Sir Arthur Harris, 1st Baronet

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Sir Arthur Harris, 1st Baronet
Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Harris.jpg
Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur Harris, 24 April 1944
Nickname(s) Bomber, Butcher
Born (1892-04-13)13 April 1892
Cheltenham, Gloucestershire
Died 5 April 1984(1984-04-05) (aged 91)
Henley, Oxfordshire
Allegiance  United Kingdom
Service/branch  British Army
 Royal Air Force
Years of service 1914–1946
Rank Marshal of the Royal Air Force
Commands held RAF Bomber Command
No. 5 Group RAF
No. 4 Group RAF
RAF Pembroke Dock
No. 210 Squadron RAF
No. 58 Squadron RAF
No. 45 Squadron RAF
No. 31 Squadron RAF
No. 50 Squadron RAF
No. 44 Squadron RAF
No. 191 Squadron RAF
Battles/wars First World War
Arab revolt in Palestine
Second World War
Awards Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Officer of the Order of the British Empire
Air Force Cross
Mentioned in Despatches (2)
Order of Suvorov (USSR)
Distinguished Service Medal (United States)
Legion of Merit (United States)
Order of Polonia Restituta (Poland)
Order of the Southern Cross (Brazil)
Legion of Honour (France)
Croix de guerre (France)
Other work Manager of the South African Marine Corporation

Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Arthur Travers Harris, 1st Baronet GCBOBEAFC (13 April 1892 – 5 April 1984), commonly known as "Bomber" Harris by the press, and often within the RAF as "Butcher" Harris,[N 1] He was Air Officer Commanding-in-Chief (AOC-in-C) RAF Bomber Command during the latter half of the Second World War. In 1942, the British Cabinet agreed to the "area bombing" of German cities. Harris was tasked with implementing Churchill's policy and supported the development of tactics and technology to perform the task more effectively. Harris assisted British Chief of the Air Staff Marshal of the Royal Air Force Charles Portal in carrying out the United Kingdom's most devastating attacks against the German infrastructure and population, including the Bombing of Dresden.

In 1910, at the age of 17, Harris emigrated to Southern Rhodesia, but he returned to England in 1915 to fight in the European theatre of the First World War. He joined the Royal Flying Corps, with which he remained until the formation of the Royal Air Force in 1918, and he remained in the Air Force through the 1920s and 1930s, serving in India, Mesopotamia, Persia, Egypt, Palestine, and elsewhere. At the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, Harris took command of No. 5 Group RAF in England, and in February 1942 was appointed head of Bomber Command. He retained that position for the rest of the war.

Harris's continued preference for area bombing over precision targeting in the last year of the war remains controversial, partly because by this time many senior Allied air commanders thought it less effective and partly for the large number of civilian casualties and destruction this strategy caused in Continental Europe.

Early life[edit]

Childhood[edit]

Harris was born on 13 April 1892, at Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, where his parents were staying while his father, George Steel Travers Harris,[2] was on home leave from the Indian Civil Service. With his father in India most of the time, Harris grew up without a sense of solid roots and belonging; he spent much of his older childhood with the family of a Kent rector, the Reverend C E Graham-Jones, whom he later recalled fondly.[3] Harris was educated at Allhallows School in Devon, while his two older brothers were educated at the more prestigious Sherborne and Eton, respectively; according to biographer Henry Probert, this was because Sherborne and Eton were expensive and "there was not much money left for number three".[4]

Rhodesia[edit]

A former Allhallows student, the actor Arthur Chudleigh, often visited the school and gave the boys free tickets to his shows. Harris received such a ticket in 1909, and went to see the play during his summer holidays. The lead character in the show was a Rhodesian farmer who returned to England to wed, but ultimately fell out with his pompous fiancée and married the more practical housemaid instead. The idea of a country where one was judged on ability rather than class was very inspiring to the young, adventurous Harris, who promptly told his father (who had just retired and returned to England) that he intended to emigrate to Southern Rhodesia instead of going back to Allhallows for the new term. Harris's father was disappointed, having had in mind a military or civil service career for his son, but agreed when Harris showed no sign of changing his mind.[5]

