Six Nations Championship

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This article is about the rugby union event. For the ice hockey competition, see Six Nations Tournament (ice hockey).
Six Nations Championship
Current season, competition or edition:
2014 Six Nations Championship
Six Nations Championship.svg
The official RBS 6 Nations logo
Sport Rugby union
Founded 1883 (as Home Nations Championship)
2000 (as Six Nations Championship)
No. of teams 6
Countries  England
 France
 Ireland
 Italy
 Scotland
 Wales
Most recent champion(s)  Ireland

The Six Nations Championship[a] is an annual international rugby union competition involving six European sides: England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales. It is sponsored by the Royal Bank of Scotland.

The Six Nations is the successor to the Five Nations Championship (1910–31 and 1947–99) which in turn succeeded the Home Nations Championship (1883–1909 and 1932–39). The Home Nations Championship, played between teams from England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales, was the first international rugby union tournament.[1] The winners of the Six Nations Championship are sometimes unofficially referred to in the media as the European Champions or Northern Hemisphere Champions. Ireland are the current champions after beating France in the final game of the tournament and having a higher points tally than 2nd placed England, despite the latter having the same win:loss ratio.

England and Wales are the joint current record holders for outright wins of the Home Nations, Five Nations and Six Nations tournaments, with 26 titles each, although Wales add to that record with 12 shared victories to England's 10 shared titles. Since the Six Nations era started in 2000, only Italy and Scotland have failed to win the actual Six Nations title, although Scotland were the last outright winners of the tournament's predecessor event, the Five Nations, in 1999.

Format[edit]

The locations of the Six Nations participants

Played annually, the format of the Championship is simple: each team plays every other team once, with home field advantage alternating from one year to the next. Two points are awarded for a win, one for a draw and none for a loss. Unlike many other rugby union competitions the bonus point system is not used.

If a team wins all its games, they are said to have won a 'Grand Slam'. Victory by any Home Nation over the other three Home Nations is a 'Triple Crown'. Although this achievement has long been a feature of the tournament, it was not until 2006 that a physical Triple Crown trophy was awarded. At the end of the tournament the team that finishes at the bottom of the league table is said to have won the Wooden Spoon, although no actual trophy is given to the team. A team which has lost all five matches is said to have been whitewashed. Since the inaugural Six Nations tournament in 2000, only England and Ireland have avoided the Wooden Spoon award. Italy are the holders of the most Wooden Spoon awards in the Six Nations era with ten (although each of the other five nations has accumulated more than that through competing in previous eras).

Several individual competitions take place under the umbrella of the tournament. The oldest such regular competition is for the Calcutta Cup, contested annually between England and Scotland since 1879. It is named the Calcutta Cup as it is made from melted-down Indian Rupees. Since 1988, the Millennium Trophy has been awarded to the winner of the game between England and Ireland, and since 1989 the Centenary Quaich has been awarded to the winner of the game between Ireland and Scotland. Since 2007, France and Italy have contested the Giuseppe Garibaldi Trophy; it was created for the 200th anniversary of the birth of Giuseppe Garibaldi, the Italian hero who helped unify Italy. Garibaldi was born in Nizza (now Nice, France) in 1807.

Prior to 1994, teams equal on points shared the championship. Since then, ties have been broken by considering the points difference of the teams. The rules of the championship further provide that if teams tie on both match points and points difference, the team which scored the most tries wins the championship. Were this decider be a tie, the tying teams would share the championship.[2] To date, however, match points and points difference have been sufficient to decide the championship.

Trophies[edit]

Championship Trophy[edit]

Six Nations Championship and Triple Crown Trophies

The winners of the Six Nations are presented with the Championship Trophy.[3] This was originally conceived by the Earl of Westmorland, and was first presented to the winners of the 1993 championship, France. It is a sterling silver trophy, designed by James Brent-Ward and made by a team of eight silversmiths from the London firm William Comyns.

It has 15 side panels representing the 15 members of the team and with three handles to represent the three officials (referee and two touch judges). The cup has a capacity of 3.75 litres – sufficient for five bottles of champagne. Within the mahogany base is a concealed drawer which contains six alternate finials, each a silver replica of one of the team emblems, which can be screwed on the detachable lid.

