Ski jumping

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Ski Jumping
Vikersund skiflygingsbakke.jpg
Vikersundbakken in Modum, Norway is the world's largest ski jumping hill. (Picture taken before it was redesigned in 2010/2011)
Highest governing body International Ski Federation
First played 1808
Eidsberg, Norway
Characteristics
Team members Individual or groups
Presence
Olympic Since the first ever Winter Olympics in 1924
Ski jumping facility in Einsiedeln, Switzerland
The Ski Jumping Complex in Pragelato during the 2006 Winter Olympics of Turin.
Matti Nykänen ski jumping hill (K100) and a smaller K64 hill in Jyväskylä, Finland.

Ski jumping is a sport in which skiers go down a take-off ramp, jump, and attempt to fly as far as possible. Judges award points for technique (often referred to as style points). The skis used for ski jumping are wide and long (260 to 275 centimetres (102 to 108 in)). Ski jumping is predominantly a winter sport, performed on snow, and is part of the Winter Olympic Games, but can also be performed in summer on artificial surfaces – porcelain or frost rail track on the inrun, plastic on the landing hill. Ski jumping belongs to the Nordic type of competitive skiing.

History[edit]

Ski jumping as a sport originated in Norway. Norwegian lieutenant Olaf Rye was the first known ski jumper.[1] In 1809, he launched himself 9.5 meters in the air as a show of courage to his fellow soldiers. By 1862, ski jumpers were facing much larger jumps and traveling longer. The very first recorded public competition was held at Trysil, Norway, on 22 January 1862. At this first competition, judges already awarded points for style ("elegance and smoothness"), participants had to complete three jumps without falling and rules were agreed upon in advance.[2] It is clear from the news report published in Morgenbladet that the ski jumping in Trysild was entertainment, but also a national, competitive sports event. The first known female ski jumper participated at the Trysil competition in 1863.[3] Norway's Sondre Norheim jumped 30 meters without the benefit of poles.[1] In 1866, the first skiing event held in Christiania near Old Aker Church was a combined cross country, slalom and jumping competition, and attracted an audience of some 2,000 people. Sondre Norheim won his first competition in Christiania in 1868.[3] The first widely known ski jumping competition was the Husebyrennene, held in Oslo in 1879, with Olaf Haugann of Norway setting the first world record for the longest ski jump at 20 meters.[4] Explorer Fridtjof Nansen was a skilled skier and was number 7 in the 1881 competition at Huseby.[3] Until 1884–1886 jumping and cross-country was a single integrated competition: In 1886 at Huseby cross-country and jumping were held on separate days, and final results were calculated from the combined achievements (similar to present nordic combined).[3] The annual event was moved to Holmenkollen from 1892, and Holmenkollen has remained the pinnacle of ski jumping venues. To distinguish ski jumping competition only from Nordic combined, it is still referred to as "spesielt hopprenn" in Norwegian (ski jumping only).

According to the International Olympic Committee's site:[5]

Ski jumping has been part of the Olympic Winter Games since the first Games in Chamonix Mont-Blanc in 1924. The Large Hill competition was included on the Olympic programme for the 1964 Olympic Games in Innsbruck.

In 1929, Norwegian instructors arrived in Sapporo to train the Japanese in ski jumping.[2]

Competition[edit]

Today, FIS Ski Jumping World Cup are held on three types of hills:

Normal hill competitions
for which the calculation line is found at approximately 80–100 metres (260–330 ft). Distances of up to and over 110 metres (360 ft) can be reached.
Large hill competitions
for which the calculation line is found at approximately 120–130 metres (390–430 ft). Distances of over 145 metres (476 ft) can be obtained on the larger hills. Both individual and team competitions are run on these hills.
Ski-flying competitions
for which the calculation line is found at 185 metres (607 ft). The Ski Flying World Record of 246.5 metres (809 ft) is held by Johan Remen Evensen, and was set in Vikersundbakken, Norway in February 2011.

Amateur and junior competitions are held on smaller hills.

