Sitka, Alaska

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Sitka, Alaska
City and borough
City and Borough of Sitka
View toward Sitka from the Pacific Ocean. Sitka is the only town in Southeast Alaska that faces the Gulf of Alaska head-on.
View toward Sitka from the Pacific Ocean. Sitka is the only town in Southeast Alaska that faces the Gulf of Alaska head-on.
Map of Alaska highlighting Sitka City and Borough.svg
Coordinates: 57°3′5.62″N 135°20′19.11″W / 57.0515611°N 135.3386417°W / 57.0515611; -135.3386417Coordinates: 57°3′5.62″N 135°20′19.11″W / 57.0515611°N 135.3386417°W / 57.0515611; -135.3386417
Country  United States of America
State  Alaska
Colonized 1799
Incorporated[1] November 5, 1913 (City of Sitka);
September 24, 1963 (Greater Sitka Borough);
December 2, 1971 (current City and Borough of Sitka, which combined the two)
Government
 • Mayor Mim McConnell[2]
Area
 • City and borough 12,460 km2 (4,811 sq mi)
 • Land 7,400 km2 (2,870 sq mi)
 • Water 5,030 km2 (1,941 sq mi)
 • Urban 5 km2 (2 sq mi)
Elevation 8 m (26 ft)
Population (2010)
 • City and borough 8,881 ranked 7th
 • Density 1.2/km2 (3.1/sq mi)
 • Urban 6,982
Time zone Alaska (UTC-9)
 • Summer (DST) Alaska (UTC-8)
ZIP 99835
Area code 907
FIPS code 02-70540
GNIS feature ID 1414736
Website www.cityofsitka.com

The City and Borough of Sitka, formerly New Archangel while under Russian rule (Tlingit: Sheetʼká; Russian: Ново-Архангельск or Новоaрхангельск, t Novoarkhangelsk), is a unified city-borough located on Baranof Island and the southern half of Chichagof Island in the Alexander Archipelago of the Pacific Ocean (part of the Alaska Panhandle), in the U.S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census, the population was 8,881.[3] It is the largest city-borough in the US, with a land area of 2,870.3 mi2 (7,434.1 km2) and a total area (including water area) of 4,811.4 mi2 (12,460.8 km2). Urban Sitka (57°03′5.62″N 135°20′19.11″W / 57.0515611°N 135.3386417°W / 57.0515611; -135.3386417), the part that is usually thought of as the "city" of Sitka, is situated on the west side of Baranof Island.

The current name "Sitka" (derived from Sheet’ká, a contraction of the Tlingit Shee At'iká)[4] means "People on the Outside of Baranof Island", whose Tlingit name is Sheet’-ká X'áat'l (here contracted to Shee).

History[edit]

Sitka's location was originally settled by the Tlingit people over 10,000 years ago. The Russians settled Old Sitka in 1799 under the name Redoubt Saint Michael (Russian: форт Архангела Михаила, t Fort Arkhangela Mikhaila). The governor of Russian America, Alexander Baranov, arrived under the auspices of the Russian-American Company, a colonial trading company chartered by tsar Paul I. In 1802, Tlingit warriors "clad in animal-headed helmets and armour" destroyed the original establishment, killing 24 Russians and 200 Aleuts, enslaving the rest, with only a few managing to escape.[5] Baranov was forced to levy 10,000 rubles in ransom for the safe return of the surviving settlers.[6]

Gajaa Héen (Old Sitka), circa 1827. The new Russian palisade atop "Castle Hill" (Noow Tlein) that surrounded the Governor's Residence had three watchtowers, armed with 32 cannons, for defense against Tlingit attacks.