Triple Crown Trophy[edit]

The Triple Crown may only be won by England, Ireland, Scotland or Wales, when one nation wins all three of their matches against the others, during the Six Nations Championship. The Triple Crown honour has long been a feature of the tournament, dating back to the original Home Nations Championship, but the physical Triple Crown Trophy has been awarded only since 2006. The current holder of the Triple Crown is England, who defeated Ireland, Scotland, and Wales in the 2014 championship. For the 2006 Six Nations, the Royal Bank of Scotland (the primary sponsor of the competition) commissioned Hamilton & Inches to design and create a dedicated Triple Crown Trophy. It has since been won three times by Ireland, twice by Wales and once by England.

Other trophies[edit]

Several other trophies are contested within the main competition, mostly as long-standing fixtures between pairs of teams.

Current venues[edit]

Murrayfield Stadium in Edinburgh, the home of Scottish rugby union.

As of the current 2014 competition, Six Nations matches will be held in the following stadia:

Team Stadium Capacity
England Twickenham Stadium 82,000
France Stade de France 81,338
Wales Millennium Stadium 74,500
Italy Stadio Olimpico 72,698
Scotland Murrayfield Stadium 67,144
Ireland Aviva Stadium 51,700

The opening of Aviva Stadium in May 2010 ended the arrangement with the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) that allowed the all-Ireland governing body for rugby union, the Irish Rugby Football Union, to use the GAA's flagship stadium, Croke Park, for its international matches. This arrangement was made necessary by the 2007 closure and subsequent demolition of Ireland's traditional home of Lansdowne Road, with the Aviva being built on the former Lansdowne Road site. During the construction of the Aviva, Croke Park was the largest of the Six Nations grounds, with a capacity of 82,300.

In the late 2000s, the increasing popularity of rugby in Italy meant that Stadio Flaminio was becoming less viable as a home ground for the country's team. As the 2010s approached, it had been speculated that Italy's Six Nations home matches would in the future be held at football stadiums such as the Stadio Olimpico in Rome or in the North where rugby is most popular. Stadio Luigi Ferraris in Genoa (42,000 seats) or Stadio Ennio Tardini in Parma (almost 28,000 seats) were suggested as alternative grounds. Improvements for the Flaminio, intended to increase the capacity from 32,000 to 42,000, were announced, apparently increasing the likelihood that rugby would stay at Stadio Flamino, although still making it the smallest of the Six Nations grounds.[9] However, the city of Rome, owner of the Flaminio, delayed the promised renovations, causing the Italian Rugby Federation (FIR) to lose patience with the city. In April 2011, it was reported that the FIR would move its home matches to Stadio Artemio Franchi in Florence.[10] The city of Rome then began renovations of the Flaminio, which presumably prompted the FIR to announce in July of that year that it would instead keep its home matches in the city at Stadio Olimpico.[11] The FIR also announced it planned to return to the Flaminio once the project was complete.[12]

In November 2010, the French Rugby Federation (FFR) announced that it is planning to build a new stadium of its own within the Paris region.[13] The FFR has grown increasingly frustrated with several aspects of their using the Stade de France: not only the high rental expense, but also the irritation that it does not receive priority when scheduling matches – with the possible exception of the Six Nations itself.[14]

In June 2012, FFR announced the site for its new ground – tentatively known as Grand Stade FFR – in the southern suburbs of Paris. It is located 25.0 km (15.5 mi) from the centre of Paris.[15] The 82,000-seat stadium, featuring a retractable roof and slide-out pitch, will be built on a former horse racing track in Évry. The new stadium, estimated to cost €600 million, is currently scheduled to open in 2017.[14]

Anthems[edit]

Before the start of each game the national anthem of both teams is sung by their players and supporters. God Save the Queen, the national anthem of the United Kingdom,[16] is used only by England. Wales and Scotland each sing their own national anthem. Ireland, whose rugby team represents two jurisdictions, the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland), have a specially commissioned anthem for rugby internationals.

Results[edit]

Overall[edit]

 
England

France

Ireland

Italy

Scotland

Wales
Tournaments 118 85 120 15 120 120
Outright Wins (Shared Wins)
Home Nations 5 (4) NA 4 (4) NA 9 (2) 7 (4)
Five Nations 17 (6) 12 (8) 6 (5) NA 5 (6) 15 (8)
Six Nations 4 5 2 0 0 4
Overall 26 (10) 17 (8) 12 (9) 0 (0) 14 (8) 26 (12)
Grand Slams
Home Nations 0 NA 0 NA 0 2
Five Nations 11 6 1 NA 3 6
Six Nations 1 3 1 0 0 3
Overall 12 9 2 0 3 11
Triple Crowns
Home Nations 5 NA 2 NA 7 6
Five Nations 16 NA 4 NA 3 11
Six Nations 3 NA 4 NA 0 3
Overall 24 NA 10 NA 10 20
Wooden Spoons
Home Nations 11 NA 15 NA 8 8
Five Nations 14 17 21 NA 21 12
Six Nations 0 1 0 10 3 1
Overall 25 18 36 10 32 21

