
- Ethmoidal – can cause pain or pressure pain between/behind the eyes, the sides of the upper part of the nose (the medial canthi), and headaches (J01.2/J32.2)
- Sphenoidal – can cause pain or pressure behind the eyes, but often refers to the skull vertex (top of the head), over the mastoid processes, or the occiput (back of the head).
Recent theories of sinusitis indicate that it often occurs as part of a spectrum of diseases that affect the respiratory tract (i.e., the "one airway" theory) and is often linked to asthma. All forms of sinusitis may either result in, or be a part of, a generalized inflammation of the airway, so other airway symptoms, such as cough, may be associated with it.
Signs and symptoms
Headache/facial pain or pressure of a dull, constant, or aching sort over the affected sinuses is common with both acute and chronic stages of sinusitis. This pain is typically localized to the involved sinus and may worsen when the affected person bends over or when lying down. Pain often starts on one side of the head and progresses to both sides. Acute and chronic sinusitis may be accompanied by thick nasal discharge that is usually green in color and may contain pus (purulent) and/or blood. Often a localized headache or toothache is present, and it is these symptoms that distinguish a sinus-related headache from other types of headaches, such as tension and migraine headaches. Another way to distinguish between toothache and sinusitis is that the pain in sinusitis usually is worsened by tilting the head forwards and with valsalva maneuvers.
Infection of the eye socket is possible, which may result in the loss of sight and is accompanied by fever and severe illness. Another possible complication is the infection of the bones (osteomyelitis) of the forehead and other facial bones – Pott's puffy tumor.
Sinus infections can also cause middle ear problems due to the congestion of the nasal passages. This can be demonstrated by dizziness, "a pressurized or heavy head", or vibrating sensations in the head. Post-nasal drip is also a symptom of chronic rhinosinusitis.
Halitosis (bad breath) is often stated to be a symptom of chronic rhinosinusitis, however gold standard breath analysis techniques have not been applied. Theoretically, there are several possible mechanisms of both objective and subjective halitosis that may be involved.
A 2004 study suggested that up to 90% of "sinus headaches" are actually migraines.[verification needed] The confusion occurs in part because migraine involves activation of the trigeminal nerves, which innervate both the sinus region and the meninges surrounding the brain. As a result, it is difficult to accurately determine the site from which the pain originates. People with migraines do not typically have the thick nasal discharge that is a common symptom of a sinus infection.
|V||Cavernous sinus septic thrombosis|
The close proximity of the brain to the sinuses makes the most dangerous complication of sinusitis, particularly involving the frontal and sphenoid sinuses, infection of the brain by the invasion of anaerobic bacteria through the bones or blood vessels. Abscesses, meningitis and other life-threatening conditions may result. In extreme cases the patient may experience mild personality changes, headache, altered consciousness, visual problems, seizures, coma and possibly death.
Sinus infection can spread through anastomosing veins or by direct extension to close structures. Orbital complications were categorized by Chandler et al. into five stages according to their severity (see table). Contiguous spread to the orbit may result in periorbital cellulitis, subperiosteal abscess, orbital cellulitis, and abscess. Orbital cellulitis can complicate acute ethmoiditis if anterior and posterior ethmoidal veins thrombophlebitis enables the spread of the infection to the lateral or orbital side of the ethmoid labyrinth. Sinusitis may extend to the central nervous system, where it may cause cavernous sinus thrombosis, retrograde meningitis, and epidural, subdural, and brain abscesses. Orbital symptoms frequently precede intracranial spread of the infection . Other complications include sinobronchitis, maxillary osteomyelitis, and frontal bone osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis of the frontal bone often originates from a spreading thrombo-phlebitis. A periostitis of the frontal sinus causes an osteitis and a periostitis of the outer membrane, which produces a tender, puffy swelling of the forehead.
The diagnosis of these complication can be assisted by noting local tenderness and dull pain, and can be confirmed by CT and nuclear isotope scanning. The most common microbial causes are anaerobic bacteria and S. aureus. Treatment includes performing surgical drainage and administration of antimicrobial therapy. Surgical debridement is rarely required after an extended course of parenteral antimicrobial therapy. Antibiotics should be administered for at least 6 weeks. Continuous monitoring of patients for possible intracranial complication is advised.