Baranov returned to Sitka in 1804 with 150 Russians and 700 Aleuts with the Russian warship Neva. The ship bombarded the Tlingit fort but was not able to cause significant damage. The Russians then launched an attack on the fort and were repelled by Tlingit fighters and marksmen. However, the Tlingit gunpowder reserves had been lost before the Russian assault and the Tlingit were forced to leave the fort.[citation needed]

Following their victory at the Battle of Sitka, the Russians established New Archangel as a permanent settlement named after Arkhangelsk, the largest city in the region where Baranov was born. The Tlingit re-established a fort on the Chatham Strait side of Peril Strait to enforce a trade embargo with the Russian establishment. In 1808, with Baranov still governor, Sitka was designated the capital of Russian America.[citation needed]

The Cathedral of Saint Michael was built in Sitka in 1848 and became the seat of the Russian Orthodox bishop of Kamchatka, the Kurile and Aleutian Islands, and Alaska. The original church burnt to the ground in 1966, but was restored to its original appearance, with the deliberate exception of its clockface, which is black in photographs taken prior to 1966, but white in subsequent photos.[citation needed]

"As out of the way as it appears now, the settlement was once known as the "Paris of the Pacific;" for the first half of the nineteenth century, it was the most important port on the West Coast."[5]

Bishop Innocent lived in Sitka after 1840. He was known for his interest in education, and his house, parts of which served as a schoolhouse, the Russian Bishop's House has since been restored by the National Park Service as part of the Sitka National Historical Park. Swedes, Finns and other Lutherans worked for the Russian-American Company,[7] and the Sitka Lutheran Church, built in 1840, was the first Protestant church on the Pacific coast. After the transition to American control, following the purchase of Alaska from Russia by the United States in 1867, the influence of other Protestant religions increased, and Saint-Peter's-by-the-Sea Episcopal Church was consecrated as "the Cathedral of Alaska" in 1900.[citation needed]

There are 22 buildings and sites in Sitka that appear in the National Register of Historic Places.[8]

Post-Russia control[edit]

Sitka was the site of the signing of the Alaska purchase and where the transfer of power took place on October 18, 1867. Russia was going through economic and political turmoil after it lost the Crimean War to Britain, France, and Turkey in 1856 and decided it wanted to sell Alaska before it got taken over by one of their enemies. Although Britain had an interest in purchasing Alaska, Russia decided to offer to sell it to the United States of America. Secretary of State William Seward (under presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson) had wanted to purchase Alaska for quite some time as he saw it as an integral part of Manifest Destiny and America's reach to the Pacific Ocean.[9] While the agreement to purchase Alaska was made in April 1867, the actual purchase and transfer of power took place on October 18, 1867. The cost to purchase Alaska was $7.2 million or roughly 2 cents per acre.

On October 18, Alaska celebrates Alaska Day to commemorate the Alaska purchase. The City of Sitka holds an annual Alaska Day Festival. This week long event includes a reenactment ceremony of the signing of the Alaska purchase, as well as interpretive programs at museums and parks, special exhibits, aircraft displays and film showings, receptions, historic sites and buildings tours, food, prose writing contest essays, Native and other dancing, and entertainment and more. The first recorded Alaska Day Festival was held in 1949.[10]

Alaska's first newspaper following the Alaska purchase, the Sitka Times, was published by Barney O. Ragan on September 19, 1868. Only four issues were published that year, as Ragan cited a lack of resources available at the time. The paper resumed publishing the following year as the Alaska Times. In 1870, it moved to Seattle, where the year following it was renamed the Seattle Times (not to be confused with the modern-day newspaper of the same name).[11]

Sitka served as the capital of the Alaska Territory until 1906, when the seat of government was relocated north to Juneau.

