سرحان بشارة سرحان
Mug shot of Sirhan Sirhan, taken on May 23, 1969
|Born||Sirhan Bishara Sirhan
March 19, 1944
Jerusalem, Mandatory Palestine
|Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy|
|Death in 1969; commuted to life imprisonment in 1972|
|Criminal status||Incarcerated at Richard J. Donovan Correctional Facility in San Diego County, California|
Sirhan Bishara Sirhan (Arabic: سرحان بشارة سرحان, Sirḥān Bishārah Sirḥān; born March 19, 1944) is a Palestinian of Jordanian citizenship who was convicted of the 1968 assassination of U.S. Senator Robert F. Kennedy. He is currently serving a life sentence at the Richard J. Donovan Correctional Facility in San Diego County, California.
Sirhan was born in British-ruled Jerusalem and is a strong opponent of Israel. In 1989, he told David Frost, "My only connection with Robert Kennedy was his sole support of Israel and his deliberate attempt to send those 50 bombers to Israel to obviously do harm to the Palestinians." Some scholars believe that the assassination was the first major incident of political violence in the United States stemming from the Arab–Israeli conflict in the Middle East.
Sirhan was born into a Palestinian Christian family in Jerusalem, Mandatory Palestine. When he was 12 years old, his family emigrated, moving briefly to New York and then to California. In Altadena, he attended Eliot Junior High School, followed by John Muir High School and Pasadena City College, both in Pasadena. Sirhan's father, Bishara, was characterized as a stern man who often beat his sons harshly. Shortly after the family's move to California, Bishara returned alone to the Middle East. Sirhan never became an American citizen, retaining instead his Jordanian citizenship.
As an adult, Sirhan changed church denominations several times, joining Baptist and Seventh-day Adventist churches. Then in 1966, he joined the occult organization Ancient Mystical Order of the Rose Cross, commonly known as Rosicrucians. The significance of this surfaced later, when some psychiatrists who examined him allegedly found that he appeared to have been hypnotized. Sirhan was employed as a stable boy in 1965 at the Santa Anita race track in Arcadia, California.
Robert F. Kennedy assassination
On June 5, 1968, Sirhan fired a .22 caliber Iver-Johnson Cadet revolver at Senator Robert Kennedy and the crowd surrounding him in the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles shortly after Kennedy had finished addressing supporters in the hotel's main ballroom. George Plimpton, Rosey Grier, author Pete Hamill, and 1960 Olympic gold medalist Rafer Johnson were among several men who subdued and disarmed Sirhan after a lengthy struggle.
Kennedy was shot three times, once in the head and twice in the back, with a fourth bullet passing through his jacket. He died nearly 26 hours later. Five other people at the party were also shot, but all five recovered: Paul Schrade, an official with the United Automobile Workers union; William Weisel, an ABC TV unit manager; Ira Goldstein, a reporter with the Continental News Service; Elizabeth Evans, a friend of Pierre Salinger, one of Kennedy's campaign aides; and Irwin Stroll, a teenaged Kennedy volunteer.
Despite Sirhan's admission of guilt, recorded in a confession made while in police custody on June 9, a lengthy trial followed. The court judge did not accept his confession and denied his request to withdraw his not guilty plea so that he could plead guilty. Years later, Sirhan recanted his confession, claiming not to remember making it.
On February 10, 1969, Sirhan's lawyers made a motion in chambers to enter a plea of guilty to first degree murder in exchange for life imprisonment (rather than the death penalty). Sirhan announced to the court judge, Herbert V. Walker, that he wanted to withdraw his original plea of not guilty in order to plead guilty as charged on all counts. He also asked that his counsel "dissociate themselves from this case completely". When the judge asked him what he wanted to do about sentencing, Sirhan replied, "I will ask to be executed."
Judge Walker denied the motion and stated, "This court will not accept the plea". The judge also denied Sirhan's request for his counsel to withdraw; when his counsel entered another motion to withdraw from the case of their own volition, Walker denied this motion as well. Judge Walker subsequently ordered that the record pertaining to the motion be sealed.