Maxillary sinusitis may also be of dental origin ("odontogenic sinusitis"), and constitutes a significant percentage (about 20% of all cases of maxillary sinusitis), given the close proximity of the teeth and the sinus floor. The cause of this situation is usually a periapical or periodontal infection of a maxillary posterior tooth, where the inflammatory exudate has eroded through the bone superiorly to drain into the maxillary sinus. Once an odontogenic infection involves the maxillary sinus, it is possible that it may then spread to the orbit or to the ethmoid sinus. Complementary tests based on conventional radiology techniques and modern technology may be indicated. Their indication is based on the clinical context.
Chronic sinusitis can also be caused indirectly through a common but slight abnormality within the auditory or Eustachian tube, which is connected to the sinus cavities and the throat. This tube is usually almost level with the eye sockets but when this sometimes hereditary abnormality is present, it is below this level and sometimes level with the vestibule or nasal entrance.
It has been hypothesized that biofilm bacterial infections may account for many cases of antibiotic-refractory chronic sinusitis. Biofilms are complex aggregates of extracellular matrix and inter-dependent microorganisms from multiple species, many of which may be difficult or impossible to isolate using standard clinical laboratory techniques. Bacteria found in biofilms have their antibiotic resistance increased up to 1000 times when compared to free-living bacteria of the same species. A recent study found that biofilms were present on the mucosa of 75% of patients undergoing surgery for chronic sinusitis.
Bacterial and viral acute sinusitis are difficult to distinguish. However, if symptoms last less than 10 days, it is generally considered viral sinusitis. When symptoms last more than 10 days, it is considered bacterial sinusitis. Imaging by either Xray, CT or MRI is generally not recommended unless complications develop. Pain caused by sinusitis is sometimes confused for pain caused by pulpitis (toothache) of the maxillary teeth, and vice versa. Classically, the increased pain when tilting the head forwards separates sinusitis from pulpitis.
For sinusitis lasting more than 12 weeks a CT scan is recommended. Nasal endoscopy, and clinical symptoms are also used to make a positive diagnosis. A tissue sample for histology and cultures can also be collected and tested. Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is often seen in people with asthma and nasal polyps. In rare cases, sinusoscopy may be made.
Nasal endoscopy involves inserting a flexible fiber-optic tube with a light and camera at its tip into the nose to examine the nasal passages and sinuses. This is generally a completely painless (although uncomfortable) procedure which takes between five to ten minutes to complete.
A computed tomograph showing infection of the ethmoid sinus
Maxillary sinusitis caused by a dental infection associated with periorbital cellulitis
Breathing low-temperature steam such as from a hot shower, gargling, or nasal irrigation can relieve symptoms. Over the counter medications may be used cautiously as they can lead to worsening of the symptoms if used improperly. Decongestant nasal sprays containing for example oxymetazoline may provide relief, but these medications should not be used for more than the recommended period. Longer use may cause rebound sinusitis.
The vast majority of cases of sinusitis are caused by viruses and will therefore resolve without antibiotics. However, if symptoms do not resolve within 10 days, amoxicillin is a reasonable antibiotic to use first for treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanate being indicated when the person's symptoms do not improve after 7 days on amoxicillin alone. Antibiotics are specifically not recommended in those with mild / moderate disease during the first week of infection due to risk of adverse effects, antibiotic resistance, and cost.
Fluoroquinolones, and a newer macrolide antibiotic such as clarithromycin or a tetracycline like doxycycline, are used in those who have severe allergies to penicillins. Because of increasing resistance to amoxicillin the 2012 guideline of the Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends amoxicillin-clavulanate as the initial treatment of choice for bacterial sinusitis. The guidelines also recommend against other commonly used antibiotics, including azithromycin, clarithromycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, because of growing drug resistance.
A short-course (3–7 days) of antibiotics seems to be just as effective as the typical longer-course (10–14 days) of antibiotics for those with clinically diagnosed acute bacterial sinusitis without any other severe disease or complicating factors. The IDSA guideline suggest five to seven days of antibiotics is long enough to treat a bacterial infection without encouraging resistance. The guidelines still recommend children receive antibiotic treatment for ten days to two weeks.
For unconfirmed acute sinusitis, intranasal corticosteroids have not been found to be better than a placebo either alone or in combination with antibiotics. For cases confirmed by radiology or nasal endoscopy, treatment with corticosteroids alone or in combination with antibiotics is supported. The benefit, however, is small.
