Sir Charles Monro, 1st Baronet

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Charles Carmichael Monro
Charlesmonroe.jpg
General Sir Charles Monro
Born 15 June 1860
born at sea on the Maid of Judah
Died 7 December 1929 (aged 69)
Westminster, London, England
Allegiance  United Kingdom
Service/branch Flag of the British Army.svg British Army
Years of service 1878–1920
Rank General
Commands held 13th Infantry Brigade
2nd London Division
2nd Division
I Corps
3rd Army
Mediterranean Expeditionary Force
1st Army
British Army in India
Battles/wars First World War
Third Anglo-Afghan War
Awards Baronet
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George
Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India
Other work Governor of Gibraltar

General Sir Charles Carmichael Monro, 1st Baronet of Bearcrofts, GCB, GCSI, GCMG, (15 June 1860 – 7 December 1929) was a British Army general officer during the First World War and Commander-in-Chief, India for the latter part of the conflict. He later served as Governor of Gibraltar from 1923 to 1929.

Early military career[edit]

Educated at Sherborne School and the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, Monro was commissioned into the 2nd Regiment of Foot as a second lieutenant on 13 August 1879.[1][2][3] He was promoted to lieutenant on 15 May 1881 and to captain on 24 July 1889.[4][5] Promoted to major on 23 February 1898,[6] he served in the Second Boer War and was successively appointed a brigade major and a deputy assistant adjutant general on 15 April 1899.[7] He was present at the Battle of Paardeberg in 1900.[1] Promoted to temporary lieutenant-colonel in 1900, he was brevetted to lieutenant-colonel on 29 November 1900.[8] On 28 March 1903, he was promoted to the substantive rank of lieutenant-colonel and appointed commandant of the School of Musketry.[9][10] Promoted to colonel in 1906, he was appointed Commander of 13th Infantry Brigade in Dublin on 12 May 1907, with the temporary rank of brigadier-general.[1][11] Promoted to major-general on 31 October 1910, on 31 March 1912 he became General Officer Commanding 2nd London Division.[12][13]

First World War[edit]

On 5 August 1914, at the start of the First World War, Monro was deployed to France as General Officer Commanding 2nd Division and played an important part in the First Battle of Ypres.[1][14] On 27 December 1914 he became General Officer Commanding I Corps, with the temporary rank of lieutenant-general.[15] On 15 July 1915, he was made General Officer Commanding Third Army, with the temporary rank of general.[1][16] He was promoted to the permanent rank of lieutenant-general on 28 October.[17] After the Gallipoli Campaign, General Ian Hamilton was dismissed as Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force and replaced by Charles Monro in October 1915.[1] Monro ordered the evacuation of troops from Gallipoli.[1]

In 1916 Monro briefly commanded the British First Army in France before becoming Commander-in-Chief India later that year.[1] As Commander-in-Chief, India Monro had responsibility for the Mesopotamian campaign. Robertson told him to “keep up a good show” (1 August 1916) in Mesopotamia but not to make any further attempt to take Baghdad, but this was overruled by Curzon and Chamberlain on the War Committee. Monro inspected Maude’s forces on his way out to India, and after receiving his favourable report the War Committee authorised Maude to attack (18 September 1916).[18] On 1 October 1916, Monro was promoted to the substantive rank of general as a reward for his wartime service.[19]

Later life[edit]

In May 1921, Monro was raised to the baronetcy as Baronet of Bearcrofts in the Shire of Stirling.[20] In 1923 Monro was appointed Governor of Gibraltar.[1] Monro died in 1929 and is buried in Brompton Cemetery, London.[21] His baronetcy became extinct upon his death.

Funerary monument, Brompton Cemetery, London

Honours[edit]

British[edit]

Others[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Sir Charles Monro at Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  2. ^ Barrow, Gen. Sir George (1931). "The Life of General Sir Charles Carmichael Monro". London: Hutchinson & Co. 
  3. ^ The London Gazette: no. 24751. p. 4900. 12 August 1879. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  4. ^ The London Gazette: no. 25007. p. 4347. 23 August 1881. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  5. ^ The London Gazette: no. 25970. p. 4787. 3 September 1889. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  6. ^ The London Gazette: no. 26941. p. 1118. 22 February 1898. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  7. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27074. p. 2629. 25 April 1899. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  8. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27306. p. 2705. 19 April 1901. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  9. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27546. p. 2618. 24 April 1903. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  10. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27551. p. 2987. 12 May 1903. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  11. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28024. p. 3593. 24 May 1907. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  12. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28433. p. 7908. 4 November 1910. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  13. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28600. p. 2792. 19 April 1912. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  14. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 28921. p. 7787. 29 September 1914. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  15. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 29048. p. 785. 22 January 1915. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  16. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 29267. p. 8247. 17 August 1915. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  17. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 29341. p. 10615. 26 October 1915. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  18. ^ Woodward, 1998, pp118-9
  19. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 30129. p. 5850. 12 June 1917. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  20. ^ a b The London Gazette: no. 32323. p. 3846. 13 May 1921. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  21. ^ Brompton Cemetery List of notable occupants
  22. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 29507. p. 2872. 14 March 1916. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  23. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 31097. p. 81. 31 December 1918. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  24. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 29074. p. 1686. 16 February 1915. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  25. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 27926. p. 4460. 26 June 1906. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  26. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 31379. p. 7046. 30 May 1919. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  27. ^ The London Gazette: no. 29290. p. 8986. 10 September 1915. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  28. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 31345. p. 6208. 16 May 1919. Retrieved 10 March 2015.

Further reading[edit]

  • Woodward, David R. "Field Marshal Sir William Robertson", Westport Connecticut & London: Praeger, 1998, ISBN 0-275-95422-6

External links[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
Henry Lawson
General Officer Commanding the 2nd Division
August 1914 – December 1914
Succeeded by
Henry Horne
Preceded by
Douglas Haig
GOC I Corps
December 1914 – July 1915
Succeeded by
Hubert Gough
Preceded by
new creation
Commander of the British Third Army
July 1915 – September 1915
Succeeded by
Sir Edmund Allenby
Preceded by
Sir John Maxwell
General Officer Commanding the British Troops in Egypt
and Commander of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force

October 1915 – January 1916
Succeeded by
Sir Archibald Murray
Preceded by
Sir Henry Rawlinson
Commander of the British First Army
January 1916 – October 1916
Succeeded by
Sir Henry Horne
Preceded by
Sir Beauchamp Duff
Commander-in-Chief, India
1916–1920
Succeeded by
The Lord Rawlinson
Preceded by
Sir Edward Hamilton
Colonel of the Queen's Royal Regiment (West Surrey)
1920–1929
Succeeded by
Sir Wilkinson Bird
Preceded by
B. T. L. Thomson
Honorary Colonel of the 23rd London Regiment
1922–1928
Succeeded by
The Lord Astor of Hever
Government offices
Preceded by
Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien
Governor of Gibraltar
1923–1928
Succeeded by
Sir Alexander Godley
Baronetage of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
New Creation
Baronet
(of Bearcrofts)
1920–1929
Succeeded by
Extinct
Heraldic offices
Preceded by
Sir George Callaghan
King of Arms of the Order of the Bath
1920–1929
Succeeded by
Sir William Pakenham