Sir Charles Pole, 1st Baronet

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the British merchant and MP, see Charles Pole (1695–1779).
Sir Charles Pole, 1st Baronet
Captain Charles Morice Pole, by John Francis Rigaud.jpg
Charles Morice Pole (John Francis Rigaud, 1781)
Born (1757-01-18)18 January 1757
Died 6 September 1830(1830-09-06) (aged 73)
Aldenham Abbey, Hertfordshire
Allegiance United Kingdom United Kingdom
Service/branch Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Royal Navy
Years of service 1770–1806
Rank Admiral of the Fleet
Commands held HMS Cormorant
HMS Britannia
HMS Hussar
HMS Success
HMS Crown
HMS Melampus
HMS Illustrious
HMS Colossus
Baltic Fleet
Battles/wars American Revolutionary War
French Revolutionary Wars
Napoleonic Wars
Awards Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Charles Morice Pole, 1st Baronet (18 January 1757 – 6 September 1830) was a Royal Navy officer and colonial governor. As a junior officer he saw action at the Siege of Pondicherry in India during the American Revolutionary War. After taking command of the fifth-rate HMS Success he captured and then destroyed the Spanish frigate Santa Catalina in the Strait of Gibraltar in the action of 16 March 1782 later in that War.

After capturing the French privateer Vanneau in June 1793, Pole took part in the Siege of Toulon at an early stage of the French Revolutionary Wars. He went on to be governor and commander-in-chief of Newfoundland and then commanded the Baltic Fleet later in the War. He also served as a Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty on the Admiralty Board led by Viscount Howick during the Napoleonic Wars.

Early career[edit]

Born the second son of Reginald Pole and Anne Pole (née Buller), Pole was educated at Plympton Grammar School before joining the Royal Naval Academy at Portsmouth in January 1770.[1] He was appointed to the fifth-rate HMS Thames in 1772 and then transferred to the fourth-rate HMS Salisbury on the East Indies Station in December 1773.[2] Promoted to lieutenant on 26 June 1777, he was assigned to the sixth-rate HMS Seahorse and then transferred to the fourth-rate HMS Rippon in 1778 and saw action at the Siege of Pondicherry in India in October 1778 during the American Revolutionary War.[2] He then became commanding officer of the sloop HMS Cormorant and was sent home with the despatches.[2]

The action of 16 March 1782 at which Pole captured and then destroyed the Spanish frigate Santa Catalina in the Strait of Gibraltar

Promoted to captain on 22 March 1779, Pole became commanding officer of the first-rate HMS Britannia, flagship of Rear Admiral George Darby, Second-in-Command of the Channel Squadron.[2] He transferred to the command of the sixth-rate HMS Hussar in 1780 which ran aground off Hell Gate although he was acquitted at the subsequent court-martial.[2] He was given command of the fifth-rate HMS Success and in her, while undertaking an escort mission in support of the armed store-ship HMS Vernon, captured and then destroyed the Spanish frigate Santa Catalina in the Strait of Gibraltar in the action of 16 March 1782.[2]

Following the end of the War, Pole was given command of the third-rate HMS Crown before becoming Groom of the Bedchamber to the Duke of Clarence on 1 June 1789.[3] He became commanding officer of the fifth-rate HMS Melampus in 1790, in which he watched the French fleet at Brest, and of the third-rate HMS Illustrious in 1791.[2]

Pole transferred to the command of the third-rate HMS Colossus in the Mediterranean Fleet in early 1793 and, after capturing the French privateer Vanneau in June 1793, took part in the Siege of Toulon at an early stage of the French Revolutionary Wars.[2]

Senior command[edit]

Sir Charles Pole, later in his career

Promoted to rear-admiral on 1 June 1795, Pole became Second-in-Command of the West Indies Station with his flag in HMS Colossus.[4] He went on to be Captain of the Fleet in the Channel Squadron under Lord Bridport in March 1797.[4] It fell to Pole to advise the Admiralty about the strikes by sailors demanding better pay and conditions which came to be know as the Spithead mutiny.[4] Pole returned to Spithead with negotiators from the Admiralty but talks broke down when Admiral Sir Alan Gardner threatened to hang all the mutineers.[4]