In early 1910, Harris senior paid his son's passage on the SS Inanda to Beira in Mozambique, from where he travelled to Umtali in Manicaland by rail.[5] Harris earned his living over the next few years mining, coach-driving and farming.[6] He received a more permanent position in November 1913, when he was taken on by Crofton Townsend, a man from near Cork in Ireland who had moved to Rhodesia and founded Lowdale Farm near Mazoe in Mashonaland in 1903. Harris quickly gained his employer's trust, and was made farm manager at Lowdale when Townsend went to visit England for a year in early 1914. Having acquired the skills necessary to ranch successfully in Rhodesia, Harris decided that he would start his own farm in the country as soon as Townsend returned.[7] According to Probert, Harris by now regarded himself "primarily as a Rhodesian", a self-identification he would retain for the rest of his life.[8]

Military career[edit]

First World War[edit]

A military unit stands on parade, rifles shouldered, in the middle of a town. Large crowds are gathered around.
The 1st Rhodesia Regiment parades in Bulawayo on its way to South Africa in November 1914. Harris was with the unit as a bugler.

When the First World War broke out in August 1914, Harris did not learn of it for nearly a month, being out in the bush at the time. Despite his previous reluctance to follow the path his father had had in mind for him in the army, and his desire to set up his own ranch in Rhodesia, Harris felt patriotically compelled to join the war effort. He quickly attempted to join the 1st Rhodesia Regiment, which had been raised by the British South Africa Company administration to help put down the Maritz Rebellion in South Africa, but he found that only two places were available; that of a machine-gunner or that of a bugler. Having learnt to bugle at Allhallows, he successfully applied for the bugler slot and was sworn in on 20 October 1914.[9]

The 1st Rhodesia Regiment briefly garrisoned Bloemfontein, then served alongside the South African forces in South-West Africa during the first half of 1915. The campaign made a strong impression on Harris, particularly the long desert marches—some three decades later, he wrote that "to this day I never walk a step if I can get any sort of vehicle to carry me".[10] South-West Africa also provided Harris with his first experience of aerial bombing: the sole German aircraft in South-West Africa attempted to drop artillery shells on his unit, but failed to do any damage.[10]

When the South-West African Campaign ended in July 1915, the 1st Rhodesia Regiment was withdrawn to Cape Town, where it was disbanded; Harris was formally discharged on 31 July. He felt initially that he had done his part for the Empire, and went back to Rhodesia to resume work at Lowdale, but he and many of his former comrades soon reconsidered when it became clear that the war in Europe was going to last much longer than they had expected. They were reluctant to join the 2nd Rhodesia Regiment, which was being raised to serve in East Africa, perceiving the "bush whacking" of the war's African theatre as inferior to the "real war" in Europe. Harris sailed for England from Beira at the Company administration's expense in August, a member of a 300-man party of white Southern Rhodesian war volunteers. He arrived in October 1915, moved in with his parents in London and, after unsuccessfully attempting to find spaces in first the cavalry, then the Royal Artillery, joined the Royal Flying Corps[11] as a second lieutenant on probation on 6 November 1915.[12]

Harris learned to fly at Brooklands in late 1915 and, having been confirmed in his rank[13] and then promoted to flying officer on 29 January 1916,[14] he then served with distinction on the home front and in France during 1917 as a flight commander and ultimately CO of No. 45 Squadron, flying the Sopwith 1½ Strutter and Sopwith Camel. Before he returned to Britain to command No. 44 Squadron on Home Defence duties, Harris claimed five enemy aircraft destroyed and was awarded the Air Force Cross (AFC) on 2 November 1918.[15][16] Intending to return to Rhodesia one day, Harris wore a "rhodesia" shoulder flash on his uniform.[17] He finished the war a major.[18]

Inter-war years[edit]

