|• Total||5,743 km2 (2,217 sq mi)|
|• Density||630/km2 (1,600/sq mi)|
|• Official||Hindi, Urdu & Awadhi|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
Sitapur is a town and a municipal board in Sitapur district in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is in the Lucknow Division. The town is located on the banks of river Sarayan, halfway between Lucknow and Shahjahanpur and is well connected to state capital Lucknow by the National Highway No. 24. In British India, it was spelled as Citapore and was a cantonment, garrisoned by a portion of a British regiment. The traditional origin for the name is said to be by the King Vikramāditya from Lord Ram's wife Sita.
History and legend
Little is known about the history of Sitapur. Legends connect many places in episodes in Mahabharata and Ramayana.There is a usual tradition of a raid by a general of Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud. The rise of Rajput power, according to tradition of great clan which held the district, was somewhat later than in Southern Oudh (Avadh). The influx continued till the reign of Aurangzeb. The Rajputs generally found the soil occupied by the Pasis, whom they crushed or drove away. Under the early kings of Muhammadan kings of Delhi, the country was normally ruled by the Governor of Bahraich, but little authority was exercised.
In the fifteenth century, the district was included in the new kingdom of Jaunpur. About 1527, Humayun occupied Khairabad, then the chief town; but it was not until the accession of Akbar that the Afghans were driven out of the neighborhood. Under Akbar, the present district formed the part of four Sarkars - Khairabad, Bahraich, Oudh, and Lucknow - all located in the Subah of Oudh. Khairabad was held for sometime by the rebels of Oudh in 1567 but throughout the Mughal period and the rule of Nawabs and Kings of Oudh, the district is seldom referred to by the native historians.
Early in nineteenth century, it was governed by Hakim Mahdi Ali Khan, a capable minister of Naseerundden Haider, and some years later Sleeman noted that it was unusually quiet as far as great landholders were concerned. At annexation in 1856, Sitapur was selected as headquarters of one district and Mallanpur (currently a village in Tambaur Development Block of District Sitapur. It is the same place where Sharda and Ghaghra rivers meet.) as the headquarters of another, which lay between Chauka and Ghaghra rivers.
Sitapur figured prominently in the First War of Independence, 1857. In that year, three regiments of native infantry and a regiment of military police were quartered in Sitapur Cantonment. The troops rose on the morning of 3 June, fired on their officers, many of whom were killed, as were also several military and civil officers with their wives and children in the attempt to escape. Ultimately many of the fugitives succeeded in reaching Lucknow, while others obtained the protection of loyal zamindars. On 13 April 1858, Sir Hope Grant inflicted a severe defeat on the rebels near Biswan. Order was completely restored before the end of that year.
It is a land of seers and sufis and dalits. According to Hindu mythology, Puranas were written by Rishi Ved Vyas at Vyas Gaddi in modern-day Naimisharanya. Sitapur is one of the five sacred places the Hindus have to visit in their Panch Dham Yatra journey. Misrikh, near Naimisharanya, holds its religious significance due to the belief that Maharshi Dadhichi donated his bones to Devatas for making Vajras.
Dargah of Hazrat Maqdoom Shaikh Shaduddin (Bada Maqdoom) at Khairabad and Hazrat Gulzar Shah are the symbols of communal harmony. According to Abdul Fazal's Aina Akbari this place was called Chatyapur or Chitiapur during the reign of Akbar.
This place is concerned with ancient, medieval and modern history.The contribution of Sitapur can not be avoided in social, historical, political and literary field in the country. Many freedom fighters gave their life to free India from British rule. Capt. Manoj Pandey sacrificed his life in the Kargil War and honored his birthplace with Param Veer Chakra.
Sitapur is located at  It test has an average elevation of 138 metres (452 feet). The District of Sitapur has an area of 5743 km2. It is located on the gangetic plain, with elevations ranging from 150 m above sea level in the north-west to 100 m in the south-east. It is intersected by numerous streams and ravines and contains many shallow ponds and natural reservoirs, which overflow during the rainy seasons, but become dry in the hot season. Except in the eastern portion, which lies in the doabs between the Kewani and Chauka and the Ghaghra and Chauka rivers, the soil is dry. Even this moist tract is interspersed with patches of land covered with saline efflorescence called reh..
The monotony of featureless plain of upper Ganga valley is preserved throughout the district. At places this monotony is broken by Small River like Kathana, Sarain and Gomati. Sandy stretches are found along the rivers and locally known as ‘bhurs’. the region in general is a part of well integrated system of the river Ganga. Gomti the most important tributary flows in the eastern part of the district and engulfs above mentioned small rivers. Ghaghara River forms the eastern boundary of the district. There are five rivers flowing through the district of Sitapur: Gomti, Kathana, Pirai, Sarayan, Ghaghra and Sharda.
The gradual rise in temperature starts in the months of February and becomes more rapid by March and April unless checked by more humid easterlies. The local hot and gusty winds, locally known as ‘loo’; result in hot and scorching weather. The condition is aggravated further by presence of meager relative humidity (40%). The district of the study does not show much influence of Himalaya which otherwise tend to lower the temperatures in the places nearby as in the case of Meerut and Gonda.
The pre-monsoon showers are meager and this along with low humidity accentuates the impact of loo which at times changes in to heat waves with exceptionally high temperature. The rainy season commences in the latter half of the June at different dates which are too difficult to be predicted. It brings relief to the people by lowering the temperatures up to 300c. The rainfall decreases southward and westward in the region. There is a dominance of Bay of Bengal currents. This season comes to an end by October with a sudden fall in temperature and amount of rainfall. Soon after the winter conditions settle in at times cold waves and westerly disturb the general monotony of the winters. The showers due to western depressions are very useful for the rabicrop in the region. The average rainfall in the study area varies between 80 cm to 110 cm.
