Sixteen Arhats

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The 16 Arhats, with various associated symbolic items; as depicted in a "gentle caricature" style Japanese painting, late 19th - early 20th century

The Sixteen Arhats (Japanese: 十六羅漢, Juroku Rakan; Tibetan: གནས་བརྟན་བཅུ་དྲུག, "Neten Chudrug") are a group of legendary Arhats in Buddhism. The grouping of sixteen Arhats was brought to China, and later to Tibet, from India. In China, an expanded group of Eighteen Arhats became more popular, but worship of the sixteen Arhats continues to the present day in Japan and Tibet. In Japan sixteen Arhats are particularly popular in Zen Buddhism, where they are treated as examples of behaviour.[1] In Tibet, the sixteen Arhats, also known as sixteen sthaviras ('elders') are the subject of a liturgical practice associated with the festival of the Buddha's birth,[2] composed by the Kashmiri teacher Shakyahribhadra (1127-1225).[3] They are also well represented in Tibetan art.[4]

The sixteen Arhats are:

Sanskrit Chinese Japanese pronunciation Tibetan Tibetan pronunciation
Pindola Bharadvāja 賓度羅跋囉惰闍尊者 Bindora Baradāja sonja བྷ་ར་དྭ་ཛ་སོ་ཉོམ་ལེན Baradadza Sonyomlen
Kanakavatsa 迦諾迦伐蹉尊者 Kanakabassa sonja གསེར་གྱི་བེའུ Sergyi Be'u
Kanaka Bharadrāja 迦諾迦跋釐堕闍尊者 Kanakabarudaja sonja བྷ་ར་དྭ་ཛ་་གསེར་ཅན Baradadza Serchen
Subinda/Abhedya 蘇頻陀尊者 Subinda sonja མི་ཕྱེད་པ Michepa
Nakula/Vakula 諾距羅尊者 Nakola sonja བ་ཀུ་ལ Bakula
Bhadra 跋陀羅尊者 Badara sonja བཟང་པོ Zangpo
Kālika 迦哩迦尊者 Kalika sonja དུས་ལྡན Duden
Vajriputra 伐闍羅弗多羅尊者 Bajarabutara sonja རྡོ་རྗེ་མོའི་བུ Dorje Mobu
Jīvaka/Gopaka 戎博迦尊者 Jubaka sonja སྦྱེ་བྱེད་པ Bejepa
Panthaka 半託迦尊者 Hantaka sonja ལམ་བསྟན Lamten
Rāhula 囉怙羅尊者 Ragon sonja སྒྲ་གཅན་འཛིན Drachendzin
Nāgasena 那伽犀那尊者 Nagasena sonja ཀླུ་སྡེ Lude
Ańgaja 因掲陀尊者 Ingada sonja ཡན་ལག་འབྱུང Yanlag Jung
Vanavāsin 伐那婆斯尊者 Banabasu sonja ནགས་ན་གནས Nagnane
Ajita 阿氏多尊者 Ajita sonja མ་ཕམ་པ Mapampa
Cūdapanthaka 注荼半吒迦尊者 Chudahantaka sonja ལམ་ཕྲན་བསྟན Lamtrenten

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