Harris remained in the newly formed Royal Air Force (RAF) following the end of the First World War, choosing an air force career over a return to Rhodesia because he and his first wife Barbara had just had their first child, and he did not think Barbara would enjoy being a Rhodesian farmer's wife.[19] In April 1920 Squadron Leader Harris was jointly appointed station commander of RAF Digby and commander of No. 3 Flying Training School. He later served in different functions in India, Mesopotamia and Persia. He said of his service in India that he first got involved in bombing in the usual annual North West Frontier tribesmen trouble. In Mesopotamia he commanded a Vickers Vernon squadron. "We cut a hole in the nose and rigged up our own bomb racks and I turned those machines into the heaviest and best bombers in the command".[20] Harris also contributed at this time to the development of bombing using delay-action bombs, which were then applied to keep down uprisings of the Mesopotamian peoples fighting against British occupation. With regard to this period, Harris is recorded as having remarked "the only thing the Arab understands is the heavy hand."[21]

During the 1920s Harris occasionally doubted his decision to remain with the RAF rather than going back to Rhodesia; he submitted his resignation in May 1922, but was persuaded to stay.[22] Two years later he was posted to the UK to command the first post-war heavy bomber squadron (No. 58). His commander in Iraq had been the future Chief of the Air Staff Sir John Salmond, who was also one of his commanders back in Britain. Together they developed "night training for night operations".[20] He was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire on 3 June 1927[23] and promoted to wing commander on 1 July 1927.[24]

From 1927 to 1929, Harris attended the Army Staff College at Camberley, where he discovered that at the college the Army kept 200 horses for the officers' fox hunting. At a time when all services were very short of equipment, the Army high command—which was still dominated by cavalry officers—clearly had a different set of priorities from technocrats like Harris,[20] who quipped that the army commanders would only be happy with the tank if someone developed one that "ate hay and there after made noises like a horse".[25] He also had a low opinion of the Navy; he commented that there were three things which should never be allowed on a well-run yacht "a wheel-barrow, an umbrella and a naval officer". Bernard Montgomery was one of the few army officers he met while at the college whom he liked; possibly because they shared certain underlying personality characteristics.[20]

His next command was of a flying-boat squadron, where he continued to develop night flying techniques. He was promoted to group captain on 30 June 1933.[26] From 1934 to 1937 he was the Deputy Director of Plans in the Air Ministry. He was posted to the Middle East Command in Egypt, as a senior Air Staff Officer. In 1936 Harris commented on the Palestinian Arab revolt that "one 250 lb. or 500 lb. bomb in each village that speaks out of turn" would satisfactorily solve the problem.[27] The same year he visited Southern Rhodesia in a professional capacity to help the Southern Rhodesian government set up its own air force.[28]

On 2 July 1937 Harris was promoted to air commodore[29] and in 1938 he was put in command of No. 4 (Bomber) Group. After a purchasing mission to the United States he was posted to Palestine and Trans-Jordan, where he became Officer Commanding the RAF contingent in that area with promotion to air vice-marshal on 1 July 1939.[30]

In this period Harris, and others, pressured senior staff for large strategic bombers, which could bomb German targets from England. This resulted in specifications from the Air Staff which led to the Avro Manchester, Handley Page Halifax and Short Stirling. The Manchester effectively became the Avro Lancaster.[31]

Second World War[edit]

Harris, circa 1943

Harris returned to Britain in September 1939 to take command of No. 5 Group.[32] Appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath on 11 July 1940[33] he was made Deputy Chief of the Air Staff in November 1940 and promoted to the acting rank of air marshal on 1 June 1941.[34]

The Butt Report, circulated in August 1941, found that in 1940 and 1941 only one in three attacking aircraft got within five miles (eight km) of their target.[35] As part of the response Harris was appointed Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C) of Bomber Command in February 1942.[36] He was advanced to Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on 11 June 1942.[37]

Professor Frederick Lindemann (later ennobled as Lord Cherwell), appointed the British government's leading scientific adviser with a seat in the Cabinet by his friend Prime Minister Winston Churchill, in 1942 presented a seminal paper to Cabinet advocating the area bombing of German cities in a strategic bombing campaign. It was accepted by Cabinet and Harris was directed to carry out the task (Area bombing directive). It became an important part of the total war waged against Germany.[38]

Harris said at the start of the bombing campaign that he was unleashing a whirlwind on Germany.