The Alaska Native Brotherhood was founded in Sitka in 1912 to address racism against Alaska Native people in Alaska.[12] By 1914 the organization had constructed the Alaska Native Brotherhood Hall on Katlian Street.[13]

Sitka's Filipino community established itself in Sitka before 1929. It later became institutionalized as the Filipino Community of Sitka in 1981.[14]

Gold mining and fish canning paved the way for the town's initial growth. In World War II, when the United States Navy constructed an air base on Japonski Island, bringing 30,000 service personnel to the area, Sitka became much bigger. Today Sitka encompasses portions of Baranof Island and the smaller Japonski Island (across the Sitka Channel from the town), which is connected to Baranof Island by the O'Connell Bridge. The John O'Connell Bridge was the first cable-stayed bridge built in the Western Hemisphere. Japonski Island is home to Sitka Rocky Gutierrez Airport (IATA: SIT; ICAO: PASI), the Sitka branch campus of the University of Alaska Southeast, Mt. Edgecumbe High School — a state-run boarding school for rural Alaskans —, Southeast Alaska Regional Health Consortium's Mt. Edgecumbe Hospital, a U.S. Coast Guard Air Station Sitka, and the port and facilities for the USCGC Maple.[citation needed]

The home rule charter of the City and Borough of Sitka was adopted on 2 December 1971[15] for the region of the Greater Sitka Borough, which was incorporated on 24 September 1963.[16] On October 23, 1973, the city of Port Alexander was detached from the borough.[17]

Geography[edit]

A view of Sitka's Crescent Harbor, Indian River valley and, in the background, The Sisters.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough is the largest incorporated city by area in the U.S., with a total area of 4,811 square miles (12,460.4 km2), of which 2,870 square miles (7,400 km2) is land and 1,941 square miles (5,030 km2) (40.3%) is water. The non-city Alaskan borough of North Slope Borough is the largest incorporated area in the U.S.

Sitka displaced Juneau, Alaska as the largest incorporated city in the United States upon the 2000 incorporation with 2,874 square miles (7,440 km2) of incorporated area. Juneau's incorporated area is 2,717 square miles (7,040 km2). Jacksonville, Florida, is the largest city in area in the contiguous 48 states at 758 square miles (1,960 km2).

Climate[edit]

  • Sitka has an oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb) with moderate, but generally cool, temperatures and abundant precipitation.
  • Average annual precipitation is 131.74 inches (3,350 mm); average seasonal snowfall is 33 inches (84 cm), falling on 233 and 19 days respectively.
  • The mean annual temperature is 45.3 °F (7.4 °C), with monthly means ranging from 36.4 °F (2.4 °C) in January to 57.2 °F (14.0 °C) in August.
  • Only 5.1 days per year see highs at or above 70 °F (21 °C); conversely, there are only 10 days with the high not exceeding freezing.[18]
  • Extremes range from −1 to 88 °F (−18.3 to 31.1 °C), on February 16 and 17, 1948, and July 30, 1976, respectively.[18]
Climate data for Sitka, Alaska (Japonski Island, 1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 60
(16)
61
(16)
61
(16)
76
(24)
82
(28)
85
(29)
88
(31)
84
(29)
77
(25)
68
(20)
65
(18)
65
(18)
88
(31)
Average high °F (°C) 40.5
(4.7)
41.3
(5.2)
43.0
(6.1)
48.2
(9)
53.1
(11.7)
57.8
(14.3)
60.4
(15.8)
61.9
(16.6)
57.8
(14.3)
50.5
(10.3)
43.7
(6.5)
41.4
(5.2)
50.0
(10)
Average low °F (°C) 32.3
(0.2)
32.1
(0.1)
32.9
(0.5)
36.8
(2.7)
42.4
(5.8)
47.8
(8.8)
52.0
(11.1)
52.5
(11.4)
48.2
(9)
41.6
(5.3)
35.2
(1.8)
33.1
(0.6)
40.6
(4.8)
Record low °F (°C) 0
(−18)
−1
(−18)
4
(−16)
15
(−9)
29
(−2)
35
(2)
41
(5)
34
(1)
31
(−1)
20
(−7)
2
(−17)
1
(−17)
−1
(−18)
Precipitation inches (mm) 8.74
(222)
6.26
(159)
5.83
(148.1)
4.26
(108.2)
4.26
(108.2)
2.88
(73.2)
3.99
(101.3)
7.00
(177.8)
11.85
(301)
13.16
(334.3)
9.85
(250.2)
8.59
(218.2)
86.66
(2,201.2)
Snowfall inches (cm) 9.1
(23.1)
8.5
(21.6)
5.1
(13)
1.0
(2.5)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.3
(0.8)
5.0
(12.7)
4.0
(10.2)
33.0
(83.8)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 22.0 16.8 18.7 17.2 17.5 15.5 18.6 19.4 22.3 24.4 21.6 21.0 235
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 4.8 4.0 3.3 0.8 0.1 0 0 0 0 0.4 3.3 2.7 19.3
Source: NOAA[18]