Including 2014 Championship

Home Nations 1883–1909[edit]

Home Nations 1883 – 1909
Year Champions Grand Slam Triple Crown Calcutta Cup
1883  England Not Completed  England  England
1884  England  England  England
1885 Not Completed Not Completed
1886  England and  Scotland
1887  Scotland
1888  Ireland,  Scotland and  Wales England didn't participate
1889  Scotland England didn't participate
1890  England and  Scotland  England
1891  Scotland  Scotland  Scotland
1892  England  England  England
1893  Wales  Wales  Scotland
1894  Ireland  Ireland  Scotland
1895  Scotland  Scotland  Scotland
1896  Ireland  Scotland
1897 Not Completed Not Completed  England
1898 Not Completed Not Completed
1899  Ireland  Ireland  Scotland
1900  Wales  Wales
1901  Scotland  Scotland  Scotland
1902  Wales  Wales  England
1903  Scotland  Scotland  Scotland
1904  Scotland  Scotland
1905  Wales  Wales  Scotland
1906  Ireland and  Wales  England
1907  Scotland  Scotland  Scotland
1908  Wales  Wales  Wales  Scotland
1909  Wales  Wales  Wales  Scotland

Five Nations 1910–1931[edit]

Five Nations 1910 – 1931
Year Champions Grand Slam Triple Crown Calcutta Cup
1910  England  England
1911  Wales  Wales  Wales  England
1912  Ireland and  England  Scotland
1913  England  England  England  England
1914  England  England  England  England
1915–19 Not held due to World War I
1920  Scotland,  Wales and  England  England
1921  England  England  England  England
1922  Wales  England
1923  England  England  England  England
1924  England  England  England  England
1925  Scotland  Scotland  Scotland  Scotland
1926  Ireland and  Scotland  Scotland
1927  Ireland and  Scotland  Scotland
1928  England  England  England  England
1929  Scotland  Scotland
1930  England
1931  Wales  Scotland


Home Nations 1932–1939[edit]

Home Nations 1932 – 1939
Year Champions Grand Slam Triple Crown Calcutta Cup
1932  England,  Ireland and  Wales  England
1933  Scotland  Scotland  Scotland
1934  England  England  England
1935  Ireland  Scotland
1936  Wales  England
1937  England  England  England
1938  Scotland  Scotland  Scotland
1939  England,  Ireland,  Wales  England


Five Nations 1940–1999[edit]

Five Nations 1940 – 1999
Year Champions Grand Slam Triple Crown Calcutta Cup Millennium Trophy Centenary Quaich
1940–46 Not held due to World War II
1947  England and  Wales  England Not Competed
1948  Ireland  Ireland  Ireland  Scotland
1949  Ireland  Ireland  England
1950  Wales  Wales  Wales  Scotland
1951  Ireland  England
1952  Wales  Wales  Wales  England
1953  England  England
1954  England,  France and  Wales  England  England
1955  France and  Wales  England
1956  Wales  England
1957  England  England  England  England
1958  England
1959  France
1960  England and  France  England  England
1961  France  England
1962  France
1963  England  England
1964  Scotland and  Wales  Scotland
1965  Wales  Wales
1966  Wales  Scotland
1967  France  England
1968  France  France  England
1969  Wales  Wales  England
1970  France and  Wales  Scotland
1971  Wales  Wales  Wales  Scotland
1972 Not Completed  Scotland
1973  England,  France,  Ireland,
 Scotland,  Wales
 England
1974  Ireland  Scotland
1975  Wales  England
1976  Wales  Wales  Wales  Scotland
1977  France  France  Wales  England
1978  Wales  Wales  Wales  England
1979  Wales  Wales
1980  England  England  England  England
1981  France  France  England
1982  Ireland  Ireland
1983  France and  Ireland  Scotland
1984  Scotland  Scotland  Scotland  Scotland
1985  Ireland  Ireland  England
1986  France and  Scotland  Scotland
1987  France  France  England
1988  France and  Wales  Wales  England
1989  France  England  Scotland
1990  Scotland  Scotland  Scotland  Scotland  England  Scotland
1991  England  England  England  England  England  Scotland
1992  England  England  England  England  England  Scotland
1993  France  England  Ireland  Scotland
1994  Wales  England  Ireland
1995  England  England  England  England  England  Scotland
1996  England  England  England  England  Scotland
1997  France  France  England  England  England  Scotland
1998  France  France  England  England  England  Scotland
1999  Scotland  England  England  Scotland