The trial proceeded, and opening statements began on February 12. The lead prosecutor in the Sirhan case was Lynn "Buck" Compton, a World War II veteran who later became Justice of the California Court of Appeal. The prosecution's opening statement, delivered by David Fitts, was replete with examples of Sirhan's deliberate preparations to kill Kennedy. The prosecution was able to show that just two nights before the attack, on June 3, Sirhan was seen at the Ambassador Hotel, apparently attempting to learn the building's layout; evidence proved that he visited a gun range on June 4. Further testimony by Alvin Clark seemed especially damning. Clark, Sirhan's garbage collector, claimed that Sirhan had told him a month before the attack of his intention to shoot Kennedy.
Sirhan's defense counsel, which included attorney Grant Cooper, had hoped to demonstrate that the killing had been an impulsive act of a man with a mental deficiency, but when Judge Walker admitted into evidence pages from three of the journal notebooks that Sirhan had kept, it was clear that the murder was not only premeditated, but also "quite calculating and willful".
On March 3, 1969, in the Los Angeles courtroom, Sirhan testified where Cooper asked him directly if he had indeed shot Senator Kennedy. Sirhan replied immediately: "Yes, sir", but then stated that he did not bear any ill-will towards Kennedy. Sirhan also testified that he had killed Kennedy "with 20 years of malice aforethought". He explained in an interview with David Frost in 1989 that this referred to the time since the creation of the State of Israel. He has maintained since then that he has no memory of the crime, nor of making that statement in open court.
During Sirhan's testimony, Cooper asked him to explain his reasons for the attack on Kennedy. Sirhan launched into "a vicious diatribe about the Middle East conflict between Arab and Jew". Defense counsel Emile Zola Berman, who was Jewish, was upset by Sirhan's statements and expressed his intentions to resign from the defense team. Berman was eventually talked out of resigning by Cooper and stayed until the end of the trial.
During the trial, the defense primarily based their case on the expert testimony of Bernard L. Diamond, M.D. a professor of law and psychiatry at University of California, Berkeley, who testified that Sirhan was suffering from diminished capacity at the time of the murder. Sirhan's behavior throughout the trial was indeed bizarre, and at one point, he became outraged during testimony about his childhood.
Sirhan was convicted on April 17, 1969, and was sentenced six days later to death in the gas chamber. Three years later, his sentence was commuted to life in prison, owing to the California Supreme Court's decision in People v. Anderson, The People of the State of California v. Robert Page Anderson, 493 P.2d 880, 6 Cal. 3d 628 (Cal. 1972), which ruled capital punishment a violation of the California Constitution's prohibition of cruel or unusual punishment. The California Supreme Court declared in the Anderson case that its decision was retroactive, thereby invalidating all prior death sentences imposed in California.
Sirhan's lawyer Lawrence Teeter later argued that Grant Cooper was compromised by a conflict of interest and was, as a consequence, grossly negligent in defense of his client. The defense moved for a new trial amid claims of set-ups, police bungles, hypnotism, brainwashing, blackmail, and government conspiracies. On June 5, 2003, coincidentally the 35th anniversary of Kennedy's assassination, Lawrence Teeter petitioned a federal court in Los Angeles to move the case to Fresno. He argued that Sirhan could not get a fair hearing in Los Angeles, where a man who helped prosecute him is now a federal judge: U.S. District Judge William Matthew Byrne, Jr. in Los Angeles was a deputy U.S. attorney during Sirhan's trial, and part of the prosecutorial team. Teeter had been trying since 1994 to have state and federal courts overturn the conviction, arguing that his client was hypnotized and framed, possibly by a government conspiracy. He was granted a June 30 hearing. During the hearing, Teeter referred to testimony from the original trial transcripts regarding a prosecution eyewitness to the attack, author George Plimpton, in which he said that Sirhan looked "enormously composed. He seemed... purged." This statement coincided with the defense's argument that Sirhan had shot Kennedy while in some kind of hypnotic trance. The motion was denied. Teeter died in 2005, and Sirhan declined other counsel to replace him. On November 26, 2011, Sirhan's defense teams filed new court papers for a new trial, saying that "expert analysis of recently uncovered evidence shows two guns were fired in the assassination and that Sirhan's revolver was not the gun that shot Kennedy" and he "should be freed from prison or granted a new trial based on 'formidable evidence', asserting his innocence and 'horrendous violations' of his rights".