Geology[edit]

Mount Edgecumbe, a 3,200-foot (980 m)-tall dormant stratovolcano, is located on southern Kruzof Island. It can be seen on a clear day from Sitka.

Adjacent boroughs and census areas[edit]

National protected areas[edit]

Economy[edit]

In 2010, Sitka's two largest employers were the South East Alaska Regional Health Consortium (SEARHC), employing 482 people, and the Sitka School District, employing 250 people. However, there are more people employed in the seafood industry than in any other sector. An estimated 18% of Sitka's population earns at least a portion of their income from fishing and seafood harvesting and processing. Many Sitkans hunt and gather subsistence foods such as fish, deer, berries, seaweeds and mushrooms for personal use.[19]

Within the total 2010 population of 8,881 residents, an estimated 7,161 were over 16 years of age. Of residents aged 16 and over, an estimated 4,692 were employed within the civilian labor force, 348 were unemployed (looking for work), 192 were employed in the armed forces (U.S. Coast Guard), and 1,929 were not in the labor force. The average unemployment rate between 2006 and 2010 was 6.9%. The median household income in 2010 inflation adjusted dollars was $62,024. An estimated 4.3% of all families / 7% of all residents had incomes below the poverty level "in the past twelve months"(2010).[20]

Sitka's power is generated by dams at Blue Lake and Green Lake, with supplemental power provided by burning diesel when electric demand exceeds hydro capacity. In December 2012 the Blue Lake Expansion project began, which will create 27 percent more electricity for the residents of Sitka. The project is expected to be finished by December 2014.[21]

In 2010 a Texas company S2C Global Systems announced that it was moving forward with a plan to ship 2.9 billion US gallons (11,000,000 m3) to 9 billion US gallons (34,000,000 m3) of fresh lake water a year from Sitka (Blue Lake) to the west coast of India.[22] The deal would represent the world's first regular, bulk exports of water via tanker.[23] The water will be redistributed to places in India, southeast Asia and the Middle East. Sitka could earn up to $90 million a year in revenue.[23] As of January 2013, this project seems to have ended in failure.[24][25]

Port[edit]

Sitka is the 6th largest port by value of seafood harvest in the United States.[19] International trade is relatively minor, with total exports and imports valued at $474,000 and $146,000, respectively, in 2005 by the American Association of Port Authorities.[26] The port has the largest harbor system in Alaska with 1,347 permanent slips.

History[edit]

During Russian rule, Sitka was a busy seaport on the west coast of North America,[27] mentioned a number of times by Dana in his popular account of an 1834 sailing voyage Two Years Before the Mast. After transfer of Alaska to U.S. rule, the Pacific Coast Steamship Company began tourist cruises to Sitka in 1884. By 1890, Sitka was receiving 5000 tourist passengers a year.[28]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1900 1,396
1910 1,039 −25.6%
1920 1,175 13.1%
1930 1,056 −10.1%
1940 1,987 88.2%
1950 1,985 −0.1%
1960 3,237 63.1%
1970 3,370 4.1%
1980 7,803 131.5%
1990 8,588 10.1%
2000 8,835 2.9%
2010 8,881 0.5%
Est. 2013 9,020 1.6%
U.S. Decennial Census[29]
1790-1960[30] 1900-1990[31]
1990-2000[32] 2010-2013[3]