The Nazis entered this war under the rather childish delusion that they were going to bomb everyone else, and nobody was going to bomb them. At Rotterdam, London, Warsaw and half a hundred other places, they put their rather naive theory into operation. They sowed the wind, and now they are going to reap the whirlwind.[N 2][N 3]

At first the effects were limited because of the small numbers of aircraft used and the lack of navigational aids, resulting in scattered, inaccurate bombing. As production of better aircraft and electronic aids increased, Harris pressed for raids on a much larger scale, each to use 1,000 aeroplanes. In Operation Millennium Harris launched the first RAF "thousand bomber raid" against Cologne (Köln) on the night of 30 May/31 May 1942. This operation included the first use of a bomber stream, which was a tactical innovation designed to overwhelm the German night-fighters of the Kammhuber Line.[40]

Harris was promoted to temporary air marshal on 1 December 1942[41] and acting air chief marshal on 18 March 1943.[42]

Harris was just one of an influential group of high-ranking Allied air commanders who continued to believe that massive and sustained area bombing alone would force Germany to surrender. On a number of occasions he wrote to his superiors claiming the war would be over in a matter of months, first in August 1943 following the tremendous success of the Battle of Hamburg (codenamed Operation Gomorrah), and then again in January 1944. Winston Churchill continued to regard the area bombing strategy with distaste, and official public statements still maintained that Bomber Command was attacking only specific industrial and economic targets, with any civilian casualties or property damage being unintentional but unavoidable. In October 1943, emboldened by his success in Hamburg and increasingly irritated with Churchill's hesitance to endorse his tactics wholeheartedly, Harris urged the government to be honest with the public regarding the purpose of the bombing campaign:

the aim of the Combined Bomber Offensive...should be unambiguously stated [as] the destruction of German cities, the killing of German workers, and the disruption of civilised life throughout Germany.[43][44]
... the destruction of houses, public utilities, transport and lives, the creation of a refugee problem on an unprecedented scale, and the breakdown of morale both at home and at the battle fronts by fear of extended and intensified bombing, are accepted and intended aims of our bombing policy. They are not by-products of attempts to hit factories.[45]

However at this time many senior Allied air commanders still thought area bombing was less effective.[46]

In November 1943 Bomber Command began what became known as the Battle of Berlin: a series of massive raids on Berlin that lasted until March 1944. Harris sought to duplicate the victory at Hamburg, but Berlin proved to be a far more difficult nut to crack. Although severe general damage was inflicted, the city was much better prepared than Hamburg, and no firestorm was ever ignited. Anti-aircraft defences were also extremely effective and bomber losses were high; during this time the British lost 1,047 bombers, with a further 1,682 damaged, culminating in the disastrous raid on Nuremberg on 30 March 1944, when 94 bombers were shot down and 71 damaged, out of 795 aircraft.[47]

Harris was promoted to the substantive rank of air marshal on 1 January 1944[48] and awarded the Russian Order of Suvorov, First Class on 29 February 1944.[49]

After the Southern Rhodesian Prime Minister, Sir Godfrey Huggins, visited Harris in May 1944, Southern Rhodesia asked the UK government to appoint Harris as Governor at the end of the year, Huggins being keen to install a self-identifying Rhodesian in that office rather than a high-ranking British figure. Though keen to take the position, Harris felt he could not leave the war at this key stage, an opinion shared by Churchill, who turned down the Southern Rhodesian request.[50]