For chronic or recurring sinusitis, referral to an otolaryngologist specialist may be indicated, and treatment options may include nasal surgery. Surgery should only be considered for those patients who do not experience sufficient relief from optimal medication.
Maxilliary antral washout involves puncturing the sinus and flushing with saline to clear the mucus. A 1996 study of patients with chronic sinusitis found that washout confers no additional benefits over antibiotics alone.
A number of surgical approaches can be used to access the sinuses and these have generally shifted from external/extranasal approaches to intranasal endoscopic ones. The benefit of Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS) is its ability to allow for a more targeted approach to the affected sinuses, reducing tissue disruption, and minimizing post-operative complications. The use of drug eluting stents such as propel mometasone furoate implant may help in recovery after surgery.
Another recently developed treatment is balloon sinuplasty. This method, similar to balloon angioplasty used to "unclog" arteries of the heart, utilizes balloons in an attempt to expand the openings of the sinuses in a less invasive manner. The utility of this treatment for sinus disease is still under debate but appears promising.
For persistent symptoms and disease in patients who have failed medical and the functional endoscopic approaches, older techniques can be used to address the inflammation of the maxillary sinus, such as the Caldwell-Luc radical antrostomy. This surgery involves an incision in the upper gum, opening in the anterior wall of the antrum, removal of the entire diseased maxillary sinus mucosa and drainage is allowed into inferior or middle meatus by creating a large window in the lateral nasal wall.
- Anon JB (April 2010). "Upper respiratory infections". Am. J. Med. 123 (4 Suppl): S16–25. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2010.02.003. PMID 20350632.
- Christine Radojicic. "Sinusitis". Disease Management Project. Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- Pearlman AN, Conley DB (June 2008). "Review of current guidelines related to the diagnosis and treatment of rhinosinusitis". Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery 16 (3): 226–30. doi:10.1097/MOO.0b013e3282fdcc9a. PMID 18475076.
- Leung RS, Katial R (March 2008). "The diagnosis and management of acute and chronic sinusitis". Primary care 35 (1): 11–24, v–vi. doi:10.1016/j.pop.2007.09.002. PMID 18206715.
- Gwaltney JM, Hendley JO, Phillips CD, Bass CR, Mygind N, Winther B (February 2000). "Nose blowing propels nasal fluid into the paranasal sinuses". Clin. Infect. Dis. 30 (2): 387–91. doi:10.1086/313661. PMID 10671347.
- Mucormycosis at eMedicine
- Gelfand, Jonathan L. "Help for Sinus Pain and Pressure". WebMD.com. Retrieved 2 October 2011.
- Chakrabarti A, Denning DW, Ferguson BJ, Ponikau J, Buzina W, Kita H, Marple B, Panda N, Vlaminck S, Kauffmann-Lacroix C, Das A, Singh P, Taj-Aldeen SJ, Kantarcioglu AS, Handa KK, Gupta A, Thungabathra M, Shivaprakash MR, Bal A, Fothergill A, Radotra BD (September 2009). "Fungal rhinosinusitis: a categorization and definitional schema addressing current controversies". Laryngoscope 119 (9): 1809–18. doi:10.1002/lary.20520. PMC 2741302. PMID 19544383.
- Ferguson, M (May 23, 2014). "Rhinosinusitis in oral medicine and dentistry.". Australian dental journal. doi:10.1111/adj.12193. PMID 24861778.
- Terézhalmy GT, Huber MA, Jones AC; Noujeim M; Sankar V (2009). Physical evaluation in dental practice. Ames, Iowa: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-8138-2131-3.
- Grossman J (1997). "One airway, one disease". Chest 111 (2 Suppl): 11S–16S. doi:10.1378/chest.111.2_Supplement.11S. PMID 9042022.
- Cruz AA (2005). "The 'united airways' require an holistic approach to management". Allergy 60 (7): 871–4. doi:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2005.00858.x. PMID 15932375.
- "Sinusitus Complications". Patient Education. University of Maryland.
- "Sinusitis". herb2000.com. "Incidence of acute sinusitis almost always set in following the appearance of a cold for several days at a stretch in the person to the point that all the profuse nasal discharge turns a distinct yellow or a dark green color, or perhaps very thick, and foul-smelling in some cases."[unreliable medical source?]
