|Time zone||EST (UTC+2)|
The Siwa Oasis (Siwi: Isiwan; Arabic: واحة سيوة Wāḥat Sīwah, IPA: [ˈwæːħet ˈsiːwæ]) is an oasis in Egypt, located between the Qattara Depression and the Egyptian Sand Sea in the Libyan Desert, nearly 50 km (30 mi) east of the Libyan border, and 560 km (348 mi) from Cairo.
About 80 km (50 mi) in length and 20 km (12 mi) wide, Siwa Oasis is one of Egypt's most isolated settlements, with 23,000 people, mostly Berber speakers who speak a distinct language of the Berber family known as Siwi. Its fame lies primarily in its ancient role as the home to an oracle of Amon, the ruins of which are a popular tourist attraction which gave the oasis its ancient name Ammonium. Historically, it is part of Ancient Libya. Its modern name Siwa, first attested in the 15th century (earlier Arab geographers termed it Santariyyah), is of uncertain origin. Basset  links it to a Berber tribal name swh attested further west in the early Islamic period, while Ilahiane, following Chafik, links it to the Tashelhiyt Berber word asiwan, a type of prey bird, and hence to Amon-Ra, one of whose symbols was the falcon.
Agriculture is the main activity of modern Siwi, particularly the cultivation of dates and olives. Handicrafts like basketry are also of regional importance. The isolation of the oasis caused the development of a unique culture which was shown in its pottery, costume, styles of embroidery and, most notably, in the silver jewellery worn by women to weddings and important occasions. These pieces were decorated with symbols which related to Siwa’s history and beliefs and attitudes. Tourism has in recent decades become a vital source of income. Much attention has been given to creating hotels that use local materials and play on local styles.
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The Siwa oasis is located in a deep depression that extends below sea level. This depression, an area lower than the surrounding region, reaches to about -19 m. To the west the Jaghbub lies in a similar depression and to the east the large Qattara Depression also lies below sea level.
Although the oasis is known to have been settled since at least the 10th millennium BC, the earliest evidence of connection with ancient Egypt is the 26th Dynasty, when a necropolis was established. During the Ptolemaid period of Egypt its ancient Egyptian name was sḫ.t-ỉm3w, "Field of Trees". Greek settlers at Cyrene made contact with the oasis around the same time (7th century BC), and the oracle temple of Amun (Greek: Zeus Ammon), who, Herodotus was told, took the image here of a ram. Herodotus knew of a "fountain of the Sun" that ran coldest in the noontide heat. During his campaign to conquer the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great reached the oasis, supposedly by following birds across the desert. The oracle, Alexander's court historians alleged, confirmed him as both a divine personage and the legitimate Pharaoh of Egypt, though Alexander's motives in making the excursion, following his founding of Alexandria, remain to some extent inscrutable and contested. The Romans later used Siwa as a place of banishment.
Evidence of Christianity at Siwa is uncertain, but in 708 the Siwans resisted an Islamic army, and probably did not convert until the 12th century. A local manuscript mentions only seven families totaling 40 men living at the oasis in 1203.
In the 12th century Al-Idrisi mentions it as being inhabited mainly by Berbers, with an Arab minority, while a century before Al-Bakri stated that only Berbers lived there. The Egyptian historian Al-Maqrizi travelled to Siwa in the 15th century and described how the language spoken there 'is similair to the language of the Zenata'.
The oasis was officially added to Egypt by Muhammad Ali of Egypt in 1819. The Siwans are a Berber people, so demographically and culturally they were more closely related to nearby Libya, which has a large Berber population, than to Egypt, which has a negligible Berber population. Consequently, Arab rule from distant Cairo was at first tenuous and marked by several revolts. Egypt began to assert firmer control after a 1928 visit to the Oasis by King Fu'ad, who berated the locals for "a certain vice" and specified punishments to bring Siwan behavior in line with Egyptian morals (see next section).
Siwa was the site of some fighting during World War I and World War II. The British Army's Long Range Desert Group was based here, but Rommel's Afrika Korps also took possession three times. German soldiers went skinny dipping in the lake of the oracle, contrary to local customs which prohibit public nudity.