Heilbronn in 1945
Dresden in 1945

With the leadup to the D-Day invasions in 1944, Harris was ordered to switch targets for the French railway network, a switch he protested because he felt it compromised the continuing pressure on German industry and it was using Bomber Command for a purpose it was not designed or suited for. By September the Allied forces were well inland; at the Quebec Conference it was agreed that the Chief of the Air Staff, Royal Air Force (Portal), and the Commanding General, U.S. Army Air Forces (Arnold), should exercise control of all strategic bomber forces in Europe. Harris received a new directive to ensure continuation of a broad strategic bombing programme as well as adequate bomber support for General Eisenhower's ground operations. The over-all mission of the strategic air forces remained "the progressive destruction and dislocation of the German military, industrial and economic systems and the direct support of Land and Naval forces".[51]

After D-Day (6 June 1944), with the resumption of the strategic bomber campaign over Germany, Harris remained wedded to area bombardment. Historian Frederick Taylor argues that, because Harris lacked the necessary security clearance to know about Ultra, he had been given some information gleaned from Enigma, but not informed where it had come from. According to Taylor, this directly affected Harris's attitude concerning the effectiveness of the post-D-Day 1944 directives (orders) to target oil installations, as Harris did not know the Allied High Command was using high-level German sources to assess exactly how much Allied operations were impairing the German war effort. As a consequence Harris tended to see the directives to bomb specific oil and munitions targets as a high level command "panacea" (his word), and a distraction from the real task of making the rubble bounce in every large German city.[52] Harris was promoted to the substantive rank of air chief marshal on 16 August 1944.[53]

Historian Alfred C. Mierzejewski argues that both area bombing and attacks against fuel plants were ineffective against Germany's coal- and rail-based economy and that the bombing campaign only took a decisive turn in late 1944 when the allies switched to targeting railway-marshalling yards for the coal gateways of the Ruhr.[54] His summation is rejected by Sebastian Cox head of the Air Historical Branch (AHB). Cox notes that half of the oil was produced by Benzol plants located in the Ruhr. These areas were the primary target of Bomber Command in 1943 and the autumn of 1944. Cox concludes the targets were highly vulnerable to area attacks and suffered accordingly.[55] The American official history notes that Harris was ordered to cease attacks on oil in November 1944, as the bombing had been so effective none of the synthetic plants were operating effectively. The American history also includes information from Albert Speer, in which he points out Bomber Command's night attacks were the most effective.[56]

Harris was awarded the American Legion of Merit on 30 January 1945.[57]

In February 1945, Harris wrote "I do not personally regard the whole of the remaining cities of Germany as worth the bones of one British Grenadier".[58][N 4] In his memoirs he writes, "In spite of all that happened at Hamburg, bombing proved a relatively humane method".[60]

The most controversial raid of the war took place in the late evening of 13 February 1945. The bombing of Dresden by the RAF and USAAF resulting in a lethal firestorm which killed a large number of civilians. Estimates vary but the city authorities at the time estimated no more than 25,000 victims, a figure which subsequent investigations, including one commissioned by the city council in 2010, support.[61] Raids such as that on Pforzheim late in the war as Germany was falling have been criticised for causing high civilian casualties for little apparent military value. The culmination of Bomber Command's offensive occurred in March 1945 when the RAF dropped the highest monthly weight of ordnance in the entire war. The last raid on Berlin took place on the night of 21/22 April, just before the Soviets entered the city centre.[62] After that, most of the rest of the attacks made by the RAF were tactical missions. The last major strategic raid was the destruction of the oil refinery in Tønsberg in southern Norway by a large group Lancasters on the night of 25/26 April.[63]

Whenever the bombing campaign of World War II is considered it must be appreciated that the war was an "integrated process". As an example, quoting Albert Speer from his book Inside The Third Reich, "ten thousand [88mm] anti-aircraft guns ... could well have been employed in Russia against tanks and other ground targets".[64]

Post-war[edit]

After the War, Harris was awarded the Polish Order of Polonia Restituta First Class on 12 June 1945,[65] advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath on 14 June 1945[66] and appointed a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Southern Cross of Brazil on 13 November 1945.[67] He was also awarded the Distinguished Service Medal by the United States on 14 June 1946[68] and promoted to Marshal of the Royal Air Force on 1 January 1946.[69]