Individual Olympic competition consists of a training jump and two scored jumps. The team event consists of four members of the same nation, who each jump twice.

Ski jumping is one of the two elements of the Nordic combined sport.

Summer jumping[edit]

Ski jumping can also be performed in the summer on a porcelain track and plastic grass combined with water. There are also many competitions during the summer. The World Cup (Summer Grand Prix) often includes those hills:

Ski jumping Fis-Cup and Continental Cup also have summer competitions and even more than the World Cup.

Women's ski jumping[edit]

On 26 May 2006, the International Ski Federation (FIS) decided to allow women to ski jump at the 2009 Nordic World Ski Championships in Liberec, Czech Republic and then to have a team event for women at the 2011 world championships. FIS also decided to submit a proposal to the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to allow women to compete at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver.[6]

On 28 November 2006, the proposal for a women's ski jumping event was rejected by the Executive Board of the IOC. The reason for the rejection cited the low number of athletes as well as few participating countries in the sport. The Executive Board stated that women's ski jumping has yet to be fully established internationally.[7] Jacques Rogge, president of the International Olympic Committee stated that women's ski jumping will not be an Olympic event because "we do not want the medals to be diluted and watered down," referring to the relatively small number of potential competitors in women's ski jumping.[8]

A group of 15 competitive female ski jumpers filed a suit against the Vancouver Organizing Committee (VANOC) saying that conducting a men's ski jumping event without a women's event in the Vancouver Winter Olympics in 2010 would be in direct violation of Section 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.[9][10] The arguments associated with this suit were presented from 20 to 24 April 2009 and a judgment came down on 10 June 2009 against the ski jumpers. The judge ruled that although the women were being discriminated against,[11] the issue is an International Olympic Committee responsibility and thus not governed by the charter. It further ruled that the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms does not apply to VANOC.[12] Three British Columbia judges unanimously denied an appeal on 13 November 2009. The American actress and documentary film producer Virginia Madsen has chronicled the Canadian team's efforts in a film called Fighting Gravity (2009).[13]

On 6 April 2011 the International Olympic Committee officially accepted women ski jumping into the official Olympic program for the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia.[14] The first ladies' ski jumping gold medalist is the German Carina Vogt.[15]

Within 15 months, 14 female World Cup athletes suffered serious injuries, some of them repeatedly, and had to retire for long recovery periods. Many of them could not take part in the first Olympics with female ski jumping at Sochi. On 28 November 2012, Lisa Demetz tore her ACL in Lillehammer.[16] On 12 January 2013, Daniela Iraschko, the 2011 World Champion, fell in Hinterzarten and withdrew,[17] Anja Tepeš suffered a serious injury on 17 March in Oslo,[18] 2013 Cup de France winner Espiau suffered a knee injury in June[19] and on 12 August 2013 Alexandra Pretorius, two-times women's Grand Prix winner, suffered a serious knee injury in Courchevel.[20] On 21 August 2013, Sarah Hendrickson, the 2013 World Champion, suffered a knee ligament damage in Oberstdorf.[21] On 20 December 2013, Jacqueline Seifriedsberger fell during the training jumps for the World Cup event in Hinterzarten,[22] and on 3 January 2014 Svenja Würth fell during the training jumps in Chaikovsky.[23] On 11 January 2014, Ema Klinec, ranking first after the first jump, fell in Predazzo.[24] The series of knee injuries has not come to an end after the Olympic Games in Sochi. Within one week, two World Cup athletes tore their ligaments. On 15 February, Ramona Straub fell in Lahti[25] and on 20 February 2014 Anja Tepeš tore, among others, her cruciate ligament again in Planica,[26] and Iraschko-Stolz repeated, as it were, her 2013 fall on 24 February 2014 in Seefeld.[27] Also in Seefeld, at a training jump Bigna Windmüller tore her ligaments, which had already been hurt during the qualification jumps at the Olympics in Sochi.[28] On 28 February 2014, former World Champion Lindsey Van could not take part in the World Cup event in Rasnov due to ligaments broken in the training,[29] and Sochi gold medalist Carina Vogt could not start either at Rasnov, Oslo and the Grand Final in Planica on 22 March 2014 due to knee problems.[30] During training jumps for the last 2013/14 World Cup competition in Planica, two Italian athletes had to withdraw after accidents: Manuela Malsiner fell on 21 March 2014[31] and Elena Runggaldier announced that she could not take part in the competition because of a knee injury[32]

