Sketches by Boz
|Sketches by Boz|
Frontispiece of the first edition, February 1836. Illustration by George Cruikshank
|Author||Charles Dickens ("Boz")|
|Original title||Sketches by "Boz," Illustrative of Every-day Life and Every-day People|
|Cover artist||George Cruikshank|
|Series||20 Monthly parts:
November 1837 – June 1839
Short story collection
|Publisher||John Macrone; St. James's Square|
|Publication date||Novel:1836 (in two volumes)|
|Followed by||The Pickwick Papers|
Sketches by "Boz," Illustrative of Every-day Life and Every-day People (commonly known as Sketches by Boz) is a collection of short pieces published by Charles Dickens in 1836 with illustrations by George Cruikshank. The 56 sketches concern London scenes and people and are divided into four sections: "Our Parish", "Scenes", "Characters", and "Tales". The material in the first three of these sections is non-fiction. The last section comprises fictional stories. Originally, the sketches were published in various newspapers and periodicals from 1833–1836.
The History of "Boz"
The sketch, "Mr. Minns and his Cousin" (originally titled "A Dinner at Poplar Walk"), was the author's first published work of fiction. It appeared in The Monthly Magazine in December 1833. Although Dickens continued to place pieces in the magazine, none of them bore a signature until August 1834, when "The Boarding House" appeared in The Monthly Magazine using the strange pen-name "Boz". A verse in the March 1837 issue of Bentley's Miscellany recalls the public's perplexity at the time regarding the author's pseudonym:
- "Who the dickens 'Boz' could be
- Puzzled many a learned elf,
- Till time unveiled the mystery,
- And 'Boz' appeared as Dickens' self."
Dickens took his famous pseudonym from a nickname he had given his younger brother Augustus, whom he called "Moses" (after a character in Oliver Goldsmith's The Vicar of Wakefield), which "being facetiously pronounced through the nose" became "Boses", which in turn was shortened to "Boz". The name remained coupled with "inimitable" until "Boz" eventually disappeared and Dickens became known as, simply, "The Inimitable". The name was originally pronounced // but is now usually //.
The popularity of Dickens' writings was enhanced by the regular inclusion of detailed illustrations to highlight key scenes and characters. The stories typically featured two black-and-white illustrations per instalment, plus an illustrated cover design for the wrapper. The images were created with wood engravings or metal etchings. Dickens worked closely with several illustrators during his career, including George Cruikshank, Hablot Knight Browne (aka "Phiz"), and John Leech, although Browne is typically considered to be most strongly identified with Dickens' stories. The accuracy of the illustrations was of utmost importance to Dickens, as the drawings portrayed the characters just as he envisioned them, and they gave valuable insight to the reader about the characters' personalities and motives, as well as the plot.
Sketches by Boz was issued in its own instalments from 1837 to 1839. Dickens was equally at home in both the short story and the full-length novel format. This is because nearly all his novels were serialised in periodicals in their first publications. Only later were they edited for book form. He and his publishers, Chapman & Hall, released most of his major novels in weekly or monthly instalments. These sold for 1 shilling apiece, which was within the affordable price range of most Victorian readers.
This method of publication kept readers anxious to learn of the next plot twist, thereby ensuring sales of the following instalment. It also allowed Dickens to gauge public reaction to each instalment, and tailor the plot developments accordingly. Dickens wrote his novels as he published them, and readers frequently wrote to him to implore for the good fortune of their favourite characters. Although Dickens was not the first author to publish novels serially, he was by far the most successful in the use of this method.
The earliest version of Sketches by Boz was published by John Macrone in two series: the first as a two-volume set in February 1836, just a month before the publication of the first number of The Pickwick Papers (1836–37), and a "Second Series" in August 1836. After Dickens' fame skyrocketed, he purchased the rights to the material from Macrone. When Macrone died unexpectedly at age 28, Dickens published The Pic-Nic Papers to benefit Macrone's widow and children.
The majority of the fifty-six sketches that appear in the 1839 edition were originally published individually in popular newspapers and periodicals, including The Morning Chronicle, The Evening Chronicle, The Monthly Magazine, The Carlton Chronicle and Bell's Life in London, from 1833 to 1836:
- "Mr. Minns and his Cousin" (SB 46), originally, "A Dinner at Poplar Walk" in The Monthly Magazine, 1 December 1833.
- "Mrs. Joseph Porter, Over the Way" (SB 53), originally in The Monthly Magazine, January 1834.
- "Horatio Sparkins" ( SB 49), originally in The Monthly Magazine, February 1834.
- "The Bloomsbury Christening" (SB 55), originally in The Monthly Magazine, April 1834.
- "The Boarding-House" (SB 45), originally in The Monthly Magazine, May & August 1834.
- "Sentiment" (SB 47), originally in Bell's Weekly Magazine, 7 June 1834.