A motive cited for his actions is the Middle East conflict. After his arrest, Sirhan said, "I can explain it. I did it for my country." Sirhan believed that he was deliberately betrayed by Kennedy's support for Israel in the June 1967 Six-Day War, which had begun exactly one year to the day before the assassination. During a search of Sirhan's apartment after his arrest, a spiral-bound notebook was found containing a diary entry which demonstrated that his anger had gradually fixated on Robert Kennedy, who had promised to send 50 fighter jets to Israel if he were elected president. Sirhan's journal entry of May 18, 1968, read: "My determination to eliminate R.F.K. is becoming the more and more of an unshakable obsession...Kennedy must die before June 5th". They found other notebooks and diary entries which contained his growing rage at Zionists, particularly at Kennedy; his journals also contained many nonsensical scribbles, which were thought to be his version of "free writing".
The next day, on June 6, the Los Angeles Times printed an article by Jerry Cohen which discussed Sirhan's motive for the assassination, confirmed by the memos that Sirhan wrote to himself. The article stated:
When the Jordanian nationalist, Sirhan Bishara Sirhan, allegedly shot Kennedy, ostensibly because of the senator's advocacy of U.S. support for Israel, the crime with which he was charged was in essence another manifestation of the centuries-old hatred between Arab and Jew.
M.T. Mehdi, then secretary-general of the Action Committee on American-Arab Relations, believed that Sirhan had acted in justifiable self-defense, stating: "Sirhan was defending himself against those 50 Phantom jets Kennedy was sending to Israel." Mehdi wrote a 100-page book on the subject called Kennedy and Sirhan: Why?
Later in prison, Sirhan claimed that he was drunk. An interview with Sirhan in 1980 revealed new claims that a combination of liquor and anger over the anniversary of the 1967 Arab-Israeli war triggered his actions the night when he assassinated RFK. "You must remember the circumstances of that night, June 5. That was when I was provoked," Sirhan says, recorded in a transcript of one of his interviews with Mehdi, later president of the New York-based American-Arab Relations Committee. "That is when I initially went to observe the Jewish Zionist parade in celebration of the June 5, 1967, victory over the Arabs. That was the catalyst that triggered me on that night." Then Sirhan said, "In addition, there was the consumption of the liquor, and I want the public to understand that..."
At a June 30, 2003 hearing, Lawrence Teeter, in an attempt to get Sirhan a new trial, claimed that Sirhan had been hypnotized by a conspiracy into firing at Kennedy and that he may have been using blanks; that Sirhan couldn't possibly have fired the fatal shot from where he was standing; that prosecutors blackmailed his defense attorney to throw the case, and that police and government agencies whitewashed or bungled investigations. The motion was denied.
In 1971, Sirhan was housed in the Adjustment Center at San Quentin State Prison. He was subsequently transferred to the Correctional Training Facility (CTF) in Soledad, California, where he was confined until 1992. From 1992 to 2009, he was confined at the California State Prison (COR) in Corcoran, California, and lived in COR's Protective Housing Unit until he was moved to a harsher lockdown at COR in 2003. In October 2009, ostensibly for his own safety, he was transferred to the Pleasant Valley State Prison in Coalinga, California, where he was housed in a cell by himself. He was subsequently moved back to Corcoran.
On November 22, 2013, Sirhan was transferred from Corcoran to the Richard J. Donovan Correctional Facility in San Diego County. The transfer occurred on the 50th anniversary of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, but a spokesman for the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation said that the transfer was "a routine matter of housing allotments" and its timing was "simply an unfortunate coincidence."
Applications for parole
In a 1980 interview with M.T. Mehdi, Sirhan claimed that his actions were fueled by liquor and anger. He then complained that the parole board was not taking these "mitigating" circumstances into account when they continually denied his parole.
