John Anderson, 1st Viscount Waverley

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For other people named John Anderson, see John Anderson (disambiguation).
The Right Honourable
The Viscount Waverley
GCB OM GCSI GCIE PC PC (Ire)
John Anderson cropped.jpg
Chancellor of the Exchequer
In office
24 September 1943 – 26 July 1945
Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Preceded by Kingsley Wood
Succeeded by Hugh Dalton
Lord President of the Council
In office
3 October 1940 – 24 September 1943
Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Preceded by Neville Chamberlain
Succeeded by Clement Attlee
Home Secretary
In office
4 September 1939 – 3 October 1940
Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
Winston Churchill
Preceded by Samuel Hoare
Succeeded by Herbert Morrison
Lord Privy Seal
In office
27 October 1938 – 4 September 1939
Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
Preceded by Herbrand Sackville
Succeeded by Samuel Hoare
Member of Parliament
for Combined Scottish Universities
In office
25 February 1938 – 23 February 1950
Preceded by Ramsay MacDonald
Succeeded by Constituency Abolished
Personal details
Born (1882-07-08)8 July 1882
Eskbank, Midlothian, Scotland
Died 4 January 1958(1958-01-04) (aged 75)
Political party National
John Anderson, Viscount Waverley, by Jacob Epstein, 1960

John Anderson, 1st Viscount Waverley, GCB, OM, GCSI, FRS[1] GCIE, PC, PC (Ireland) (8 July 1882 – 4 January 1958) was a British civil servant and politician who is best known for his service in the Cabinet during the Second World War, for which he was nicknamed The Home Front Prime Minister. He served as Home Secretary, Lord President of the Council and Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Anderson shelters are named after him.

Early life[edit]

He was born in Eskbank, part of Dalkeith in Midlothian and studied mathematics and geology at the University of Edinburgh and chemistry at the University of Leipzig where he wrote a thesis on the chemistry of uranium. He was a brilliant student, winning numerous prizes, but at the age of 22 he decided to forsake a career in science and sat for the British civil service examinations, coming first, while also taking a degree in economics. In later life he was elected an honorary Fellow of the Royal Society.[1]

He was appointed to the Colonial Office in 1905.

Aged only thirty-four, Anderson headed the Civil Service staff of the new Ministry of Shipping in 1917.[2] Later, he served as Under-Secretary for Ireland, and became Permanent Under-Secretary of State at the Home Office in 1922, where he had to deal with the General Strike of 1926. His career in the civil service was capped by a posting as Governor of Bengal from 1932 to 1937.

Public career[edit]

In early 1938, Anderson was elected to the House of Commons by the Scottish Universities as a National Independent Member of Parliament, a non-party supporter of the National Government. In October that year he entered Neville Chamberlain's Cabinet as Lord Privy Seal. In that capacity, he was put in charge of air raid preparations. He initiated the development of a kind of air-raid shelter named the "Anderson shelter", a small sheet metal cylinder made of prefabricated pieces which could be assembled in a garden.

War time[edit]

After the outbreak of war in 1939, Anderson returned to hold the joint portfolio of Home Secretary and Minister of Home Security, a position in which he served under Winston Churchill, often attending his War Cabinet. He retained responsibility for civil defence. In October 1940, he was replaced by Herbert Morrison in a reshuffle precipitated by Chamberlain's resignation over ill-health. He became Lord President of the Council and full member of the War Cabinet.

In 1941, he married Ava (Bodley) Wigram, widow of Ralph Wigram, a senior civil servant who had provided Winston Churchill with confidential military information during the 1930s.

In January 1945 the Prime Minister wrote to King George VI to advise that should he and his second-in-command (and heir apparent) Anthony Eden die during the war, John Anderson should become Prime Minister: 'it is the Prime Minister's duty to advise Your Majesty to send for Sir John Anderson in the event of the Prime Minister and the Foreign Secretary being killed.' Although not a member of a political party, Churchill thought Anderson had the abilities to lead the National Government, and that an independent figure was essential to the maintenance of the coalition. [3]

Following the unexpected death of Sir Kingsley Wood, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Anderson was appointed to that office. As Chancellor, in a written Commons answer of 12 June 1945, he announced the creation of the Arts Council of Great Britain, a successor body to the Council for the Encouragement of Music and the Arts (CEMA).[4] He remained in the post until the Labour victory in the general election early in July 1945 (not announced until August).