As of the 2010 US Census, there were 8,881 people residing in the borough. The racial makeup of the borough, based on one race alone or in combination with one or more other races, was, 74.2% White, 1% Black or African American, 24.6% Native American, 8.1% Asian, 0.9% Pacific Islander, 1.8% from other races. An estimated 4.9% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 3,545 households out of which 29.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.5% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.1% had a male householder with no wife present, and 37.6% were non-families. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.01.[33]

Transportation[edit]

Sitka is only accessible by boat or plane as it is a series of islands in the Pacific Ocean. Vehicles are usually brought to Sitka via the Alaska Marine Highway ferry system. However, a vehicle is not an absolute necessity in Sitka, Alaska, as there are only 14 miles of road from one end of the island to another. Most everything is within walking distance from the downtown area which is where a majority of employers are situated. There is also public transportation available.

By air, Sitka Rocky Gutierrez Airport offers service from jet and regional carrier Alaska Airlines and charter and bush community carrier Harris Aircraft Services.

Delays in fall and winter due to Sitka's weather are frequent. The airport is located on Japonski Island, which is connected to Baranof Island by the O'Connell Bridge. The O'Connell Bridge, completed in 1972, was the first vehicular cable-stayed bridge in the United States. The Sitka Seaplane Base is seaplane landing area situated in the Sitka Channel, adjacent to the airport.

Ferry travel back and forth to Juneau, Ketchikan and other towns in Southeast Alaska is provided through the Alaska Marine Highway System. The ferry terminal is located 7 miles (11 km) north of downtown and a ferry ticket costs about $49 per person each way to Juneau, Alaska (as of July 2013). Vehicles, pets and bicycles can also be taken on the ferry for an additional charge.

Sitka's location on the outer coast of the Alaska Panhandle is removed from routes run through Chatham Strait. This, in addition to the tides of Peril Straits that allow mainline vessels through only at slack tide combine to result in no designated service by a vessel and minimal service overall. However, the AMHS is often the mode of transportation of choice when the schedule proves convenient because of its much cheaper cost.

Alaska Marine Lines, a barge and freight company, also has the ability to move cars to other communities connected to the mainland by road systems.

A three-way partnership of non-profits Center for Community, Sitka Tribe of Alaska, and Southeast Senior Services offers public bus transit, funded by the Federal Transit Administration and the Alaska Department of Transportation. All buses are fully accessible, with services from 6:30 a.m. to 7:30 p.m., Monday through Friday.

In 2008, the League of American Bicyclists awarded Sitka the bronze level in bicycle friendliness making Sitka the first bicycle-friendly community in Alaska.

Education[edit]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Sitka hosts one active post-secondary institution, the University of Alaska Southeast-Sitka Campus, located on Japonski Island in an old World War II hangar. Sheldon Jackson College, a small Presbyterian-affiliated private college suspended operations in June, 2007, after several years of financial stress.

Schools[edit]

The Sitka School District runs several schools in Sitka, including Sitka High School and Pacific High School, as well as the town's only middle school, Blatchley Middle School. They also run a home school assistance program through Terry's Learning Center.

Mt. Edgecumbe High School, a State of Alaska-run boarding high school for rural, primarily Native, students, is located on Japonski Island adjacent to University of Alaska Southeast.

One private school is available at Sitka Adventist School.

Libraries[edit]

Kettleson Memorial Library is the public library for Sitka. It receives about 100,000 guests annually and houses a collection of 75,000 books, audiobooks, music recordings, reference resources, videos (DVD and VHS) as well as an assortment of Alaskan and national periodicals. Its annual circulation is 133,000. The library is well known by visitors for its view. The large windows in front of the reading area look south across Eastern Channel towards the Pyramids.

Until its closing, Sitka was also home to Stratton Library, the academic library of Sheldon Jackson College.