Within the postwar British government there was some disquiet about the level of destruction that had been created by the area-bombing of German cities towards the end of the war. He retired on 15 September 1946 and wrote his story of Bomber Command's achievements in Bomber Offensive. In this book he wrote, concerning Dresden, "I know that the destruction of so large and splendid a city at this late stage of the war was considered unnecessary even by a good many people who admit that our earlier attacks were as fully justified as any other operation of war. Here I will only say that the attack on Dresden was at the time considered a military necessity by much more important people than myself."[70] Bomber Command's crews were denied a separate campaign medal (despite being eligible for the Air Crew Europe Star and France and Germany Star) and, in protest at this establishment snub to his men, Harris refused a peerage in 1946; he was the sole commander-in-chief not to subsequently become a peer.[71]

Disappointed to have missed the opportunity to return to Southern Rhodesia as Governor because of the war, Harris wrote to Huggins in June 1945 that he would like to be considered if the office were ever open again, and that he would be interested in other Southern Rhodesian government appointments relating to aviation or perhaps entering politics there. "If I have deserved anything of my country—Rhodesia—it would delight me to have opportunity to serve her further," he wrote.[50] Huggins replied that he was sympathetic, but that none of these ideas was practical: Harris would be too old by the time a new Governor was needed; it might take years for Harris to enter Southern Rhodesian politics as he would first need to meet residency requirements, then cultivate support in a constituency; and Huggins felt he could not make promises about aviation posts with a general election coming up the following year.[50] Harris finally dropped his dream of a return to Rhodesia, deeming it unworkable, and in 1948 moved instead to South Africa, where he managed the South African Marine Corporation (Safmarine) from 1946 to 1953.[72]

In February 1953 Winston Churchill, now Prime Minister again, insisted that Harris accept a baronetcy and he became Baronet.[73][74] In the same year he returned to the UK, and lived his remaining years in the Ferry House in Goring-on-Thames, located directly adjacent to the River Thames.[75]

In 1974 Harris appeared in the acclaimed documentary series The World At War produced by Thames Television and shown on ITV. In the 12th episode entitled "Whirlwind: Bombing Germany (September 1939 – April 1944)", narrated by Laurence Olivier, Harris discusses at length the area-bombing strategy that he had developed while AOC-in-C of Bomber Command.[76]

Family[edit]

In 1935 Harris, aged forty-three, met Therese ('Jillie') Hearne, then twenty, through a mutual friend, and they married in 1938.[77] Their daughter Jacqueline Jill was born in 1939, and 'adored' by Harris.[78] She later married the Hon. Nicholas Assheton.[79]

Legacy[edit]

Statue of Harris outside the RAF Chapel, St. Clement Danes

Harris died on 5 April 1984, eight days before his 92nd birthday, at his home in Goring.[80] His only son died without an heir in 1996, at which date the Baronetcy of Harris, of Chipping Wycombe became extinct.[81]

In 1989, five years after Harris's death, a one-off feature-length drama about Harris's tenure as AOC-in-C of Bomber Command was broadcast under the title "Bomber Harris" on BBC Television, with John Thaw in the title role.[82]

Despite protests from Germany as well as some in Britain,[83] the Bomber Harris Trust (an RAF veterans' organisation formed to defend the good name of their commander) erected a statue of him outside the RAF Church of St. Clement Danes, London in 1992. It was unveiled by Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother who looked surprised when she was jeered by protesters, one of whom shouted "Harris was a war criminal". The line on the statue reads "The Nation owes them all an immense debt." The statue had to be kept under 24-hour guard for a period of months as it was often vandalised by protesters and iconoclasts.[84][85][86][87]