Six Nations 2000–present[edit]

Six Nations 2000–Present
Year Champions Grand Slam Triple Crown Calcutta Cup Millennium
Trophy
Centenary Quaich Giuseppe
Garibaldi
Trophy
2000  England  Scotland  England  Ireland Not Competed
2001  England  England  Ireland  Scotland
2002  France  France  England  England  England  Ireland
2003  England  England  England  England  England  Ireland
2004  France  France  Ireland  England  Ireland  Ireland
2005  Wales  Wales  Wales  England  Ireland  Ireland
2006  France  Ireland  Scotland  Ireland  Ireland
2007  France  Ireland  England  Ireland  Ireland  France
2008  Wales  Wales  Wales  Scotland  England  Ireland  France
2009  Ireland  Ireland  Ireland  England  Ireland  Ireland  France
2010  France  France  Ireland  Scotland  France
2011  England  England  Ireland  Ireland  Italy
2012  Wales  Wales  Wales  England  England  Ireland  France
2013  Wales  England  England  Scotland  Italy
2014  Ireland  England  England  England  Ireland  France

Six Nations All-Time Table (2000–2014)[edit]

(Updated at the end of 2014 tournament[17])

Pld W D L PF PA PD T Pts Champs GS TC WS
 England 75 51 1 23 2061 1157 + 904 214 103 4 1 3 0
 France 75 50 2 23 1899 1324 + 575 184 102 5 3 N/A 1
 Ireland 75 49 2 24 1833 1393 + 440 188 100 2 1 4 0
 Wales 75 40 2 33 1688 1630 + 58 153 82 4 3 3 1
 Scotland 75 19 2 54 1183 1872 − 689 85 40 0 0 0 3
 Italy 75 11 1 63 1098 2386 − 1288 89 23 0 0 N/A 10

Longest wait without a championship win[edit]

Team Tournaments Years Seasons
 France 24 43 1910–53
 Ireland 24 24 1985–2009
 Scotland 19 26 1938–64
 England 16 18 1892–1910
 Italy 15+ 15+ 2000–present
 Wales 11 11 1994–2005

Grand Slam Wins[edit]

Nation Grand Slams Last Grand Slam
 England 12 2003
 Wales 11 2012
 France 9 2010
 Scotland 3 1990
 Ireland 2 2009
 Italy 0 Never achieved

Triple Crowns[edit]

Nation Triple Crowns Last Triple Crown
 England 24 2014
 Wales 20 2012
 Ireland 10 2009
 Scotland 10 1990
 France N/A N/A
 Italy N/A N/A


6 Nations Wooden Spoon[edit]

Team Spoons Years
 Italy 10 2000, 2001, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2014
 Scotland 3 2004, 2007, 2012
 Wales 1 2003
 France 1 2013
 England 0
 Ireland 0

Bold indicates that the team did not win any matches.

Five Nations XV[edit]

Five Nations[a]
FiveNationsVOverseasUnionsProgramme.png
Unions International Rugby Board
First match
Overseas Unions 32 – 13 Five Nations XV
Largest win
None
Largest defeat
Overseas Unions 32 – 13 Five Nations XV

In 1986 a team was put together made up of representatives of the Five Nations to play a one-off match against an Overseas Unions rugby union team to commemorate the centenary of the International Rugby Football Board (IRFB), which would shortly afterwards become the IRB or International Rugby Board. The match was played on Saturday, 19 April 1986,[18] and the Five Nations lost 32–13.[19]

Coaching team[edit]

The Overseas Union team was co-coached by New Zealand's Brian Lochore and Australia's Robert Ian Templeton.

The match[edit]

Unlike the first celebratory match three days earlier in a wet Cardiff Arms Park, this game was played in ideal conditions at Twickenham.[20] At the time, there were only eight Unions affiliated to the Board, thus only players from those unions were chosen.

Note that at the time, tries were worth four points. The five-point try was not instituted until 1992.