Post-war[edit]

He left the Commons when the University constituencies were abolished at the 1950 general election. Meanwhile he became Chairman of the Port of London authority in 1946 and Chairman of the Royal Opera House in March the same year.[5] He remained in the latter post for eleven years.

He rejected an offer to join Churchill's peacetime administration when it was formed in October 1951, and was created Viscount Waverley, of Westdean in the County of Sussex, in 1952, dying six years later.

Styles[edit]

  • 1882-1918: John Anderson
  • 1918-1919: John Anderson, CB
  • 1919-1920: Sir John Anderson, KCB
  • 1920-1923: Sir John Anderson, KCB, PC (Ire.)
  • 1923-1932: Sir John Anderson, GCB, PC (Ire.)
  • 1932-1937: His Excellency Sir John Anderson, GCB, GCIE, PC (Ire.)
  • 1937-1938: Sir John Anderson, GCB, GCSI, GCIE, PC (Ire.)
  • 1938-1945: The Right Honourable Sir John Anderson, GCB, GCSI, GCIE, PC, PC (Ire.)
  • 1945-1952: The Right Honourable Sir John Anderson, GCB, GCSI, GCIE, PC, PC (Ire.), FRS
  • 1952-1956: The Right Honourable the Viscount Waverley, GCB, GCSI, GCIE, PC, PC (Ire.), FRS
  • 1956-1958: The Right Honourable the Viscount Waverley, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, PC, PC (Ire.), FRS

See also[edit]

Biography[edit]

  • John Anderson, Viscount Waverley, 1962 by John Wheeler-Bennett Publisher: NY, St. Martin, 1962. 445 pp., illus. ASIN: B000UDUU48

Other books[edit]

  • Grigg, John. Lloyd George: War Leader, 1916–1918 Allen Lane, London 2002 ISBN 0-713-99343-X
  • Wheeler-Bennett, John. King George VI: His Life and Reign (London, 1958).

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Bridges, L.; Dale, H. (1958). "John Anderson, Viscount Waverley 1882-1958". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 4: 306. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1958.0024. 
  2. ^ Grigg 2002, p45-9
  3. ^ J. Wheeler-Bennet, King George VI: His Life and Reign (London, 1958), pp. 544-46.
  4. ^ Hansard, HC Debate 12 June 1945
  5. ^ Norman Lebrecht Covent Garden: the Untold Story: Dispatches From the English Culture War, 1945-2000, London: Simon & Schuster, 2000, p.80-81

External links[edit]

Government offices
Preceded by
James Macmahon
Macmahon also remained Joint Under-Secretary
Joint Permanent Under-Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
1920–1922
Office abolished
Preceded by
Sir Edward Troup
Permanent Under-Secretary for the Home Department
1922–1932
Succeeded by
Sir Russell Scott
Preceded by
Sir Stanley Jackson
Governor of Bengal
1932–1937
Succeeded by
The Lord Brabourne
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Ramsay MacDonald
Member of Parliament for Combined Scottish Universities
19381950
Constituency abolished
Political offices
Preceded by
The Earl De La Warr
Lord Privy Seal
1938–1939
Succeeded by
Sir Samuel Hoare
Preceded by
Sir Samuel Hoare
Home Secretary
1939–1940
Succeeded by
Herbert Morrison
Preceded by
Neville Chamberlain
Lord President of the Council
1940–1943
Succeeded by
Clement Attlee
Preceded by
Sir Kingsley Wood
Chancellor of the Exchequer
1943–1945
Succeeded by
Hugh Dalton
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Viscount Waverley
1952–1958
Succeeded by
David Alastair Pearson Anderson