Female ski jumpers need a longer inrun than their male colleagues to make up for their light weight and, as it seems, reach a higher landing speed. The impressive number of knee injuries was widely discussed in the media at the end of the season 2013/14 and will lead to modifications in the regulations, e.g. the ladies' jumping suits will be wider to slow down the landing speed.[33]

Mixed Team[edit]

On 16 June 2012 a historic first ever world premiere of Mixed Team ski jumping event performing men and women together was held at Mostec[34] in Ljubljana, Slovenia. In each team there was a couple, one man and one woman. Competition was also called Battles of Genders or Duels of Genders and was part of a traditional 42nd International Revial Ski Jumping competition on hills of Arena Triglav Mostec[35] ski jumping complex located in Šiška District, Ljubljana. On four different hills of size HS14, HS23, HS38 and HS62 mixed teams (only couples) for the first time competed with each other by rules of elimination system. Slovenian ski jumpers Maja Vtič and Tomaž Naglič are the first Mixed Team couple winners in history.[36]

On 14 August 2012 first ever full four members (two men and two women) ski jumping Mixed Team, a first ever Mixed Team FIS Grand Prix Ski Jumping event and first ever on plastic was held in Courchevel, France. Competition was held on normal La Praz olympic HS96 hill. The first full four member Mixed Team and first ever Grand Prix mixed team winner in history was team of Japan.

On 23 November 2012 first historic FIS World Cup Mixed Team event took place in Lillehammer, Norway. Competition was held on normal Lysgårdsbakken olympic HS100 hill. Each national mixed team consisted of four ski jumpers, two men and two women. The first World Cup mixed team winner was team of Norway.

Highest attendance[edit]

Single daily events with more than 50,000 people. List is not complete:

Rank Attendance Location Date Venue Competition
1 220,000 Germany Garmisch-Partenkirchen Feb 16, 1936 Große Olympiaschanze 1936 Winter Olympics
2 143,000 Norway Holmenkollen, Oslo Feb 14, 1952 Holmenkollbakken 1952 Winter Olympics
3 120,000 Poland Zakopane Feb 18, 1962 Wielka Krokiew 1962 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships
4 106,000 Norway Holmenkollen, Oslo Mar 00, 1946 Holmenkollbakken The Peace Competition
5 80,000-100,000 Slovenia Planica Mar 16, 1985 Velikanka bratov Gorišek 1985 FIS Ski-Flying World Championships
6 70,000 Slovenia Planica Mar 22, 1997 Velikanka bratov Gorišek 1996–97 FIS World Cup Final
7 70,000 Norway Holmenkollen, Oslo Mar 03, 2011 Holmenkollbakken 2011 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships
8 55,000 Slovenia Planica Mar 20, 2010 Letalnica bratov Gorišek 2010 FIS Ski-Flying World Championships
9 50,000 Slovenia Planica Mar 14, 1987 Velikanka bratov Gorišek 1986–87 FIS World Cup Final
10 50,000 Japan Hakuba, Nagano Feb 17, 1998 Hakuba Ski Jumping Stadium 1998 Winter Olympics

Records[edit]

All Pre-World Cup, Olympic Games, World Championships & World Cup events are included. (As of March 23, 2014)