Aldenham Abbey, Pole's house in Hertfordshire

Pole became governor and commander-in-chief of Newfoundland on 3 June 1800: following his appointment he focussed on dealing with a serious outbreak of smallpox that had taken place, deploying the latest practices in inoculation and establishing a "Committee for the Relief of the Poor".[5] Promoted to vice-admiral on 1 January 1801,[6] he became Commander-in-Chief of the Baltic Fleet, with his flag in the second-rate HMS St George in June 1801.[4]

Pole was created a baronet on 18 August 1801[7] and then became Member of Parliament for Newark in 1802.[4] In December 1802 he was asked to chair a commission of naval inquiry into abuses in the civil administration which reported in May 1803.[1]

Promoted to full admiral on 9 November 1805,[8] Pole was present at the funeral of Lord Nelson in January 1806.[9] He became a Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty on the Admiralty Board led by Viscount Howick in February 1806.[10] He was also elected Member of Parliament for Plymouth in November 1806.[11] However he stood down as a Lord Commissioner when the Second Portland Ministry took power in March 1807: in Parliament he became increasingly critical of the new Government particularly in relation to their handling of the raid on Copenhagen in 1807 (which led to the Anglo-Russian War) and the Convention of Sintra in 1808 (which allowed the French to evacuate their troops from Portugal).[1]

Pole was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on 12 April 1815[12] and advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath on 20 April 1818.[13] He went on to be Deputy Governor of the Bank of England in 1818[14] and Governor of the Bank of England in 1820.[15] He became Sheriff of Hertfordshire in November 1824,[16] and having been promoted to Admiral of the Fleet on 22 July 1830,[17] he died at his home, Aldenham Abbey, on 6 September 1830.[4]

Family[edit]

In 1792 Pole married Henrietta Goddard; they had two daughters.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Sir Charles Pole, 1st Baronet". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 7 April 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Heathcote, p. 211
  3. ^ The London Gazette: no. 13102. p. 417. 2 June 1789. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Heathcote, p. 212
  5. ^ "Sir Charles Pole, 1st Baronet". Government House, Newfoundland. Retrieved 7 April 2015. 
  6. ^ The London Gazette: no. 15324. p. 9. 30 December 1800. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
  7. ^ The London Gazette: no. 15397. p. 1006. 15 August 1801. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
  8. ^ The London Gazette: no. 15859. p. 1373. 5 November 1805. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
  9. ^ The London Gazette: no. 15881. p. 59. 14 January 1806. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
  10. ^ "Sainty, JC, Lord High Admiral and Commissioners of the Admiralty 1660-1870', Office-Holders in Modern Britain: Volume 4: Admiralty Officials 1660-1870 (1975), pp. 18-31.". Retrieved 4 September 2009. 
  11. ^ The London Gazette: no. 15975. p. 1496. 15 November 1806. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
  12. ^ The London Gazette: no. 17004. p. 725. 18 April 1815. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
  13. ^ The London Gazette: no. 17334. p. 352. 21 February 1818. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
  14. ^ "Deputy Governors" (PDF). Bank of England. Retrieved 7 April 2015. 
  15. ^ "Governors" (PDF). Bank of England. Retrieved 7 April 2015. 
  16. ^ The London Gazette: no. 18079. p. 1858. 13 November 1824. Retrieved 7 April 2015.
  17. ^ The London Gazette: no. 18709. p. 1539. 23 July 1830. Retrieved 7 April 2015.

Sources[edit]

  • Heathcote, Tony (2002). The British Admirals of the Fleet 1734 – 1995. Pen & Sword. ISBN 0-85052-835-6. 

External links[edit]

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Mark Wood and
Henry Willoughby
Member of Parliament for Newark
18021806
With: Henry Willoughby
Succeeded by
Stapleton Cotton and
Henry Willoughby
Preceded by
William Elford
Thomas Tyrwhitt
Member of Parliament for Plymouth
18061818
With: Thomas Tyrwhitt to 1812
Colonel Benjamin Bloomfield 1812
Sir William Congreve from 1812
Succeeded by
Sir Thomas Byam Martin
Sir William Congreve
Court offices
Preceded by
Earl of Mount Charles
Master of the Robes
1830
Succeeded by
Sir George Seymour
Political offices
Preceded by
William Waldegrave
Commodore Governor of Newfoundland
1800–1801
Succeeded by
James Gambier
Baronetage of the United Kingdom
New creation Baronet
(of the Navy)
1801–1830
Extinct