Other[edit]

The Alaska State Trooper Academy — the academy for all Alaska State Troopers — is located in Sitka.

Attractions[edit]

The Pioneer Home, one of Sitka's many historic structures, in May 2002.

Sitka's many attractions include:

The flora and fauna of Sitka and its surrounding area are also a notable attraction. Day cruises and guided day trips (hiking) are large enterprises in Sitka. Floatplane "flightseeing" excursions are a breathtaking way to view the area's many sights from high above.

Outdoor opportunities[edit]

Sitka's unique position of being straddled between the Pacific Ocean and the most mountainous island in the Alexander Archipelago creates an abundant variety of outdoor opportunities:

Looking down Sitka Channel in the early morning.
  • The Baranof Cross-Island Trail, which leads to the small community of Baranof Warm Springs on the eastern side of the island, is a popular summer backpacking trip. Only serious and experienced backpackers, or those with an experienced guide, should undertake such a trip due to volatile weather conditions in the mountains and the required crossings of icefields with crevasses.
  • The dormant volcano Mount Edgecumbe is also a popular mountain to summit and features a seven-mile (11 km) trail up to the top. Guided day-trips are available, but the trip does not require much knowledge to undertake.
  • The officially unnamed, but informally named Peak 5390 (the name is derived from its height in feet) is the highest point on Baranof Island and a demanding climb. Few people undertake this peak; those interested should consult with one who has summited previously.
  • Kayaking is a popular activity and small guided day excursions are offered locally. For longer trips, popular destinations include the Baranof Island-located outposts of Goddard hot springs, Baranof Warm Springs, Port Alexander, Port Armstrong, or Port Walter. White Sulphur Hot Springs (on the western side of Chichagof Island) is also a destination for ocean kayakers. For locations closer to Sitka, U.S. Forest Service cabins are popular.
  • There are a number of maintained trails in the Sitka area, many of which are accessible from Sitka's road system. Popular trails include Indian River Trail, Beaver Lake Trail, Mosquito Cove Trail, Harbor Mountain/Gavin Hill Trail, Redoubt Lake Trail, Mount Verstovia Trail, and Shelikof Trail.

Media[edit]

Print[edit]

Sitka is served by the Daily Sitka Sentinel, one of the remaining few independently-owned daily newspapers in the state. Sitka also receives circulation of the Capital City Weekly — a weekly regional newspaper based out of Juneau.

Radio[edit]

The public radio station KCAW (Raven Radio) and commercial radio stations KIFW and KSBZ fill the airwaves.

Television[edit]

KTNL-TV (CBS) broadcasts out of Sitka on Channel 13 (Cable 6) serving Southeast Alaska. Additionally, KSCT-LP (NBC) Channel 5, KTOO (PBS) Channel 10,[34] and KJUD (cable-only ABC/CW) serve the region.

Notable people[edit]

A replica of Russian Block House#1 (one of three watchtowers that guarded the stockade walls at Old Sitka) as constructed by the National Park Service in 1962.

Sister cities[edit]

Sitka has the following sister city:[35]

Sitka in the media, books, film, television, magazines..[edit]