On May 10, 1982, Sirhan told the parole board: "I sincerely believe that if Robert Kennedy were alive today, I believe he would not countenance singling me out for this kind of treatment. I think he would be among the first to say that, however horrible the deed I committed 14 years ago was, that it should not be the cause for denying me equal treatment under the laws of this country."
A parole hearing for Sirhan is now scheduled every five years. On March 2, 2011, after 42 years in prison, Sirhan's 14th parole hearing was held, with Sirhan represented by his current attorney, William Francis Pepper. At his parole hearing, Sirhan testified that he continues to have no memory of the assassination nor of any details of his 1969 trial and confession. Pepper also repeated the claim, which Sirhan's lawyers had previously stated, that Sirhan's mind was "programmed" and then "wiped" by an unknown conspiracy behind the assassination which is why Sirhan has no memory of the murder or of the aftermath. His parole was denied on the grounds that Sirhan still does not understand the full ramifications of his crime.
- RFK (2002 film)
- Bobby (2006 film)
- RFK Must Die (2007 film)
- Notable Inmates at California State Prison, Corcoran
- Robert F. Kennedy's 1948 visit to Palestine
- List of people with reduplicated names
- "Sirhan Felt Betrayed by Kennedy". The New York Times. Associated Press. February 20, 1989. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
- "RFK's death now viewed as first case of Mideast violence exported to U.S.". San Diego Union Tribune (Boston Globe). June 8, 2008.
- "Convicted RFK assassin Sirhan Sirhan seeks prison release". CNN. November 26, 2011.
- Martinez, Michael (March 1, 2011). "Sirhan Sirhan, convicted RFK assassin, to face parole board". CNN.
- Sirhan Sirhan profile at TruTV.com
- Mel Ayton. "The Robert Kennedy Assassination: Unraveling the Conspiracy Theories". Crime Magazine. Archived from the original on January 3, 2010.
- Shane O'Sullivan, "Who Killed Bobby?: The Unsolved Murder of Robert F. Kennedy", (Union Square Press, 2008) p.483.
- "Robert Kennedy Assassination: Revisions and Rewrites". Crimelibrary.com. Retrieved January 16, 2009.
- Witcover 1969, p. 266.
- Sirhan Researcher. (PDF) . Retrieved on June 11, 2012.
- Andrea Hescheles, Political activism grows. DailyNews Los Angeles (January 5, 2011)
- "Irwin N. Stroll; Wounded in RFK Slaying, He Became Famed Designer", Los Angeles Times (February 20, 1995), Retrieved November 27, 2011.
- White, Thom (June 5, 2005). "RFK Assassination Far From Resolved". Citizine. Archived from the original on January 15, 2006.
- "Sirhan Bishara Sirhan Trial: 1969 – A Murder Plan".
- People v. Sirhan, 7 Cal. 3d 710, June 16, 1972
- "Sirhan Sirhan: Assassin of Modern U.S. History by Denise Noe". Crimemagazine.com. Archived from the original on July 30, 2008. Retrieved January 16, 2009.
- Skoloff, Brian. "Sirhan Sirhan denied parole for 12th time". Signonsandiego.com. Retrieved January 16, 2009.
- Kujawsky, Paul (May 29, 2008). "Palestinian terror stretches back to RFK". The Jewish Journal. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
- "Bernard Diamond; Expert on Psychiatry and the Law". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 27, 2011.
- "Teeter Statement of June 5, 1998". Jfk-info.com. Retrieved January 16, 2009.
- Jablon, Robert (June 6, 2003). Associated Press, ed. "Attorney says Sirhan didn't kill Robert Kennedy". Daily Breeze (Los Angeles). Retrieved September 10, 2009.
- Lota, Louinn (June 4, 2003). "Killer of Sen. Robert F. Kennedy wants appeal moved from Los Angeles courts". Los Angeles: Associated Press Worldstream. Retrieved September 10, 2009.
- Lota, Louinn (June 4, 2003). "Article: Killer of R.F. Kennedy Wants Appeal Moved". Los Angeles: AP Online. Retrieved September 10, 2009.
- Associated Press, ed. (September 27, 1980). "Sirhan says liquor, anger led to killing". Wilmington Morning Star (Los Angeles). Retrieved September 9, 2009.