19 April 1986
Five Nations XV 13–32 Overseas Unions
Try: Ringland (2)




Con: Blanco
Penalty Goal: Kiernan
Try: Gerber (2)
Kirwan
du Plessis
Rodriguez
Shaw
Con: Botha
Penalty Goal: Botha (2)
Twickenham Stadium, London
Referee: D I H Burnett (Ireland)

Five Nations: Blanco ( France); Ringland ( Ireland), Sella ( France), M. Kiernan ( Ireland), R. Underwood ( England); M. Dacey ( Wales), R. J. Hill ( England); Whitefoot ( Wales), S. Brain ( England), I. Milne ( Scotland), Condom ( France), Lenihan ( Ireland) (captain), J. Jeffrey ( Scotland), Paxton ( Scotland), L. Rodriguez ( France)

Overseas Unions: R. Gould ( Australia); Kirwan ( New Zealand), D. Gerber ( South Africa), W. Taylor ( New Zealand), C. du Plessis ( South Africa); N. Botha ( South Africa), Loveridge ( New Zealand); E. Rodríguez ( Australia), A. Dalton ( New Zealand) (captain), G. Knight ( New Zealand) (F. van der Merwe ( South Africa) had been named in starting line-up in programme), S. Cutler ( Australia), Haden ( New Zealand), Poidevin ( Australia), Tuynman ( Australia), M. Shaw ( New Zealand)

Records[edit]

[citation needed]

England's Jonny Wilkinson currently holds the records for individual points in one match (35 points against Italy in 2001) and one season with 89 (scored in 2001). Ronan O'Gara of Ireland holds the career scoring record with 557 points to Wilkinson's 546, having surpassed Wilkinson in Round 3 of the 2011 championship.

The record for tries in a match is held by Scotsman George Lindsay who scored five tries against Wales in 1887.[21] England's Cyril Lowe and Scotland's Ian Smith jointly hold the record for tries in one season with 8 (Lowe in 1914, Smith in 1925). Ireland's Brian O'Driscoll has the Championship record for tries with 26.

The record for appearances is held by O'Gara, with 63 Six Nations appearances from the start of the Six Nations era in 2000 to his retirement in 2013. He surpassed countryman Mike Gibson in the first round of the 2012 tournament against Wales. Gibson played in 56 Five Nations matches (Italy had not become part of the Championship yet) between 1964 and 1979.[21]

The most points scored by a team in one match was England when they scored 80 points against Italy in 2001. England also scored the most ever points in a season in 2001 with 229, and most tries in a season with 29.[21] Wales hold the record for fewest tries conceded during a season in the Six Nations era, conceding only 2 in 5 games in 2008, but the 1977 Grand Slam-winning France team did not concede a try in their four matches. Wales hold the record for the longest time without conceding a try at 358 minutes in the 2013 tournament.

Six Nations points scoring statistics 2000–2014[edit]

The following table summarises the total number of points, and the number of tries, scored by each team in the Six Nations

Year  England  Wales  Scotland  Ireland  France  Italy Total
points tries points tries points tries points tries points tries points tries points tries
2000 183 20 111 8 95 9 168 17 140 12 106 9 803 75
2001 229 29 125 10 92 8 129 11 115 9 106 8 796 75
2002 184 23 119 11 91 6 145 16 156 15 70 4 765 75
2003 173 18 82 10 81 7 119 10 153 17 100 12 708 74
2004 150 17 125 14 53 4 128 17 144 14 42 2 642 68
2005 121 16 151 17 84 8 126 12 134 13 55 5 671 71
2006 120 12 80 9 78 5 131 12 148 18 72 5 629 61
2007 119 10 86 7 95 7 149 17 155 15 94 9 698 65
2008 108 8 148 13 69 3 93 9 103 11 74 6 595 50
2009 124 16 100 8 79 4 121 12 124 14 49 2 597 56
2010 88 6 113 10 83 3 106 11 135 13 69 5 594 48
2011 132 13 95 6 82 6 93 10 117 10 70 6 589 51
2012 98 7 109 10 56 4 121 13 101 8 53 4 538 46
2013 94 5 122 9 98 7 72 5 73 6 75 5 534 37
2014 138 14 122 11 47 4 132 16 101 9 63 7 603 61
TOTAL 2061 214 1688 153 1183 85 1833 188 1899 184 1098 89 9762 913

Expansion[edit]

Any expansion of the Six Nations Championship is currently considered improbable, due to scheduling difficulties. Argentina had requested their joining the Six Nations, by basing the team in Spain. The Tri Nations accepted their application to join in 2012, and the competition renamed The Rugby Championship.[22]

Argentina officially joined The Rugby Championship in a meeting in Buenos Aires on 23 November 2011[23]

Administration, television contracts and sponsorship[edit]

The Championship is run from headquarters in Dublin which also takes responsibility for the British and Irish Lions tours. CEO of the Championship is John Feehan, a former Leinster player. Television contracts, sponsorship, match venues and other logistical problems are addressed.