The ancient fortress of Siwa, built on natural rock (an inselberg), made of salt, mud-brick and palm logs and known as the Shali Ghadi ("Shali" being the name of the town, and "Ghadi" meaning remote), although now mostly abandoned and 'melted', remains a prominent feature, towering five stories above the modern town.
Other local historic sites of interest include: the remains of the oracle temple; the Gebel al Mawta (the Mountain of the Dead), a Roman-era necropolis featuring dozens of rock-cut tombs; and "Cleopatra's Bath", an antique natural spring. The fragmentary remains of the oracle temple, with some inscriptions dating from the 4th century BC, lie within the ruins of Aghurmi. The revelations of the oracle fell into disrepute under the Roman occupation of Egypt.
Another attraction for tourists is Fatnas Island, which became a palm-fringed peninsula located on the edge of a saltwater lake. The lake had been partially drained in recent years because of a plan to limit the effect of rising water levels in Siwa due to agricultural runoff from uncontrolled wells (a major problem affecting the entire oasis); Fatnas Island is now surrounded mostly by mud flats.
Siwan homosexual tradition
Siwa is of special interest to anthropologists and sociologists because of its historical acceptance of male homosexuality and even rituals of same-sex marriage—traditions that Egyptian authorities have sought to repress, with increasing success, since the early twentieth century. The practice probably arose because from ancient times unmarried men and adolescent boys were required to live and work together outside the town of Shali, secluded for several years from any access to available women.
The German egyptologist George Steindorff explored the Oasis in 1900 and reported that homosexual relations were common and often extended to a form of marriage: "The feast of marrying a boy was celebrated with great pomp, and the money paid for a boy sometimes amounted to fifteen pounds, while the money paid for a woman was a little over one pound." Mahmud Mohamrnad Abd Allah, writing of Siwan customs for the Harvard Peabody Museum in 1917, commented that although Siwan men could take up to four wives, "Siwan customs allow a man but one boy to whom he is bound by a stringent code of obligations." In 1937 the anthropologist Walter Cline wrote the first detailed ethnography of the Siwans in which he noted: ""All normal Siwan men and boys practice sodomy...among themselves the natives are not ashamed of this; they talk about it as openly as they talk about love of women, and many if not most of their fights arise from homosexual competition....Prominent men lend their sons to each other. All Siwans know the matings which have taken place among their sheiks and their sheiks' sons....Most of the boys used in sodomy are between twelve and eighteen years of age."  After an expedition to Siwa, the archaeologist Count Byron de Prorok reported in 1937 "an enthusiasm [that] could not have been approached even in Sodom... Homosexuality was not merely rampant, it was raging...Every dancer had his boyfriend...[and] chiefs had harems of boys. In the late 1940s a Siwan merchant told the visiting British novelist Robin Maugham that the Siwan women were "badly neglected", but that Siwan men "will kill each other for boy. Never for a woman", although as Maugham noted, marriage to a boy had become illegal by then. The Egyptian archaeologist Ahmed Fakhry, who studied Siwa for three decades, observed in 1973 that "While the Siwans were still living inside their walled town, none of these bachelors was allowed to spend the night in the town and had to sleep outside the gates...Under such circumstances it is not surprising that homosexuality was common among them....Up to the year 1928, it was not unusual that some kind of written agreement, which was sometimes called a marriage contract, was made between two males; but since the visit of King Fu'ad to this oasis it has been completely forbidden...However, such agreements continued, but in great secrecy, and without the actual writing, until the end of World War II. Now the practice is not followed." 
Despite the multiplicity of sources for these practices, the Egyptian authorities and even the Siwan tribal elders have attempted to repress the historical and anthropological record. When the Siwa-born anthropologist Fathi Malim included reference to Siwan homosexuality (especially a love poem from a man to a youth) in his book Oasis Siwa (2001), the tribal council demanded that he blank out the material in the current edition of the book and remove it from future editions, or be expelled from the community. Malim reluctantly agreed and physically deleted the passages in the first edition of his book, and excluded them from the second. A newer book Siwa Past and Present (2005) by A. Dumairy, the Director of Siwa Antiquities, discreetly omits all mention of the famous historical practices of the inhabitants 
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Siwa is popular for its palm and olive trees, producing huge volumes of dates and olives. Extra virgin olive oil is one of Siwa's popular products used in Egypt and exported to Europe. Mulukhiyah, a plant from the jute family which is widely consumed as a vegetable in Egypt, is also produced at the oasis.