As of 2011[update] India census, Sitapur had a population of 1,77,351. Males constitute 52.67% of the population and females 47.41%. Sitapur has an average literacy rate of 83.11%, higher than the national average of 74.04%.In Sitapur, 12% of the population is under 6 years of age. Sitapur has a sex ratio of 899 females per 1000 males.
The district is divided into six tehsils: Sitapur, Biswan, Mishrikh, Laharpur, Mahmoodabad and Sidhauli. There are 19 blocks, two parliamentary constituencies (Sitapur, Mishrikh (SC)) and nine assembly constituencies (sewta, Biswan, Mahmoodabad, Sidhauli (SC), Laharpur, Sitapur, Hargaon (SC), Mishrikh and Maholi). Total population of the district is 28.57 lakh and the area is 5743 km2. There are 2348 census villages and 1329 Gram Panchayats in the district.
As of 1911, the annual rainfall averaged 38 inches. Agriculture is the primary activity, with wheat, rice, and urad being the staple crops with sugarcane, mustard and groundnuts as cash crops. The crop area of peppermint is also rapidly increasing especially in eastern part of the district. Narrow tracts of sandy soils in the valley of rivers produce potato, groundnuts and gingelly.
Towns and villages within the district are now well linked with roads. Most of the roads are in good condition. Sitapur does not have any airport. Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport, Lucknow is the nearest airport. It takes almost an hour to reach Sitapur by car. The National Highway No. 24 (Lucknow - Delhi) passes from the heart of Sitapur city. The highway is open to public.
Sitapur District Hospital is the only hospital which has received a citation by the Chief Minister of U.P. In 2011. There are 19 Community Health Centers, 61 Primary Health Centers and 468 Health Sub Centers in the District. Additionally, there are many Government Homeopathic Hospitals and Government Ayurvedic/Unani Hospitals located in rural areas of the district. Sitapur Eye Hospital is famous for its ophthalmology services and attracts people from entire north India.
Parks and picnic spots
- Ilasiya Bal Vanodyan (Ilasia Park)
- Mahaveer Udyan (Tikunia park)
- Sarojini Vatika
- Vaidehi Vatika
- Neelgaon Picnic spot
- Cheeta Pasi ka Tila
- Gandhi Park (near Eye Hospital)
- Nehru Park (ear Lohar Bagh)
- Khairabad: A small town famous for its Sufi heritage. Dargah bade Maqdoom saheb is one of them. Imam bara Makka jamadaar, ghuyya Tali, Imam bara Aaga Ali, Niazia school, Pakka bagh, Dargah chote Maqdoom and Dargah Hafiz Mohd. Ali shah.
- Karam court: The place where the famous badminton player Karam Gopichand used to do net practice early days. Now people is visiting this place to start their 'Vidyarambha' in Badminton. People usually collects the soil where Karam's foot print were once sticked. He is now practising in the Tampines stadium in Singapore. Sitapur is more famous by its alias 'Karamgrad' among Russians.
- Mishrikh is a religious place 10 km from Namisharanya. Maharishi Dadhichi Asharam and Sitakund are holy pilgrimage of this place.
- Namisharanya is a centre of religious and knowledge. There are 30,000 religious places here. Some important holy places at Namisharanya are as follows:
- Suraj Kund Temple is near to Nawab Nagar, Akabarpur very famous temple of SHIV JI, Bajrang Bali
- Chakratirth is the holiest in the Naimisharanya. It is said that Lord Vishnu's chakra fell on this pious land and created a round "Kund" which is named Chakra Tirth.
- Goshai Baba: (Khairullapur)
- Lalita Devi Temple is one of the shaktipeeth.
- Panch Prayag: This pond is situated near the Lalita Devi temple.
- Shyamnathan Mandir: This Shiv Temple was built 300–400 years ago in old Sitapur City (Munshiganj). The temple has the Nagar style of temple architecture.
- Soot Gaddi
- Vyas Gaddi is near Chakratirth where Rishi Vyas divided Vedas into four parts and created Purans.
- Jangli Nath Baba is near to police line crossing very famous temple of SHIV JI
- Acharya Narendra Dev, famous literary and nationalist.
- Ambarish Srivastava, Architectural Engineer and Poet
- Maulana Fazle Haq Khairabadi, famous for his role in The Revolt of 1857 — the First War of Independence
- Jan Nisar Akhtar, poet
- Javed Akhtar, Poet, lyricist, scriptwriter
- Manoj Kumar Pandey, officer of the Indian Army, awarded Param Vir Chakra for his gallantry in Kargil War
- Mohammad Ali Mohammad Khan, Raja of Mahmudabad, famous educationist and philanthropist.
- Mohammad Amir Ahmad Khan, prominent politician and leader of the All India Muslim League, during the Pakistan Movement.
- Muztar Khairabadi, poet
- Narottam Das, the writer of 'Sudama Charitra' and was contemporary of Tulsidas
- Raja Todar Mal, finance minister and one of the Navaratnas in the royal court Emperor Akbar
- Veda Vyasa, although not born in Sitapur, he is credited with compiling Puranas during his stay in Naimisaranya, a place mentioned in his masterpiece the Mahabharata
- Wajahat Mirza, screenwriter and film director, won Filmfare awards for Mughal-e-Azam and Ganga Jamuna
- The Imperial Gazetteer of India Volume 2 Page 54. Available at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V23_060.gif
- Imperial Gazetteer of India Volume 2. Available at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V23_062.gif
- Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Sitapur
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.