  • Louis L'Amour penned Sitka, his fictional account of the events surrounding the United States' purchase of the Alaska Territory from the Russians for $7.2 million in 1867.
  • Novelist James Michener resided at Sitka's Sheldon Jackson College while doing research for his epic work, Alaska.
  • The 1952 film The World in His Arms has Russian Sitka as one of its settings.
  • Sitka is the opening setting in Ivan Doig's 1982 historical fiction The Sea Runners.
  • Sitka is mentioned in Chapter 53 of James Clavell's 1993 historical fiction about Japan Gai-Jin.
  • Mystery author John Straley described Sitka as "...an island town where people feel crowded by the land and spread out on the sea."
  • Part of the action in the novel César Cascabel by Jules Verne takes place in Sitka in May–June, 1867 during the transfer of ownership to the United States.
  • A fictionalized Sitka, with a population in the millions and the host of a fictional 1977 World's Fair, is the setting of the alternate history detective story The Yiddish Policemen's Union, by Michael Chabon.
  • Sitka is a character in the 2003 Disney animated feature Brother Bear.
  • Sitka is a setting used in the 2009 Touchstone Pictures feature The Proposal, although the scenes were filmed in Rockport, Massachusetts.
  • Sitka was the setting of Season 1, Episode 7 of the television show Buying Alaska in 2012, when former Denver Broncos place kicker Jason Elam and his wife Tammy were looking for their own private island to purchase in Sitka, Alaska.
  • Sitka was featured in a 2012 episode of the Travel Channel's popular series Bizarre Foods, starring Andrew Zimmerman. In this episode Zimmerman ate herring eggs, stink heads, and sea cucumbers.
  • Sitka was named one of the Top 20 Small Towns to Visit in 2013 by Smithsonian Magazine.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ From November 1867 to February 1873, the earliest American settlers in Sitka established and conducted affairs under a "provisional city government", as Alaskan communities were prohibited from legally incorporating until the U.S. Congress passed legislation allowing them to do so in 1900. Mayors of Sitka under this government included William Sumner Dodge and John Henry Kinkead. See Atwood, Evangeline; DeArmond, Robert N. (1977). Who's Who in Alaskan Politics. Portland: Binford & Mort for the Alaska Historical Commission. p. 24. ; Wheeler, Keith (1977). "Learning to cope with 'Seward's Icebox'". The Alaskans. Alexandria: Time–Life Books. pp. 57–64. ISBN 0-8094-1506-2. 
  2. ^ "Community: Sitka". Community Database Online. Juneau: Alaska Department of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Division of Community and Regional Affairs. February 11, 2014. Retrieved February 24, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 18, 2014. 
  4. ^ Joseph, Charlie; Brady, I.; Makinen, E.; David, R.; Davis, V.; Johnson, A.; Lord, N. (2001). "Sheet’kwaan Aani Aya". Sitka Tribe of Alaska. Retrieved 27 October 2009. 
  5. ^ a b Vaillant (2006) [clarification needed], p. 169.
  6. ^ Chevigny, Hector (1942). Lord of Alaska: Baranov and the Russian adventure. Cornell University: Viking Press. p. 320. 
  7. ^ Sitka Lutheran Church.
  8. ^ National Register of Historic Places, Sitka, Alaska
  9. ^ The Alaska Purchase, Library of Congress, USA. http://memory.loc.gov/intldl/mtfhtml/mfak/mfaksale.html
  10. ^ Alaska Day Festival, Sitka, Alaska http://www.alaskadayfestival.org./
  11. ^ Guide to Alaska Newspapers on Microfilm (PDF). Juneau: Alaska State Library. 1998. pp. 324, 332. Retrieved October 29, 2011. 
  12. ^ "ANB celebrates 100th at ANB/ANS Grand Camp in Sitka" (Press release). Raven Radio. 29 September 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2013. 
  13. ^ Sitka Maritime Heritage Society. Historic Sitka Harbor and Waterfront Self-Guided Tour:Points of Interest on Sitka's Historic Waterfront (Map).
  14. ^ Klaney, Carol Kelty (1995). Gunalcheesh!. Haines, Alaska: Ptarmigan Press. pp. 77–78. 
  15. ^ Home Rule Charter of the City and Borough of Sitka
  16. ^ Community/Borough Map: State of Alaska Department of Community and Economic Development
  17. ^ "Certificate of Organization of the Unified Home Rule Municipality of the City an Borough of Sitka" (PDF). Alaska Department of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Division of Community and Regional Affairs (DCRA). 1990-06-18. Retrieved 2012-05-04. 
  18. ^ a b c "NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved February 16, 2013. 
  19. ^ a b Sitka, Alaska: 2010-2011 Community Profile. Sitka Economic Development Association. p. 3. 
  20. ^ American Community Survey, 2006-2010 5-Year Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau [1]
  21. ^ Blue Lake Expansion Project, Sitka, Alaska http://www.bluelakeexpansion.com/index.html
  22. ^ S2sclobal.com announces India world water hub, July 7, 2010.
  23. ^ a b "Alaska City Set to Ship Water to India, U.S. Company Announces", Circle of Blue, July 11, 2010
  24. ^ Walton, Brett (December 10, 2010). "Bulk Water Shipping Company Misses Deadline to Export From Alaska". Circle of Blue. Retrieved January 5, 2013. 
  25. ^ Walton, Brett (February 2, 2011). "Alaska Bulk Water Company Receives Export Contract Extension, Wants to Split with Partner". Circle of Blue. Retrieved January 5, 2013. 
  26. ^ Table of 2005 U.S. Port Rankings by Foreign Commerce Cargo Value: American Association of Port Authorities
  27. ^ Bunten, Alexis Celeste (2008). "Sharing Culture or Selling Out?: Developing the commodified persona in the heritage industry". American Ethnologist (American Anthropological Association) 35 (3): 382. doi:10.1111/j.1548-1425.2008.00041.x. ISSN 0094-0496. 
  28. ^ Ashley, McClelland (31 March 2012). The Art of Innovation: The Effects of Trade and Tourism on Tlingit Dagger Production in the Nineteenth Century (Speech). Wooshteen Kanaxtulaneegí Haa At Wuskóowu / Sharing Our Knowledge, A conference of Tlingit Tribes and Clans: Haa eetí ḵáa yís / For Those Who Come After Us. Sitka, Alaska. Retrieved 31 March 2012. 
  29. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 18, 2014. 
  30. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved May 18, 2014. 
  31. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 18, 2014. 
  32. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 18, 2014. 
  33. ^ [2] American Factfinder, U.S. Census Bureau data 2010 Census accessed, 12/16/11
  34. ^ [3][dead link]
  35. ^ Alaska sister cities index