|Climate data for Siwa|
|Average high °C (°F)||19.3||21.5||24.5||29.9||34||37.5||37.5||37||34.6||30.5||25||20.5||29.32|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||12.1||14||17.3||21.9||25.8||29.2||29.9||29.4||27.1||22.8||17.3||13.2||21.67|
|Average low °C (°F)||5.6||7.1||10.1||13.7||17.8||20.4||21.7||21.4||19.5||15.5||10.2||6.5||14.12|
|Precipitation mm (inches)||2||1||2||1||1||0||0||0||0||0||2||1||—|
|Source: Climate Charts|
|Climate data for Siwa Oasis / Markaz Siwa|
|Average high °C (°F)||20.4||21.8||25.8||30.5||34.2||37.7||39.1||38.6||36.3||31.4||25.8||21.5||—|
|Average low °C (°F)||6.6||8.2||11||15.1||18.5||21.5||23.3||23.6||21.5||17.2||11.4||7.8||—|
|Avg. rainy days||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||—|
The traditional culture of Siwa shows many features unusual in Egypt, some reflecting its longstanding links with the Maghreb and the fact that the inhabitants are of Berber origin. Until a tarmacadamed road was built to the Mediterranean coast in the 1980s Siwa’s only links with the outside world were by arduous camel tracks through the desert. These were used to export dates and olives, bring trade goods, or carry pilgrims on the route which linked the Maghreb to Cairo and hence to Mecca.
As a result of this isolation, the Berber inhabitants of the Oasis developed a unique culture manifested in its crafts of basketry, pottery, silverwork and embroidery and in its style of dress. The most visible and celebrated examples of this were the bridal silver and the ensemble of silver ornaments and beads that women wore in abundance to weddings and other ceremonies.
The best known of these pieces are a huge silver disc called ‘adrim’ and a torc, called ‘aghraw’ from which it hung over the breast. A girl would give up the disc at a special ceremony at the Spring the day she was married. The jewellery, which was made by local silversmiths, comprised silver necklaces, earrings, bangles, hair ornaments, pendants and many rings. For a wealthy woman, the full ensemble could weigh as much as five or six kilos. These pieces are decorated with symbols common to Berber people across North Africa designed to promote good health, fertility and to protect the wearer from misfortune. Some of the same signs and patterns are found on the embroidery which embellishes women’s dresses, trousers and shawls.
The arrival of the road and of television exposed the oasis to the styles and fashions of the outside world and the traditional silver ornaments were gradually replaced by gold. Evidence of the old styles and traditions are however still in evidence in the women’s embroidery and costume.
Like other Muslim Egyptians, Siwis celebrate Eid al-Fitr (lʕid ahakkik,"the Little Eid") and Eid al-Adha (lʕid azuwwar,"the Big Eid"). Unlike other Egyptians, however, on Id al-Adha Siwis cook the skin of the sheep (along with its innards) as a festival delicacy, after removing the hair. They also eat palm hearts (agroz).
The Siyaha Festival, in honour of the town's traditional patron saint Sidi Sulayman, is unique to Siwa. (The name is often misunderstood as a reference to "tourism", but in fact predates tourism.) On this occasion Siwi men meet together on a mountain near the town, Jabal Dakrour, to eat together, sing chants thanking God, and reconcile with one another; the women stay behind in the village, and celebrate with dancing, singing, and drums. The food for the festival is bought collectively, with funds gathered by the oasis' mosques. This festival takes place on the first full moon of October, shortly after the grain harvest.
Relations with other ethnic groups
According to older members of the Awlad Ali Bedouins, Arab Bedouin relations with Siwis were traditionally mediated through a system of "friendship", whereby a specific Siwi (and his descendants) would be the friend of a specific Bedouin (and his descendants). The Bedouin would stay at the Siwi's house when he came to Siwa, and would exchange his animal products and grain for the Siwi's dates and olive oil.