Phrases like "Bomber-Harris, do it again!" and "Bomber-Harris Superstar – Thanks from the red Antifa" are popular slogans among the so-called "Anti-Germans" which is a small radical left-wing political movement in Germany and Austria.[88]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The RAF Aircrew's nickname for Harris, "Butcher" or "Butch", was not given as a comment on the morality of his bombing policy. It was meant to refer to his seeming indifference to the losses his aircrew were suffering. The losses were staggering: a crew member on a British bomber had a shorter life expectancy than an infantryman in the trenches of World War I.[1]
  2. ^ The statement "They sowed the wind, and now they are going to reap the whirlwind" was taken from the Old Testament (Hosea 8–7).
  3. ^ Harris comments that he first made this comparison while standing with Portal watching the London Blitz.[39]
  4. ^ The phrase "worth the bones of one British grenadier" was a deliberate echo of a famous sentence used by German Chancellor Bismarck "The whole of the Balkans is not worth the bones of a single Pomeranian grenadier."[59]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Havers 2003, p. 69. See Ben Macintyre's review of Richard Overy, The Bombers and the Bombed: Allied Air War Over Europe, 1940–1945, 2013, in The New York Times Book Review, March 23, 2014, p. 16.
  2. ^ Probert 2006, p. 23.
  3. ^ Probert 2006, pp. 26–28.
  4. ^ Probert 2006, p. 24.
  5. ^ a b Probert 2006, pp. 27–30.
  6. ^ Longmate 1983, p. 138.
  7. ^ Probert 2006, p. 31.
  8. ^ Probert 2006, p. 32.
  9. ^ Probert 2006, p. 33.
  10. ^ a b Probert 2006, p. 35.
  11. ^ Probert 2006, pp. 35–36.
  12. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 29399. p. 12410. 10 December 1915. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  13. ^ The London Gazette: no. 29470. p. 1591. 11 February 1916. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  14. ^ The London Gazette: no. 29470. p. 1589. 11 February 1916. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  15. ^ Shores 1990, p. 185.
  16. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 30989. p. 12958. 1 November 1918. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  17. ^ Probert 2006, p. 43.
  18. ^ Probert 2006, p. 46.
  19. ^ Probert 2006, pp. 45–46.
  20. ^ a b c d Longmate 1983, p. 139.
  21. ^ Corum and Wray 2003, p. 65
  22. ^ Probert 2006, pp. 49–50.
  23. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 33280. p. 3611. 31 May 1927. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  24. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33290. p. 4240. 1 July 1927. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  25. ^ Harris 2005, p. 24
  26. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33955. p. 4386. 30 June 1933. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  27. ^ Gilmour, Ian and Andrew. "Terrorism Review." Journal of Palestine Studies, Volume 17, Issue 2, 1988, p. 131.
  28. ^ Probert 2006, pp. 72–74.
  29. ^ The London Gazette: no. 34414. p. 4253. 2 July 1937. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  30. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 34641. p. 4452. 30 June 1939. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  31. ^ Saward 1990, p47
  32. ^ Longmate 1983, p. 140.
  33. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 34893. p. 4245. 9 July 1940. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  34. ^ The London Gazette: no. 35183. p. 3231. 6 June 1941. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  35. ^ Longmate 1983, p. 121.
  36. ^ Longmate 1983, pp. 138, 140.
  37. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 35586. p. 2478. 5 June 1942. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  38. ^ "Blitzed by guidebook". BBC News. 27 March 2002. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
  39. ^ Harris 2005 p. 52.
  40. ^ "The Thousand Bomber raids, 30/31 May (Cologne) to 17 August 1942". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
  41. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 35813. p. 5338. 4 December 1942. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  42. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 35958. p. 1468. 26 March 1943. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  43. ^ Denson 1999, p. 352.
  44. ^ Garret 1993, pp. 32–33.
  45. ^ Sokolski 2004, p. 36.
  46. ^ Longmate 1983, p.137.
  47. ^ Hastings 1979, p. 261
  48. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 36314. p. 89. 31 December 1943. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  49. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 36401. p. 1010. 29 February 1944. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  50. ^ a b c Probert 2006, p. 358.
  51. ^ Pogue 1954, p. 273.
  52. ^ Taylor 2004, p. 202.
  53. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 36674. p. 3995. 25 August 1944. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  54. ^ Mierzejewski 1988, p. 47
  55. ^ Cox, Sebastian. "Sir Arthur Harris and some myths and controversies of the bomber offensive, Journal 47". RAF Historical Society. p. 6. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
  56. ^ Grey 2003, p. 166
  57. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 36915. p. 640. 26 January 1945. Retrieved 2009-07-26.
  58. ^ Cross 1995, p. 78.
  59. ^ Taylor 2004, p. 432.
  60. ^ Grayling 2006, p. 215
  61. ^ Neutzner 2003, p. 70
  62. ^ McInnis 1946, p. 115
  63. ^ Bamford 1996, p. 143
  64. ^ Speer 2009, p. 381
  65. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 37125. p. 3084. 10 June 1948. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  66. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 37119. p. 2936. 8 June 1945. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  67. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 37347. p. 5534. 8 June 1945. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  68. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 37610. p. 3007. 11 June 1946. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  69. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 37414. p. 187. 28 December 1945. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  70. ^ "Heroes & Villains – Churchill & Dresden – Was Churchill responsible?". The National Archives. p. 242. Retrieved 13 January 2011. 
  71. ^ Probert 2006, pp. 346–351.
  72. ^ Probert 2006, pp. 364–372.
  73. ^ The London Gazette: no. 39777. p. 906. 13 February 1953. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
  74. ^ Probert 2006, p. 374.
  75. ^ Peden 2003, p. 484
  76. ^ "Whirlwind: Bombing Germany (September 1939 – April 1944)." British Film Institute, 1974.
  77. ^ Saward 1990, p. 48
  78. ^ Saward 1990, p. 202
  79. ^ "Therese (née Hearne), Lady Harris; Jacqueline Jill Assheton (née Harris)". National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  80. ^ "Harris". Wilfrid Laurier University. Retrieved 8 November 2009. 
  81. ^ "Harris of Chipping Wycombe, Bucks". Leigh Rayment. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
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  84. ^ "Smashing statues through the ages". Socialist Worker. Retrieved 13 January 2011. 
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  88. ^ Bomber Harris, Superstar (German)

