|The Right Honourable
Sir Ninian Stephen
KG, AK, GCMG, GCVO, KBE, PC, QC
|20th Governor-General of Australia|
29 July 1982 – 16 February 1989
|Prime Minister||Malcolm Fraser
|Preceded by||Sir Zelman Cowen|
|Succeeded by||Bill Hayden|
|Justice of the High Court of Australia|
1 March 1972 – 11 May 1982
|Nominated by||William McMahon|
|Preceded by||Sir Victor Windeyer|
|Succeeded by||Sir William Deane|
|Judge of the Supreme Court of Victoria|
30 June 1970 – 29 February 1972
15 June 1923 |
Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire, England
|Spouse(s)||Valerie Sinclair (1949–present)|
|Years of service||1942–1946|
|Battles/wars||Second World War|
Sir Ninian Martin Stephen KG, AK, GCMG, GCVO, KBE, PC, QC (born 15 June 1923) is an Australian jurist, who served as the 20th Governor-General of Australia and as a Justice in the High Court of Australia.
Early life and education
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (March 2014)|
Stephen was born on 15 June 1923 in Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire, England. He was less than a year old when his father, Frederick, who had been a motorcycle courier in World War I, died, leaving him to be raised by his mother Barbara.
Stephen was educated at Scotch College and the University of Melbourne, but his studies were interrupted by World War II, in which he served as a corporal in the Australian Army, 3rd Water Transport Group (Royal Engineers), in New Guinea and Borneo, rising to the rank of lieutenant before discharge 1946.
Stephen completed his legal studies in 1950 and was called to the Victorian Bar in 1952.
On 30 June 1970, Stephen was appointed as a judge of the Supreme Court of Victoria, which is the highest ranking court in the Australian State of Victoria. He held this position until 29 February 1972, relinquishing it to take up his appointment as a Justice of the High Court of Australia.
Although Stephen was appointed by a Liberal government, he proved not to be a traditional conservative upholder of states' rights. He joined the "moderate centre" of the court, between the arch-conservatism of Sir Garfield Barwick and the radicalism of Lionel Murphy. In 1982 he was part of the majority that decided on a broad interpretation of the "external affairs power" of the Australian Constitution in the Koowarta v Bjelke-Petersen case.
In March 1982, on the advice of the Prime Minister, Malcolm Fraser, Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia appointed Stephen as Governor-General. He was sworn in on 29 July 1982, on the retirement of Sir Zelman Cowen. When Fraser was defeated by the Labor Party under Bob Hawke in 1983, Stephen had no difficulty working with a Labor government. In 1987, on Hawke's advice, the Queen extended Stephen's term by 18 months as a mark of personal respect and also to allow Bill Hayden (to whom Hawke had promised the position) to leave politics at a time of his choosing. Stephen is the only governor-general to have approved two double dissolutions – in 1983 (Malcolm Fraser) and 1987 (Bob Hawke).
In 1989, Stephen became the first Australian Ambassador for the Environment and, in his three-year term, was particularly energetic in working for a ban of mining in Antarctica. In 1991 he undertook a difficult task when he was appointed chairman of the second strand of the Northern Ireland peace talks. From 1993 to 1997, he was a judge on the international tribunals investigating war crimes in Yugoslavia and Rwanda. He has also been chairman of the Citizenship Council since 1998.. In 1994, he acted as a special envoy of the UN Secretary General to resolve political conflicts in Bangladesh.
Stephen has since moved back into the legal field, becoming president of the Arbitral Tribunal for the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes under Chapter 11 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
Titles, styles and honours
Stephen was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) on 20 April 1972 "for distinguished services to the Law" and sworn of the Privy Council in 1979. As Governor-General he was made a Knight of the Order of Australia (AK), Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) and Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (GCVO). In 1994 Queen Elizabeth II appointed him a Knight of the Garter (KG), being the most recent Australian to be granted a knighthood in the personal gift of the monarch of Australia. He therefore has the unusual distinction of holding five separate knighthoods and joined Lord Casey and Sir Paul Hasluck as one of the few Australian Knights of the Garter. In 1983 he received the French Légion d'honneur.
A detailed academic biography of Stephen, Fortunate Voyager by Philip James Ayres, was released under the Melbourne University Press imprint in September 2013.
- Ninian Stephen (1923–1966)
- Ninian Stephen QC (1966–1970)
- The Hon. Ninian Stephen QC (1970–1972)
- The Hon. Sir Ninian Stephen KBE, QC (1972–1979)
- The Rt. Hon. Sir Ninian Stephen KBE, QC (1979–1982)
- His Excellency the Rt. Hon. Sir Ninian Stephen AK GCMG GCVO KBE QC (1982–1989)
- The Rt. Hon. Sir Ninian Stephen AK, GCMG, GCVO, KBE, QC (1989–1994)
- The Rt. Hon. Sir Ninian Stephen KG, AK, GCMG, GCVO, KBE, QC (since 1994)
- 1970 Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) 
- 1982 Knight of the Order of Australia (AK) 
- 1982 Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) 
- 1982 Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order (GCVO) by Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth II. 
- 1982 Knight of the Order of St John 
- 1994 Knight of the Order of the Garter (KG) by Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth II.
- 1939–45 Star
- Pacific Star
- War Medal 1939–1945
- Australia Service Medal 1939–45
- 1977 Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal
- 2006 Australian Defence Medal
- Foreign honours
Stephen married Valerie Sinclair in 1949 and is the father of five daughters. One of his daughters, Mary, was married to Peter Hayes QC.
- Judiciary of Australia
- List of Judges of the Supreme Court of Victoria
- Victorian Bar Association
- Australian knights and dames
- High Court of Australia (2010). "About the Justices". Retrieved 7 May 2011. "Sir Ninian Stephen (born 1923). A Justice 1972–82. Joined Victorian Bar 1952 (QC 1966). Served with AIF, World War II. Judge Supreme Court of Victoria 1970–72. Governor-General of Australia1982–89. Australian Ambassador for the Environment 1989–92. Chairman, Second Strand Nthn Ireland Peace Talks 1992. Judge International Tribunals for former Yugoslavia and Rwanda since 1993. PC (1979)."
- STEPHEN, NINIAN MARTIN, WW2 Nominal Roll.
- Confirmed in St Paul's School Registers, pub. 1990.
- The London Gazette: . 21 April 1972. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
- "Portraits of Australians". http://www.heidesmith.com/Portraits_Noted_Australians_One.html. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
- "A community project". wentworth.nsw.gov.au. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
- Banner of arms image, College of St George website. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- Banner of arms image. Arms shown over the crest (A parrot), a blue fess, tincture according to the torse. College of St George website. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- Crest image, Heraldic Sculptor. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
- Order of Australia insignia. The Order of Australia Association. Retrieved 27 December 2013.
Sir Zelman Cowen
|Governor-General of Australia