- Schreiber CP, Hutchinson S, Webster CJ, Ames M, Richardson MS, Powers C (2004). "Prevalence of migraine in patients with a history of self-reported or physician-diagnosed "sinus" headache". Arch. Intern. Med. 164 (16): 1769–72. doi:10.1001/archinte.164.16.1769. PMID 15364670.
- Mehle ME, Schreiber CP (2005). "Sinus headache, migraine, and the otolaryngologist". Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 133 (4): 489–96. doi:10.1016/j.otohns.2005.05.659. PMID 16213917.
- "The International Classification of Headache Disorders: 2nd edition". Cephalalgia 24 (Suppl 1): 9–160. 2004. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2982.2004.00653.x. PMID 14979299.
- Chandler JR, Langenbrunner DJ, Stevens ER (September 1970). "The pathogenesis of orbital complications in acute sinusitis". Laryngoscope 80 (9): 1414–28. doi:10.1288/00005537-197009000-00007. PMID 5470225.
- Baker AS (September 1991). "Role of anaerobic bacteria in sinusitis and its complications". Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl 154: 17–22. PMID 1952679.
- Clayman GL, Adams GL, Paugh DR, Koopmann CF (March 1991). "Intracranial complications of paranasal sinusitis: a combined institutional review". Laryngoscope 101 (3): 234–9. doi:10.1288/00005537-199103000-00003. PMID 2000009.
- Arjmand EM, Lusk RP, Muntz HR (November 1993). "Pediatric sinusitis and subperiosteal orbital abscess formation: diagnosis and treatment". Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 109 (5): 886–94. PMID 8247570.
- Harris GJ (March 1994). "Subperiosteal abscess of the orbit. Age as a factor in the bacteriology and response to treatment". Ophthalmology 101 (3): 585–95. doi:10.1016/S0161-6420(94)31297-8. PMID 8127580.
- Dill SR, Cobbs CG, McDonald CK (February 1995). "Subdural empyema: analysis of 32 cases and review". Clin. Infect. Dis. 20 (2): 372–86. doi:10.1093/clinids/20.2.372. PMID 7742444.
- Stankiewicz JA, Newell DJ, Park AH (August 1993). "Complications of inflammatory diseases of the sinuses". Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am. 26 (4): 639–55. PMID 7692375.
- Hamilos DL (October 2011). "Chronic rhinosinusitis: epidemiology and medical management". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 128 (4): 693–707; quiz 708–9. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.08.004. PMID 21890184.
- The maxillary sinusitis of dental origin: From diagnosis to treatment Le courrier du dentiste
- Hupp JR, Ellis E, Tucker MR (2008). Contemporary oral and maxillofacial surgery (5th ed.). St. Louis, Mo.: Mosby Elsevier. pp. 317–333. ISBN 9780323049030.
- Palmer JN (2005). "Bacterial biofilms: do they play a role in chronic sinusitis?". Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am. 38 (6): 1193–201, viii. doi:10.1016/j.otc.2005.07.004. PMID 16326178.
- Ramadan HH, Sanclement JA, Thomas JG (2005). "Chronic rhinosinusitis and biofilms". Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 132 (3): 414–7. doi:10.1016/j.otohns.2004.11.011. PMID 15746854.
- Bendouah Z, Barbeau J, Hamad WA, Desrosiers M (2006). "Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is associated with an unfavorable evolution after surgery for chronic sinusitis and nasal polyposis". Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 134 (6): 991–6. doi:10.1016/j.otohns.2006.03.001. PMID 16730544.
- Lewis, Kim; Salyers, Abagail A.; Taber, Harry W.; Wax, Richard G., ed. (2002). Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobials. New York: Marcel Decker. ISBN 978-0-8247-0635-7.
- Sanclement JA, Webster P, Thomas J, Ramadan HH (2005). "Bacterial biofilms in surgical specimens of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis". Laryngoscope 115 (4): 578–82. doi:10.1097/01.mlg.0000161346.30752.18. PMID 15805862.
- Rosenfeld RM, Andes D, Bhattacharyya N, Cheung D, Eisenberg S, Ganiats TG, Gelzer A, Hamilos D, Haydon RC, Hudgins PA, Jones S, Krouse HJ, Lee LH, Mahoney MC, Marple BF, Mitchell CJ, Nathan R, Shiffman RN, Smith TL, Witsell DL (September 2007). "Clinical practice guideline: adult sinusitis". Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery 137 (3 Suppl): S1–31. doi:10.1016/j.otohns.2007.06.726. PMID 17761281.