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Bevan, Robert (2006). The Destruction of Memory: Architecture at War. London: Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-319-2. 
  • Lambourne, Nicola (2001). War Damage in Western Europe: The Destruction of Historic Monuments During the Second World War. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1285-8. 

External links[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
H P Van Ryneveld
Officer Commanding No. 45 Squadron
(acting)

18–24 August 1917
Succeeded by
A M Vaucour
New title
Squadron established
Officer Commanding No. 191 Squadron
(Initially acting)

1917–1918
Succeeded by
Unknown
New title
Unit established
Officer Commanding No. 3 Flying Training School at RAF Digby
April 1920 – April 1922
School disbanded
Preceded by
Unknown
Officer Commanding No. 45 Squadron
20 November 1922 – 14 October 1924
Succeeded by
R M Hill
Preceded by
Unknown
Officer Commanding No. 58 Squadron
25 May 1925 – 28 July 1927
Succeeded by
E W Norton
Preceded by
R Leckie
Officer Commanding No. 210 Squadron
1933
Succeeded by
R H Kershaw
Officer Commanding RAF Pembroke Dock
1933
Preceded by
C F A Portal
RAF Deputy Director of Plans
1934–1937
Succeeded by
J C Slessor
Vacant
Title last held by
C R Samson
In 1919
Air Officer Commanding No. 4 Group
1937–1938
Succeeded by
C H B Blount
Preceded by
R M Hill
Air Officer Commanding RAF Palestine and Transjordan
1938–1939
Succeeded by
J H D'Albiac
Preceded by
W B Callaway
Air Officer Commanding No. 5 Group
1939–1940
Succeeded by
N H Bottomley
Preceded by
W S Douglas
Deputy Chief of the Air Staff
25 November 1940 – 27 May 1941
Succeeded by
N H Bottomley
Preceded by
J E A Baldwin
Commander-in-Chief Bomber Command
1942–1945
Succeeded by
Sir Norman Bottomley
Baronetage of the United Kingdom
New title Baronet
(of Chipping Wycombe in the County of Buckingham)

1953–1984
Succeeded by
Anthony Harris