Relations with Jews
Partly in response to the Siwi complaints, the program's host produced an episode on Siwa in November 2010, in which he gave six Siwis, including Bilal Ahmad Bilal Issa, an Egyptian MP (from Siwa), and Omar Abdallah Rajeh, Sheik of the Awlad Musa Tribe, a chance to respond to these claims. In their replies, the interviewees stated that there were no Jews in Siwa, at the Siyaha Festival or otherwise, and that Siwis reject any relations with Jews, or even hate Israelis/Jews; the reasons given were that Siwis support the Arabs in the Arab-Israeli conflict, and as such "view them as enemies." The interviews also stated that Jews are not welcome in Siwa as tourists. Bilal Issa stated that Siwa residents "despise the Israelis" while Sheik Rajeh stated that Siwa residents "will not accept any relations whatsoever with the Jews."
An extremely old hominid footprint was discovered in 2007 at Siwa Oasis. It was claimed by Egyptian scientists to have the possible age of 2-3 million years old, which would make it the oldest fossilized hominid footprint ever found. However, no proof of this conjecture was ever presented.
Ahmad Fakhry, the famous Egyptian archaeologist, worked at this site.
- "Siwa", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007
- Bard, Kathryn A.; Shubert, Steven Blake, eds. (1999), Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, Routledge (UK), ISBN 978-0-415-18589-9, ISBN 0-415-18589-0
- Arnold, Dieter; Strudwick, Helen; Strudwick, Nigel, eds. (2003), The Encyclopaedia of Ancient Egyptian Architecture, I B Tauris, ISBN 978-1-86064-465-8, ISBN 1-86064-465-1
- Basset, René (1890), Le dialecte de Syouah, Paris: Ernest Leroux, p. 3
- Ilahiane, Hsain (2006), "Siwa Oasis", Historical dictionary of the Berbers (Imazighen), Historical dictionaries of peoples and cultures 5, Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, Inc, p. 111, ISBN 978-0-8108-5452-9
- Margaret Mary Vale, 2011, Sand and Silver: Jewellery, Costume and Life in Siwa Oasis, London:Kelim
- "Elevation data by NASA's SRTM". .jpl.nasa.gov. 2009-06-17. doi:10.1029/2005RG000183. Retrieved 2012-06-30.
- Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache, ed. Adolf Erman, Hermann Grapow. Vol. IV, p.230; Vol. VI, p.141
- Herodotus, Histories, iv (on-line text).
- Alexander the Great, Robin Lane Fox, Allen Lane 1973/ Penguin 1986-2004, pp 200-218
- "Grammatical Contact In The Sahara". Retrieved 2012-06-30.
- "Siwa Oasis". Byebyenet.com. Retrieved 2012-06-30.
- Steindorff, George (1904 p.111). Durch die Libysche Wuste Zur Amonoase. Leipsig: Velohgen and Klasing.
- Allah, Abd (1917). "Siwan Customs". Harvard African Studies 7.
- Cline, Walter (1936, p 43). Notes on the People of Siwa. Menasha, Wisconsin, USA: George Banta Publishing Co.
- De Porok, Count Byron (1936 p 64). In Quest of Lost Worlds. New York: Dutton.
- Maugham, Robin (1950 p80). Journey to Siwa. London: Chapman and Hall.
- Fakhry, Ahmed (1973). Siwa Oasis. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press. pp. 41–43.
- Malim, Fathi (2001). Oasis Siwa from the Inside. Siwa.
- "Siwan anthropologist sparks controversy". Cultural Survival. Retrieved November 14, 2002.
- Dumairy, A. (2005). Siwa Past and Present. Alexandria.
- "Climate Siwa - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table (altitude: −15m)". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- "Siwa, Egypt: Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data". Climate Charts. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- "Weather for Siwa Oasis, Egypt - Climate". Storm247.com. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- "Weather for Markaz Siwa, Egypt - Climate". Storm247.com. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- Margaret Mary Vale, 2011, Sand and Silver, 71, 79-83.
- Margaret Mary Vale, 2011, Sand and Silver, xiv, 32, 79-81, 87-99, 101-7.