- Harrison's Manual of Medicine 16/e
- Consumer Reports; American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (July 2012), "Treating sinusitis: Don't rush to antibiotics", Choosing Wisely: an initiative of the ABIM Foundation (Consumer Reports), retrieved August 14, 2012
- Harvey R, Hannan SA, Badia L, Scadding G (2007). "Nasal saline irrigations for the symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis". In Harvey, Richard. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3): CD006394. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006394.pub2. PMID 17636843.
- Rhinitis medicamentosa at eMedicine
- Smith SR, Montgomery LG, Williams JW (Mar 26, 2012). "Treatment of mild to moderate sinusitis". Archives of Internal Medicine 172 (6): 510–3. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.253. PMID 22450938.
- Karageorgopoulos DE, Giannopoulou KP, Grammatikos AP, Dimopoulos G, Falagas ME (March 2008). "Fluoroquinolones compared with beta-lactam antibiotics for the treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". CMAJ 178 (7): 845–54. doi:10.1503/cmaj.071157. PMC 2267830. PMID 18362380.
- Chow AW, Benninger MS, Brook I, Brozek JL, Goldstein EJ, Hicks LA, Pankey GA, Seleznick M, Volturo G, Wald ER, File TM (April 2012). "IDSA clinical practice guideline for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in children and adults". Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 54 (8): e72–e112. doi:10.1093/cid/cir1043. PMID 22438350.
- Falagas ME, Karageorgopoulos DE, Grammatikos AP, Matthaiou DK (February 2009). "Effectiveness and safety of short vs. long duration of antibiotic therapy for acute bacterial sinusitis: a meta-analysis of randomized trials". Br J Clin Pharmacol 67 (2): 161–71. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2008.03306.x. PMC 2670373. PMID 19154447.
- Williamson IG, Rumsby K, Benge S, Moore M, Smith PW, Cross M, Little P (2007). "Antibiotics and Topical Nasal Steroid for Treatment of Acute Maxillary Sinusitis". JAMA 298 (21): 2487–96. doi:10.1001/jama.298.21.2487. PMID 18056902.
- Zalmanovici A, Yaphe J (2009). "Intranasal steroids for acute sinusitis". In Zalmanovici Trestioreanu, Anca. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD005149. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005149.pub3. PMID 19821340.
- Hayward G, Heneghan C, Perera R, Thompson M (2012). "Intranasal corticosteroids in management of acute sinusitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Annals of Family Medicine 10 (3): 241–9. doi:10.1370/afm.1338. PMC 3354974. PMID 22585889.
- Fokkens W, Lund V, Mullol J (2007). "European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2007". Rhinol Suppl. 16 (20): 1–136. doi:10.1017/S0959774306000060. PMID 17844873.
- Thomas M, Yawn BP, Price D, Lund V, Mullol J, Fokkens W (June 2008). "EPOS Primary Care Guidelines: European Position Paper on the Primary Care Diagnosis and Management of Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2007 - a summary". Prim Care Respir J 17 (2): 79–89. doi:10.3132/pcrj.2008.00029. PMID 18438594.
- Tichenor, Wellington S. (2007-04-22). "FAQ — Sinusitis — WS Tichenor M.D.". Retrieved 2007-10-28.
- Pang YT, Willatt DJ (1996). "Do antral washouts have a place in the current management of chronic sinusitis?". The Journal of laryngology and otology 110 (10): 926–928. doi:10.1017/s0022215100135376. PMID 8977854.
- Stammberger H (February 1986). "Endoscopic endonasal surgery—concepts in treatment of recurring rhinosinusitis. Part I. Anatomic and pathophysiologic considerations". Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 94 (2): 143–7. PMID 3083326.
- Liang J, Lane AP (2013). "Topical Drug Delivery for Chronic Rhinosinusitis". Current Otorhinolaryngology Reports 1 (1): 51–60. doi:10.1007/s40136-012-0003-4. PMC 3603706. PMID 23525506.
- Bailey and Love
- Dykewicz MS, Hamilos DL (February 2010). "Rhinitis and sinusitis". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 125 (2 Suppl 2): S103–15. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2009.12.989. PMID 20176255.