Category Ski Jumper Record
Olympic Games (1924–2010)
individual victories Simon Ammann 4
total medals (Ind. + Team) Matti Nykänen 5
team victories Finland, Germany, Austria 2
team medals Austria 5
youngest winner individual (Albertville'92) Toni Nieminen 16 y, 261 d
oldest winner individual (Lillehammer'94) Jens Weißflog 29 y, 214 d
oldest medalist (Sochi '14) Noriaki Kasai 41 y, 254 d
by No. of Olympic appearances Noriaki Kasai 7
FIS Nordic World Ski Championships (1925–2011)
most individual victories Adam Małysz 4
most individual medals Adam Małysz 6
total medals (Ind. + Team) Janne Ahonen, Martin Schmitt 10
most team victories Austria 9
most team medals Austria 15
youngest winner individual (Thunder Bay'95) Tommy Ingebrigtsen 17 y, 222 d
oldest winner individual (Liberec'09) Andreas Küttel 29 y, 308 d
No. of Championships appearances Noriaki Kasai 11
World Cup (1979–2014)
most overall wins Adam Małysz, Matti Nykänen 4
most overall wins in a row Adam Małysz 3
most individual victories Gregor Schlierenzauer 52
most individual podiums Janne Ahonen 108
most individual Top 10 results Janne Ahonen 247
most team victories Austria 27
most team medals Austria 58
most individual performances Noriaki Kasai 452
most team performances Noriaki Kasai 48
total performances (Ind. + Team) Noriaki Kasai 500
most seasons performing Noriaki Kasai 25
most ski-flying individual victories Gregor Schlierenzauer 14
youngest winner individual (Lahti'80) Steve Collins 15 y, 362 d
oldest winner individual (Kulm'14) Noriaki Kasai 41 y, 219 d
youngest winner overall (1991–92) Toni Nieminen 16 y, 303 d
oldest winner overall (2011–12) Anders Bardal 29 y, 207 d
oldest World Cup performance jumper ind. Takanobu Okabe 43 y, 91 d
oldest jumper on World Cup podium ind. Noriaki Kasai 41 y, 274 d
oldest jumper World Cup TOP 10 ind. Noriaki Kasai 41 y, 289 d
most wins in one season individual Gregor Schlierenzauer 13
most points in one season individual Gregor Schlierenzauer 2083
most times winning individual points Noriaki Kasai 361x
FIS Ski-Flying World Championships (1972–2010)
most individual victories Walter Steiner, Sven Hannawald, Roar Ljøkelsøy 2
most individual medals Matti Nykänen 5
total medals (Ind. + Team) Janne Ahonen 7
most team victories Austria 3
most team medals Norway, Finland, Austria 4
youngest winner individual (Oberstdorf'08) Gregor Schlierenzauer 18 y, 47 d
oldest winner individual (Vikersund'12) Robert Kranjec 30 y, 224 d
by No. of Championships appearances Janne Ahonen 9
Four Hills Tournament (1952–2011)
most overall victories Janne Ahonen 5
most individual victories Jens Weißflog 10
youngest winner individual (Oberstdorf'91) Toni Nieminen 16 y, 212 d
oldest winner individual (Bischofshofen'96) Jens Weißflog 31 y, 169 d
youngest winner overall Toni Nieminen 16 y, 220 d
oldest winner overall Jens Weißflog 31 y, 169 d
Other records (all times)
1st ever jump over 100m – fall (Ponte di Legno, Italy, 1935) Olav Ulland 103.5 m
1st official jump over 100m (Planica, Slovenia, 1936) Sepp Bradl 101.5 m
1st ever jump over 200m – fall (Planica, Slovenia, 1994) Andreas Goldberger 202.0 m
1st official jump over 200m (Planica, Slovenia, 1994) Toni Nieminen 203.0 m
most jumps over 200m Robert Kranjec 156
World record (Vikersund'11) Johan Remen Evensen 246.5 m
Helmet cam world record (Planica'13) Jurij Tepeš 223.5 m
30+ years old world record (Vikersund'12) Robert Kranjec 244.0 m
35+ years old world record (Planica'10) Noriaki Kasai 224.0 m
40+ years old world record (Planica'13) Noriaki Kasai 221.5 m
Junior world record (Planica'08) Gregor Schlierenzauer 232.5 m
1st World Cup individual event Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy 1979
1st World Cup team event Predazzo, Italy 1992
1st ever mixed team event Mostec, Ljubljana, Slovenia 2012
1st World Cup mixed team event Lillehammer, Norway 2012

Score[edit]

The winner is decided on a scoring system based on distance, style, inrun length and wind conditions.