- Margaret Mary Vale, 2011, Sand and Silver, 61-70.
- Margaret Mary Vale, 2011, Sand and Silver
- Ahmed Fakhry. 1973. Siwa Oasis, Cairo: AUC, p. 64
- Fathi Malim. 2001. Oasis Siwa: from the Inside. Traditions, customs, and magic. Al Katan / Dar al Kutub. p. 34
- Malim 2001:29
- Fakhry 1973:67
- Fathi Malim. 2001. Oasis Siwa: from the Inside. Traditions, customs, and magic. Al Katan / Dar al Kutub. pp. 38, 54
- ibid, p. 54
- Donald Powell Cole, Soraya Altorki. 1998. Bedouin, settlers, and holiday-makers: Egypt's changing northwest coast. Cairo: AUC. p. 143
- Margaret Mary Vale, 2011, Sand and Silver, p. 44
- "أما ثالث الأسباب فهي أن أهل سيوة اعترضوا على حلقة سابقة من برنامج الملف لأن أحد الضيوف تحدث عن علاقة وطيدة بين الإسرائيليين وهذه المناطق في الواحة المصرية" (ie: "the third reason is that the people of Siwa protested about a previous episode because one of the guests spoke of a strong relationship between Israelis and these parts of the Egyptian oases" The File: The Egyptian Oasis of Siwa: Hidden Heritage, Al Jazeera, 5/11/2010
- Egyptian Berbers Defend Themselves against Accusations of Being Jew-Lovers: We Can Smell if a Tourist Is Jewish, MEMRI, Clip No. 2686 (transcript), November 5, 2010
- #2686 - Egyptian Berbers Defend Themselves against Accusations of Being Jew-Lovers: We Can Smell if a Tourist Is Jewish, MEMRI, Clip No. 2686 (video), Al-Jazeera TV (Qatar), November 5, 2010.
- Reuters: Human footprint may be oldest ever found August 20, 2007.
- "Egypt footprint 'could be oldest'". BBC News. August 21, 2007.
- "Oldest Human Footprints With Modern Anatomy Found". News.nationalgeographic.com. 2010-10-28. Retrieved 2012-06-30.
- (French) PDF, de Vincent Battesti, in Benfoughal T. et Boulay S. (dirs), Journal des Africanistes, Sahara : identités et mutations sociales en objets, Paris, Sociétés des Africanistes, 2006, Tome 76, fascicule 1, p. 165-185.
- (German) Frank Bliss, 'Siwa - Die Oase des Sonnengottes. Leben in einer ägyptischen Oase vom Mittelalter bis in die Gegenwart'. Bonn 1998'.
- (French) Frank Bliss, 'Artisanat et artisanat d’art dans les oasis du désert occidental égyptien'. Veröffentlichungen des Frobenius-Instituts, Köln 1998.
- (French) PDF, de Vincent Battesti, in Battesti V. et Puig N. (dirs) Égypte/Monde Arabe, Terrains d’Égypte, anthropologies contemporaines, n° 3, 3e série, 1er semestre 2006, Le Caire, Cedej, p. 139-179.
- (French) Alain Blottière, L'Oasis, éditions Quai Voltaire, Paris, 1992. Pocket edition : éditions Payot, "Petite Bibliothèque Voyageurs", Paris, 1994. (see link below).
- (English) Margaret Mary Vale, 'Sand and Silver: Jewellery, Costume and Life in the Oasis of Siwa', London, 2011.
- Western Desert Maps
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Siwa.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Siwa.|
- (English) siwaguide.com
- (German) Siwa Oasis on Wikivoyage
- (English) See Siwa Oasis Photo album.
- (English) The Locally Run Website of Siwa Oasis.
- (English) Siwa Oasis – Extraordinary
- (English) Siwa information from an English family that live in the Oasis..
- (English) Alain Blottière's Travel book on Siwa.
- Detailed map of Egypt, with towns, oases & temples: http://unimaps.com/egypt/index.html.
- "Pictures gallery on Siwa oasis" on vbat.org, by Vincent Battesti.
- (English) Travel guide.
- (English) 40 Days and 1001 Nights by Tamalyn Dallal (2007).