Arthur Havelock

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Sir Arthur Havelock
GCSI, GCMG, GCIE
Arthur Havelock.jpg
President of Nevis
In office
6 April 1877 – 1878
Preceded by Roger Goldsworthy
Succeeded by Charles Spencer Salmon
Governor of Sierra Leone
In office
27 June 1881 – September 1884
Preceded by Sir Samuel Rowe
Succeeded by Sir Samuel Rowe
35th (British) Governor of Trinidad
In office
24 January 1885 – 1885
Preceded by Sir Sanford Freeling
Succeeded by William Robinson
Governor of Natal
In office
18 February 1886 – 5 June 1889
Preceded by Sir Henry Bulwer
Succeeded by Sir Charles Mitchell
17th Governor of Ceylon
In office
28 May 1890 – 24 October 1895
Monarch Queen Victoria
Preceded by Arthur Hamilton-Gordon
Succeeded by Edward Noël Walker
acting governor
Governor of Madras Presidency
In office
18 March 1896 – 28 December 1900
Preceded by 3rd Baron Wenlock
Succeeded by 2nd Baron Ampthill
Governor of Tasmania
In office
8 November 1901 – 16 April 1904
Preceded by Jenico Preston, 14th Viscount Gormanston
Succeeded by Gerald Strickland
Personal details
Born (1844-05-07)7 May 1844
Bath, Somerset, England
Died 25 June 1908(1908-06-25) (aged 64)
Bath, Somerset, England
Nationality United Kingdom British
Spouse(s) Anne Grace Norris
Relations Sir Henry Havelock (uncle)
Alma mater Royal Military College, Sandhurst

Sir Arthur Elibank Havelock, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE (21 February 1844 – 25 June 1908) was a career British colonial governor, serving as Governor of Sierra Leone from 1880, of Natal, of Madras, of Ceylon from 1890 to 1895, and of Tasmania from 1901 to 1904.

Early life and family[edit]

Havelock was born in 1844 in Bath, Somerset, the fifth surviving son of Lieutenant-Colonel William Havelock and Caroline Elizabeth Chaplin, and the nephew of Sir Henry Havelock. The family moved to India in 1844, where his father commanded the 14th Light Dragoons but was killed in action at the Battle of Ramnagar on 22 November 1848. The Havelocks returned to England briefly, but settled in Ootacamund in 1850, where Havelock attended school until he completed his education in London.[1]

Military career[edit]

In 1860, Havelock entered the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, and on 14 January 1862 was gazetted an Ensign in the 32nd (Cornwall) Light Infantry. He was promoted Lieutenant on 10 April 1866, and was stationed at Gibraltar (1866–7), at Mauritius (1867–8), then at the Cape Colony (1868–72).[1] He returned to Mauritius in 1872 as the colony's paymaster, and was promoted to Captain on 1 February 1873, serving as aide-de-camp to Selby Smith, the acting governor, and later to the Governor of Mauritius, Sir Arthur Hamilton-Gordon.[1]

He held several key posts in the colonial civil service from 1874: Chief Civil Commissioner of the Seychelles (1874–75), and Colonial Secretary and Receiver General in Fiji (1874–75). He returned to England in 1876, and retired from the British Army as a captain in March 1877.[1]

Colonial service[edit]

Havelock joined the colonial civil service upon leaving the army, and was sent to the West Indies in 1877 as President of Nevis. In 1878, he was transferred to Saint Lucia as the colony's Administrator, before returning to the Seychelles as Chief Civil Commissioner.

Governor of Sierra Leone[edit]

In February 1881, Havelock was assigned his first governorship in Sierra Leone and the West African settlements. In addition, he was appointed British consul to Liberia, and became involved in a major border dispute between Liberia and Great Britain.

The area in question was known as the Gallinas territory, an area lying between the Sewa River and the Mano River, and the vague border between Sierra Leone and Liberia had been unsettled for years. On 20 March 1882, Havelock led a flotilla of four British gunboats to the Liberian capital Monrovia, issuing a demand that Liberia cede all territories up to the Mafa River to Great Britain, and pay an indemnity of £8,500 to British merchant traders for injuries inflicted in 1871 by tribes inhabiting the area of the British claim. A treaty was signed, but its ratification was refused by the Liberian Senate, and Havelock and his gunboats returned to Monrovia in September that year, demanding immediate acknowledgement of the British claims, and ratification of the treaty. The senate refused once more, and although Havelock's diplomacy prevented a bloody conflict, British troops from Sierra Leone marched into the disputed territory several months later. Despite the support of the United States, Liberia realised that resisting the British claim was futile, and signed the treaty in London on 22 November 1885.[2] The border was finally settled in 1903 by a mixed commission from both countries.