Each hill has a target called the calculation point (or K point or "critical point") which is a par distance to aim for. It is also the place where many jumpers land, in the middle of the landing area. This point is marked by the K line on the landing strip. For K-90 and K-120 competitions, the K line is at 90 metres (300 ft) and 120 metres (390 ft) respectively. Skiers are awarded 60 points if they land on the K Line. Skiers earn extra points for flying beyond the K Line, or lose points for every meter(~3 ft) they land short of the mark. The typical meter value is 2 points in small hills, 1.8 points in large hills and 1.2 points in ski-flying hills. Thus, it is possible for a jumper to get a negative score if the jump is way short of the K line with poor style marks (typically a fall). The value of a meter is determined from the size of the hill. The K point is the point on the hill where the slope begins to flatten as measured from the take off.

In addition, five judges are based in a tower to the side of the expected landing point. They can award up to 20 points each for style based on keeping the skis steady during flight, balance, good body position, and landing. The highest and lowest style scores are disregarded, with the remaining three scores added to the distance score. Thus, a perfectly scored K-120 jump – with at least four of the judges awarding 20 points each – and the jumper landing on the K-point, is awarded a total of 120 points.

In practice, jumpers rarely get the full 60 points from the judges ... a good score is in the mid to upper fifties. The best jumpers, however, will usually exceed the K line, so they'll get a bit more than 60 points for distance. A 120 point ride is good (example: 54 points from judges, 66 for distance), and if they do that in both rounds, they'll get a 240 point score for the day. However, since they cannot get more than 60 points from the judges, but can earn unlimited points by jumping much farther than the K point (par), it's not uncommon to see scores of 270 to 280 points for the top jumpers in a World Cup competition. So ... on any size hill, a 240 point day is good ... but the best jumpers will often score much higher than that.

In January 2010, a new scoring factor was introduced to compensate for variable outdoor conditions. Aerodynamics and take-off speed are important variables that determine the value of a jump, and if weather conditions change during a competition, the conditions will not be equal for everyone, which is unfair. The jumper will now receive or lose points if the inrun length is adjusted to provide optimal takeoff speed. An advanced calculation also determines plus/minus points for the actual wind conditions at the time of the jump. These points are added or withdrawn from the original scores from the jump itself.

In the individual event, the scores from each skier's two competition jumps are combined to determine the winner.

Rules[edit]

Ski jumpers below the minimum safe body mass index are penalized with a shorter maximum ski length, reducing the aerodynamic lift they can achieve. These rules have been credited with stopping the most severe cases of underweight athletes, but some competitors still lose weight to maximize the distance they can jump.[37]

Technique[edit]

The ski jump is divided into four separate sections; 1) In-run, 2) Take-off (jump), 3) Flight and 4) Landing, In each part the athlete is required to pay attention to and practice a particular technique in order to maximize the outcome of ultimate length and style marks.

Using the modern V-technique, popularised in late 1980s by Jan Boklöv from Sweden and Jiří Malec from Czechoslovakia, world-class skiers are able to exceed the distance of the take-off hill by about 10% compared to the previous technique with parallel skis. Aerodynamics has become a factor of increasing importance in modern ski jumping, with recent rules addressing the regulation of ski jumping suits. This follows a period when loopholes in the rules seemed to favour skinny jumpers in stiff, air foil-like suits.

Previous techniques first included the Kongsberger technique, developed in Kongsberg, Norway by two ski jumpers, Jacob Tullin Thams and Sigmund Ruud following World War I. In this technique, the upper body was bent at the hip, with a wide forward lean, and arms extended to the front with the skis parallel to each other; jump length ranged from 45 meters to over 100 meters. In the 1950s Andreas Daescher of Switzerland and Erich Windisch of Germany modified the Kongsberger technique by placing their arms backward toward the hips for a closer lean. The Daescher technique and Windisch technique were the standard for ski jumping from the 1950s. In the early 1980s, Steve Collins used an inverse V technique. Using this technique, he won events and set records, but the technique was something of a novelty and was not adopted by others.[38]

Until the mid-1970s, the ski jumper came down the in-run of the hill with both arms pointing forwards. This changed when the former East German Ski jumper Jochen Danneberg introduced the new in-run technique of directing the arms backwards in a more aerodynamic position.

