Sixth Army (Ottoman Empire)

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Sixth Army
Mesopotamian campaign 6th Army field HQ.png
Sixth Army field HQ
Active September 5, 1915[1]–February 9, 1919[2]
Country Ottoman Empire
Type Field Army
Garrison/HQ Baghdad
Patron Sultans of the Ottoman Empire
Engagements Mesopotamian campaign (World War I)
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Müşir Goltz Pasha (October 13, 1915[3]-April 19, 1916[4])
Mirliva Halil Pasha (April 19, 1916[4]-June 30, 1918[5])
Mirliva Ali İhsan Pasha (June 30, 1918[5]-February 9, 1919[2])

The Sixth Army of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Altıncı Ordu) was one of the field armies of the Ottoman Army. It was formed in the middle 19th century during Ottoman military reforms.

Formations[edit]

Order of Battle, 1877[edit]

In 1877, it was stationed in Baghdad. It was composed of:

Order of Battle, 1908[edit]

After the Young Turk Revolution and the establishment of the Second Constitutional Era on July 3, 1908, new government initiate a major military reform. Army headquarters were modernized. Its operational area was Mesopotamia. It commanded the following active divisions:[7] The Sixth Army also had inspectorate functions for four Redif (reserve) divisions:[8][9]

  • Sixth Army
    • 11th Infantry Division (On Birinci Fırka)
    • 12th Infantry Division (On İkinci Fırka)
    • 6th Infantry Division (Altıncı Fırka)
    • 15th Artillery Brigade (On Beşinci Topçu Tugayı)
  • Redif divisions of the Sixth Army (name of the division denotes its location)
    • 21st Baghdad Reserve Infantry Division (Yirmi Birinci Bağdad Redif Fırkası)
    • 22nd Basra Reserve Infantry Division (Yirmi İkinci Basra Redif Fırkası)
    • 23rd Kelkit Reserve Infantry Division (Yirmi Üçüncü Kelkit Redif Fırkası)
    • 24th Musul Reserve Infantry Division (Yirmi Dördüncü Musul Redif Fırkası)

World War I[edit]

Order of Battle, August 1914[edit]

In August 1914, the army was structured as follows:[10]

Order of Battle, Late April 1915[edit]

In Late April 1915, the army was structured as follows:[11]

  • Sixth Army
    • 35th Division
    • Provisional Infantry Division

Order of Battle, Late Summer 1915[edit]

In Late Summer 1915, the army was structured as follows:[12]

Order of Battle, January 1916[edit]

In January 1916, the army was structured as follows:[13]

Order of Battle, August 1916[edit]

In August 1916, the army was structured as follows:[14]

Order of Battle, December 1916[edit]

In December 1916, the army was structured as follows:[15]

  • XIII Corps
    • 2nd Division, 4th Division, 6th Division
  • XVIII Corps
    • 45th Division, 51st Division, 52nd Infantry Division

Order of Battle, August 1917, January 1918, June 1918[edit]

In August 1917, January, June 1918, the army was structured as follows:[16]

Order of Battle, September 1918[edit]

In September 1918, the army was structured as follows:[17]

After Mudros[edit]

Order of Battle, November 1918[edit]

In November 1918, the army was structured as follows:[18]

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ David Nicolle, colour plates by Rafaelle Ruggeri, The Ottoman Army 1914-18, Men-at-Arms 269, Ospray Publishing Ltd., 1994, ISBN 1-85532-412-1, p. 14.
  2. ^ a b Zekeriya Türkmen, Mütareke Döneminde Ordunun Durumu ve Yeniden Yapılanması (1918-1920), Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, 2001, ISBN 975-16-1372-8, p. 44. (Turkish)
  3. ^ Orhan Avcı, Irak'ta Türk Ordusu (1914-1918), Vadi Yayınları, 2004, ISBN 975-6768-51-7, p. 29. (Turkish)
  4. ^ a b Orhan Avcı, Irak'ta Türk Ordusu (1914-1918), Vadi Yayınları, 2004, ISBN 975-6768-51-7, p. 30. (Turkish)
  5. ^ a b T.C. Genelkurmay Harp Tarihi Başkanlığı Yayınları, Türk İstiklâl Harbine Katılan Tümen ve Daha Üst Kademlerdeki Komutanların Biyografileri, Genelkurmay Basım Evi, 1972, p. 145. (Turkish)
  6. ^ a b c d Ian Drury, Illustrated by Raffaele Ruggeri, The Russo-Turkish War 1877, Men-at-Arms 277, Ospray Publishing Ltd., Reprinted 1999, ISBN 1-85532-371-0, p. 35.
  7. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Defeat in Detail: The Ottoman Army in the Balkans, 1912-1913, Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003, p. 17.
  8. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Defeat in Detail: The Ottoman Army in the Balkans, 1912-1913, Westport, Praeger, 2003, p. 19.
  9. ^ T.C. Genelkurmay Başkanlığı, Balkan Harbi, 1912-1913: Harbin Sebepleri, Askerî Hazırlıklar ve Osmanlı Devletinin Harbe Girişi, Genelkurmay Basımevi, 1970, pp. 87-90. (Turkish)
  10. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 38.
  11. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 86.
  12. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 109.
  13. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 126.
  14. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 134.
  15. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 154.
  16. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 170, 181, 188.
  17. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 197.
  18. ^ Edward J. Erickson, Order to Die: A History of the Ottoman Army in the First World War, Greenwood Press, 2001, ISBN 0-313-31516-7, p. 202.

External links[edit]