- "The Steam Excursion" (SB 51), originally in The Monthly Magazine, October 1834.
- "A Passage in the Life of Mr. Watkins Tottle" (SB 54), originally "Chapter the First" and "Chapter the Second" in two numbers of The Monthly Magazine, January and February 1835.
- "The Four Sisters"(SB 3), Our Parish 3, originally, "Sketches of London No. 14" in The Evening Chronicle, 18 June 1835.
- "The Election for Beadle" (SB 4), Our Parish 4, originally, "Sketches of London No. 16" in The Evening Chronicle, 14 July 1835.
- "The Broker's Man" (SB 5), Our Parish 5, originally, "Sketches of London No. 18" in The Evening Chronicle, 28 July 1835.
- "The Ladies' Societies" (SB 6), Our Parish 6, originally, "Sketches of London No. 20" in The Evening Chronicle, 28 July 1835.
- "Miss Evans and the Eagle" (SB 36), (Scenes and Characters No. 2) originally in Bell's Life in London, 4 October 1835.
- "The Dancing Academy" (SB 41), originally, "Scenes and Characters, No. 3" in Bell's Life in London, 11 October 1835.
- "Making a Night of It" (SB 43), originally, "Scenes and Characters No. 4" in Bell's Life in London, 18 October 1835.
- "The Misplaced Attachment of Mr. John Dounce" (SB 39), originally, "Scenes and Characters No. 5. Love and Oysters," in Bell's Life in London, 25 October 1835.
- "Some Account of an Omnibus Cad" originally, "Scenes and Characters No. 6," later retitled and expanded into "The Last Cab-driver and the First Omnibus Cab"; in Bell's Life in London, 1 November 1835.
- "The Mistaken Milliner. A Tale of Ambition" (SB 40) originally "Scenes and Characters No. 7. The Vocal Dressmaker," in Bell's Life in London, 22 November 1835.
- "The New Year" (SB 35), originally in Bell's Life in London, 3 January 1836.
- "The Great Winglebury Duel" (SB 52), originally in the First Series of Sketches by Boz, 8 February 1836.
- "The Black Veil" (SB 50) originally in the First Series of Sketches by Boz, 8 February 1836.
- "Our Next-Door Neighbour" (Our Parish 7), originally, "Our Next-Door Neighbours" in The Morning Chronicle, 18 March 1836.
- "The Tuggses at Ramsgate" (Tales 4), originally in The Library of Fiction No. 1, 31 March 1836 (accompanied by two Robert Seymour woodcuts).
- "The Hospital Patient" (SB 38), Characters 6, originally in The Carlton Chronicle, 6 August 1836.
- "The Drunkard's Death" (SB 56), originally in the Second Series of Sketches by Boz, 17 December 1836.
The contents of Sketches by Boz are:
- Our parish
- The Beadle. The Parish Engine. The Schoolmaster.
- The Curate. The Old Lady. The Half-pay Captain
- The Four Sisters
- The Election for Beadle
- The Broker's Man
- The Ladies' Societies
- Our Next-door Neighbour
- The Streets — morning
- The Streets — night
- Shops and their Tenants
- Scotland Yard
- Seven Dials
- Meditations in Monmouth-Street
- Hackney-coach Stands
- Doctors' Commons
- London Recreations
- The River
- Greenwich Fair
- Private Theatres
- Vauxhall Gardens by Day
- Early Coaches
- The Last Cab-driver, and the First Omnibus cad
- A Parliamentary Sketch
- Public Dinners
- The First of May
- Brokers' and Marine-store Shops
- The Pawnbroker's Shop
- Criminal Courts
- A Visit to Newgate
- Thoughts about People
- A Christmas Dinner
- The New Year
- Miss Evans and the Eagle
- The Parlour Orator
- The Hospital Patient
- The Misplaced attachment of Mr. John Dounce
- The Mistaken Milliner. A Tale of Ambition
- The Dancing Academy
- Shabby-Genteel People
- Making a Night of It
- The Prisoners' Van
- The Boarding-house
- Chapter the first
- Chapter the second
- Mr. Minns and his Cousin
- The Tuggses at Ramsgate
- Horatio Sparkins
- The Black Veil
- The Steam Excursion
- The Great Winglebury Duel
- Mrs. Joseph Porter
- A Passage in the Life of Mr. Watkins Tottle
- Chapter the first
- Chapter the second
- The Bloomsbury Christening
- The Drunkard's death
- The Boarding-house
- G.M. Miller, BBC Pronouncing Dictionary of British Names (Oxford UP, 1971), p. 19.
- Philip V. Allingham, Faculty of Education, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Sketches by Boz at Internet Archive.
- Sketches by Boz — Easy to read HTML
- Sketches by Boz — Large Print HTML