The landing requires the skiers to touch the ground in the Telemark landing style. This involves the jumper landing with one foot in front of the other, mimicking the style of the Norwegian inventors of Telemark skiing. Failure to comply with this regulation leads to the deduction of style marks (points).

Popularity[edit]

Ski jumping is popular among spectators and TV audiences in the Nordic countries and Central Europe. Almost all world-class ski jumpers come from those regions or from Japan. Traditionally, the strongest countries are Finland, Norway, Germany, Austria, Poland, Switzerland, Slovenia, and Japan. However, there have always been successful ski jumpers from other countries as well (see list below). The Four Hills Tournament, held annually at four sites in Bavaria, Germany and Austria around New Year, is very popular.

There have been attempts to spread the popularity of the sport by finding ways by which the construction and upkeep of practicing and competition venues can be made easier. These include plastic fake snow to provide a slippery surface even during the summer time and in locations where snow is a rare occurrence.

Controversy[edit]

Ski Jumping as a competitive sport has been questioned, as competitors exert low physical movement and contest results often have more to do with the strength of variable, arbitrary wind and wind direction[citation needed].

Ski flying[edit]

Ski Flying is an extension of ski jumping. The events take place on hills with a K-point of at least 185 metres (607 ft).[39]

The first ski flying hill was built in Planica in Slovenia. In 1936, the FIS started to regulate the construction of the jumping hills and issued international standards for their construction and maintenance. Back then, it was forbidden to build a ski jumping hill which made it possible to make jumps longer than 80 meters. Nevertheless the first-ever ski flying hill was built in Planica, Slovenia. It took several more years before competitions on this hill were approved by FIS.[citation needed] The "father" of ski flying is Janez Gorišek, an engineer, sportsman and enthusiastic sport-promoter who designed the Planica ski-jump.

There are five ski flying hills in the world today: Vikersundbakken in Vikersund, Norway; Oberstdorf, Germany; Kulm Austria; Letalnica, Planica, Slovenia; and Harrachov, Czech Republic. A sixth hill, Copper Peak in the western Upper Peninsula of Michigan, is currently disused, although there are plans to rebuild it to FIS standards.[40] There are plans for more ski flying hills, even for an indoor ski flying hill in Ylitornio, Finland. The biggest hill is Vikersundbakken in Vikersund.

Jumps of more than 200 metres (660 ft) have occurred at all ski flying hills. The current World Record is 246.5 metres (809 ft), set by Norwegian Johan Remen Evensen at Vikersund in 2011.

The Fédération Internationale de Ski (FIS) Ski flying World Championships started in 1972 and occur biennially. The 2010 FIS World Championships in ski flying were organised in Planica, and in 2012 the FIS World Championships took place in Vikersund, Norway.

1992, 1994, 1996, 1998 Ski flying World Championships individual day event wins in two series also counted as an individual World Cup win.

List of ski flying hills[edit]

Hill name[41] Location Opened K-point Hill size Hill record
Norway Vikersundbakken Vikersund, Norway 1936 K-195 HS 225 246.5 metres (809 ft)
Slovenia Letalnica Bratov Gorišek Planica, Slovenia 1969 K-200 HS 225 239.0 metres (784.1 ft)
Germany Heini-Klopfer-Skiflugschanze Oberstdorf, Germany 1950 K-185 HS 213 225.5 metres (740 ft)
Austria Kulm Bad Mitterndorf, Austria 1950 K-185 HS 200 215.5 metres (707 ft)
Czech Republic Čerťák Harrachov, Czech Republic 1979 K-185 HS 205 214.5 metres (704 ft)

Official jumps over 200m[edit]

Most of the top competitors in "regular" ski jumping tend to be among the best in ski flying competitions. However, some jumpers, such as Martin Koch of Austria, Johan Remen Evensen from Norway and Slovenia's Robert Kranjec are regarded as ski flying specialists.