Governor of Trinidad, Natal[edit]

In 1885, Havelock was appointed Governor of Trinidad, and in 1886, Governor of Natal, where he dealt with the annexation of Zululand in 1887, and an unsuccessful rebellion led by Dinuzulu kaCetshwayo in 1888. He returned to England in 1889, and served on the international anti-slavery commission in Brussels.[1]

Governor of Ceylon, Madras[edit]

In March 1890, Havelock was appointed Governor of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka),[3] where his actions included extending the country's railways to Kurunegala and Bandarawela, and abolishing the 'paddy tax', a levy on rice cultivation.[4] He returned to his childhood home of India as Governor of Madras from 1896 to 1900.

Governor of Tasmania[edit]

Havelock left Madras in 1901, and was offered the governorships of the Straits Settlements in Malaya and Victoria in Australia, which he declined due to ill health caused by many stressful years in tropical climates. He was then offered the post of Governor of Tasmania, which he accepted in May 1901,[5] arriving in Hobart to be sworn in on 8 November.[6] His health, however, continued to decline and he made the decision to cut short his term as governor to only two-and-a-half years. He notified the premier, William Propsting, of his resignation on 6 January 1904, and left Tasmania on 16 April.[7]

Later life[edit]

Havelock returned to England, and retired to Torquay, Devon. [8]

On 15 August 1871, he married Anne Grace, née Norris, who died in early 1908. Havelock himself died at Bath, Somerset less than six months later on 25 June. He was survived by a daughter.[7]

Honours[edit]

The Havelock Bridge spanning Godavari river at Rajahmundry, India was named after him in the year 1900.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e G. S. Woods, ‘Havelock, Sir Arthur Elibank (1844–1908)’, rev. Lynn Milne, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Oct 2005, accessed 21 April 2008.
  2. ^ Duignan, Peter; Lewis H. Gann (1984). The United States and Africa: A History. Cambridge University Press. p. 121. ISBN 0-521-33571-X. 
  3. ^ London Gazette issue 26033, 14 March 1890[dead link]
  4. ^ Michael W. Roberts: Grain Taxes in British Ceylon, 1832-1878: Problems in the Field, The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 27, No. 4 (Aug., 1968), pp. 809-834.
  5. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27318. p. 3633. 28 May 1901.
  6. ^ "Tasmania" The Times (London). Saturday, 9 November 1901. (36608), p. 8.
  7. ^ a b George B. Cartland, Havelock, Sir Arthur Elibank (1844 - 1908), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 9, Melbourne University Press, 1983, pp 228-229.
  8. ^  Woods, Gabriel Stanley (1912). "Havelock, Arthur Elibank". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography, 1912 supplement​. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 
  9. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27309. p. 2945. 30 April 1901.
  10. ^ Khan, Mukram. "The Havelock Bridge Meorial Stone | Flickr - Photo Sharing!". Flickr. Retrieved 2012-07-30. 
Government offices
Preceded by
Roger Tuckfield Goldsworthy
President of Nevis
1877–1878
Succeeded by
Charles Spencer Salmon
Preceded by
Sir William Des Vœux
Administrator of Saint Lucia
1878–1879
Succeeded by
Sir Roger Goldsworthy
Preceded by
Sir Samuel Rowe
Governor of Sierra Leone
1881–1884
Succeeded by
Sir Samuel Rowe
Preceded by
Sir Sanford Freeling
Governor of Trinidad
1885
Succeeded by
William Robinson
Preceded by
Sir Henry Bulwer
Governor of Natal
1886–1889
Succeeded by
Sir Charles Mitchell
Preceded by
Arthur Hamilton-Gordon
Governor of Ceylon
1890–1895
Succeeded by
Edward Noël Walker
acting governor
Preceded by
Beilby Lawley, 3rd Baron Wenlock
Governor of Madras
1896–1900
Succeeded by
Arthur Russell, 2nd Baron Ampthill
Preceded by
Jenico Preston, 14th Viscount Gormanston
Governor of Tasmania
1901–1904
Succeeded by
Gerald Strickland