- "Attorneys for RFK convicted killer Sirhan push 'second gunman' argument". CNN. March 5, 2012.
- The Robert Kennedy Assassination. Mary Ferrell Foundation.
- "Part II: Why Sirhan Sirhan Assassinated Robert Kennedy by Mel Ayton". Crimemagazine.com. Retrieved January 16, 2009.
- Cohen, Jerry (June 6, 1968). "Yorty Reveals That Suspect's Memo Set Deadline for Death". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles, Calif.). p. Front Page. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
- Mehdi, Mohammad Taki (1968). Kennedy and Sirhan: Why?. New World Press (Illustrated Paperback ed.). p. 100. ISBN 0-911026-04-5.
- Yoemans, Jeannine (August 24, 1971). "San Quentin Story Unfolded; Officials Give Account of Escape Attempt". The Press-Courier (Oxnard, California). AP. p. 5. Retrieved March 18, 2013.
- Curtis, Kim. Even in prison Jackson would be 'star'. Daily Breeze (Torrance, CA), June 13, 2005.
- Grossi, Mark. Corcoran Prison Home to Who's-Who of Killers. The List of Infamous Murderers at the State Facility has Grown This Week to Include Sirhan Sirhan and Juan Corona. The Fresno Bee, June 5, 1992
- Deutsch, Linda. "Robert F. Kennedy's killer is moved to new site", The Seattle Times, Associated Press, November 2, 2009.
- Monica Garske, RFK killer Sirhan Sirhan moved to another prison — on anniversary of JFK assassination, NBCNews.com (November 22, 2013). Retrieved on November 23, 2013.
- Oppenheim, Carol (May 11, 1982). "RFK would OK parole, Sirhan says". Chicago Tribune. p. 9.
- "Sirhan denied parole for 10th time in RFK killing" by Steve Wilstein. Daily Breeze (Torrance, CA), May 24, 1989
- Lovett, Ian (March 2, 2011). "California: Sirhan Sirhan Denied Parole". The New York Times.
- Jansen, Godfrey, Why Robert Kennedy Was Killed: The Story of Two Victims, New York, Third Press, 1970. OCLC 137100
- Kaiser, Robert Blair, "R.F.K. Must Die!": A History of the Robert Kennedy Assassination and Its Aftermath, New York, E.P. Dutton & Co, Inc. 1970. ISBN 978-1-59020-070-4
- Kaiser, Robert Blair, "R.F.K. Must Die!": Chasing the Mystery of the Robert Kennedy Assassination, New York, Overlook Press, Peter Mayer Publishers, Inc. 2008. ISBN 978-1-59020-124-4
- Melanson, Philip H., Who Killed Robert Kennedy?, Berkeley, California, Odonian, 1993. ISBN 978-1-878825-12-4
- Turner, William V., and John G. Christian, The Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy: A Searching Look at the Conspiracy and Cover-up 1968–1978, New York, Random House, 1978. ISBN 978-0-394-40273-4
- Ayton, Mel, The Forgotten Terrorist – Sirhan Sirhan and the Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy Washington DC, Potomac Books, 2007. ISBN 978-1-59797-079-2
- Mehdi, Mohammad Taki, Kennedy and Sirhan: Why?, New World Press, 1968. Edition: Illustrated Paperback, 100 pages. ISBN 978-0-911026-04-7
- Sirhan Sirhan at the Internet Movie Database
- The Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy. By Joseph Geringer. Crime Library biography.
- Interview with Sirhan's attorney Lawrence Teeter on KPFA 94.1 / Guns & Butter show
- Statement of Sirhan Sirhan's former lawyer, Lawrence Teeter, released on the 30th anniversary of the murder of Robert Kennedy.
- "The Robert Kennedy Assassination: Unraveling the Conspiracy Theories." Mel Ayton, Crime Magazine May 8, 2005
- Refugees. Los Angeles Daily Mirror story about Sirhan working as a delivery boy at a Pasadena health food store. June 23, 2007.
- The lost significance of Sirhan's case. Organization of Arab Students. University of Southern California. Los Angeles, 1969. A brief excerpt from Sirhans testimony that the editor claims was ignored by the press.