In 2011 it was announced that the BBC's coverage of the tournament on TV, radio and online, would be extended to 2017.[24]

In Ireland, RTÉ have broadcast the championship since their inception and will continue to do so until 2017 while TG4 televises highlights. France Télévisions cover the competition in France which will last until 2017. In Italy, from 2014 to 2017 DMAX of Discovery Communications will broadcast all matches. In the United States, beIN Sports broadcasts matches in English and TV5 Monde airs matches in French.[25] In Wales, S4C broadcasts matches featuring the national team using the BBC's feed with Welsh language commentary.

The competition is sponsored by the Royal Bank of Scotland.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

a. ^ Name of the Six Nations Championship in the languages of participating countries:

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Godwin (1984), pg 1. The first ever Home Nations International Championship was played in 1883. No other Northern Hemisphere team played a recognised international match until France faced New Zealand in 1906
  2. ^ "Rules of the RBS 6 Nations Championship". RBS 6 Nations. Retrieved 24 February 2008. [dead link]
  3. ^ "Six Nations Championship Trophy Trust". RBS 6 Nations. Retrieved 5 February 2007. [dead link]
  4. ^ "The Calcutta Cup: the legacy of a club that died" (PDF). Scottish Rugby. Retrieved 29 September 2007. [dead link]
  5. ^ Massie, Alan (19 February 2000). "Lamenting the sad decline of the fighting Irish". The Scotsman. p. 31. 
  6. ^ Ferrie, Kevin (22 March 1999). "Scotland now have quality in quantity". The Herald. p. 1. 
  7. ^ Walsh, David (13 February 2005). "Scots torn apart by Irish mean machine". The Sunday Times. p. Sport 2. 
  8. ^ "About Us". RFU. Retrieved 29 September 2007. [dead link]
  9. ^ Mediaclan 2008. "Flaminio Stadio Rugby Tickets & Stadio Flaminio Stadium guide, Rome Italy". Ticketbooth.org.uk. Retrieved 4 February 2012. 
  10. ^ "Italy to move Six Nations games from Rome to Florence". BBC Sport. 1 April 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011. 
  11. ^ "RBS 6 Nazioni, allo Stadio Olimpico l'Edizione 2012" (Press release) (in Italian). Italian Rugby Federation. 13 July 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2011. 
  12. ^ Sportsbeat (14 July 2011). "Italy switch stadium to Stadio Olimpico". RBS 6 Nations. Retrieved 6 September 2011. [dead link]
  13. ^ "French national rugby team plan to quit Stade de France". BBC Sport. 25 November 2010. Retrieved 6 July 2012. 
  14. ^ a b Moriarty, Ian (5 July 2012). "Money talks". ESPN Scrum. Retrieved 6 July 2012. 
  15. ^ "Projet Stade" (in French). French Rugby Federation. Retrieved 6 July 2012. [dead link]
  16. ^ God Save the King Wikipedia
  17. ^ "Statsguru: Test matches, Team records, Five/Six Nations". ESPN Scrum. SFMS Limited. Retrieved 15 March 2013. 
  18. ^ Starmer-Smith, p184, image of programme
  19. ^ Starmer-Smith, p186
  20. ^ "IRB Centenary matches, Irish try-scorers against New Zealand and snow-blighted seasons". espnscrum.com. Retrieved 4 February 2012. 
  21. ^ a b c "Six Nations records". Rugby Heaven. 1 February 2005. Retrieved 8 August 2007. [dead link]
  22. ^ "Tri-Nations becomes The Rugby Championship". Yahoo! Sports. Associated Press. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  23. ^ Deges, Frankie. "Argentina is now part of Rugby Championship". Buenos Aires Herald. Retrieved 23 November 2011. 
  24. ^ "BBC extends Six Nations contract until 2017". BBC. 23 November 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2013. 
  25. ^ "Worldwide Broadcast Schedule, RBS Six Nations". Retrieved 23 January 2014. 

External links[edit]