Further reading[edit]

Postcard: Sitka in 1886
Looking past downtown Sitka, up Indian River valley. Probably taken from Castle Hill.
  • Andrews, C.L. (1944). The Story of Alaska. The Caxton Printers, Ltd., Caldwell, Ohio. 
  • Fedorova, Svetlana G., trans. & ed. by Richard A. Pierce and Alton S. Donnelly (1973). The Russian Population in Alaska and California: Late 18th Century - 1867. Limestone Press, Kingston, Ontario. ISBN 0-919642-53-5. 
  • Hope, Herb (2000) "The Kiks.ádi Survival March 1804." In: Will the Time Ever Come? A Tlingit Source Book, ed. by Andrew Hope III and Thomas F. Thornton, pp. 48–79. Fairbanks, Alaska: Alaska Native Knowledge Network.
  • Naske, Claus-M and Herman E. Slotnick (2003). Alaska: A History of the 49th State. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma. ISBN 0-8061-2099-1. 
  • Nordlander, David J. (1994). For God & Tsar: A Brief History of Russian America 1741 - 1867. Alaska Natural History Association, Anchorage, AK. ISBN 0-930931-15-7. 
  • Vaillant, John (2006). The Golden Spruce: A True Story of Myth, Madness and Greed. Vintage Canada. ISBN 978-0-676-97646-5.
  • Wharton, David (1991). They Don't Speak Russian in Sitka: A New Look at the History of Southern Alaska. Markgraf Publications Group, Menlo Park, California. ISBN 0-944109-08-X. 
  • Wilber, Glenn (1993). The Sitka Story: Crown Jewel of Baranof Island. "Land of Destiny"—Alaska Publications, Sitka, AK. 
  • Tlingit Geographical Place Names for the Sheet'ká Kwáan — Sitka Tribe of Alaska, an interactive map of Sitka Area native place names.

External links[edit]