  • As of 24 March 2013.
Rank Ski Jumper #
1.  Robert Kranjec (SLO) 156
2.  Martin Koch (AUT) 133
3.  Adam Małysz (POL) 112
4.  Simon Ammann (SUI) 107
 Gregor Schlierenzauer (AUT) 107
6.  Matti Hautamäki (FIN) 104
7.  Thomas Morgenstern (AUT) 102
8.  Bjørn Einar Romøren (NOR) 93
9.  Anders Jacobsen (NOR) 77
10.  Anders Bardal (NOR) 76
  •   active ski jumper

Notable ski jumpers[edit]

The most notable ski jumpers may be considered those who have managed to show a perfect jump, which means that all five judges attributed the maximum style score of 20 points for their jumps.

So far only 5 jumpers are recorded to have achieved this:

Name Date Location Competition Rank
Austria Anton Innauer 7 March 1976[42] Germany Oberstdorf Ski flying (International ski flying weeks) 1
Japan Kazuyoshi Funaki 15 February 1998[43] Japan Nagano Olympic Winter Games, large hill, second jump 1
Germany Sven Hannawald 8 February 2003[44] Germany Willingen Worldcup competition, large hill, first jump 1
Japan Hideharu Miyahira 8 February 2003[44] Germany Willingen Worldcup competition, large hill, second jump 6
Austria Wolfgang Loitzl 6 January 2009[45] Austria Bischofshofen Four Hills Jumping, large hill, first jump 1

Sven Hannawald and Wolfgang Loitzl were attributed four times 20 (plus another 19,5) style score points for their second jump, thus receiving nine times the maximum score of 20 points within one competition.

Other notable ski jumpers can be found in the following lists:

Male[edit]

The view from the top of the ski jump in Salt Lake City, Utah for the 2002 Winter Olympics
Ski jumping facility in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Letalnica Bratov Gorišek (outrun)
Letalnica Bratov Gorišek (inrun)
Currently active
Country Flag Name
Austria Austria Gregor Schlierenzauer
Andreas Kofler
Michael Hayböck
Manuel Fettner
Thomas Diethart
Thomas Morgenstern
Wolfgang Loitzl
Stefan Kraft
Bulgaria Bulgaria Vladimir Zografski
Canada Canada Mackenzie Boyd-Clowes
Czech Republic Czech Republic Jakub Janda
Roman Koudelka
Jan Matura
Antonín Hájek
Čestmír Kožíšek
Lukáš Hlava
Estonia Estonia Kaarel Nurmsalu
Finland Finland Janne Happonen
Lauri Asikainen
Ville Larinto
Anssi Koivuranta
Janne Ahonen
Olli Muotka
Sami Niemi
Jarkko Määttä
France France Vincent Descombes Sevoie
Ronan Lamy Chappuis
Germany Germany Michael Neumayer
Marinus Kraus
Richard Freitag
Andreas Wank
Andreas Wellinger
Severin Freund
Italy Italy Sebastian Colloredo
Andrea Morassi
Roberto Dellasega
Davide Bresadola
Japan Japan Noriaki Kasai
Taku Takeuchi
Daiki Ito
Shōhei Tochimoto
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Ivan Karaulov
Nikolay Karpenko
Alexey Korolev
Radik Zhaparov
Konstantin Sokolenko
Evgeni Levkin
Korea South Korea Choi Heung-Chul
Choi Yong-Jik
Kim Hyun-Ki
Kang Chil-Gu
Norway Norway Tom Hilde
Vegard Haukø Sklett
Bjørn Einar Romøren
Anders Bardal
Ole Marius Ingvaldsen
Anders Fannemel
Rune Velta
Anders Jacobsen
Poland Poland Kamil Stoch
Piotr Żyła
Stefan Hula
Krzysztof Miętus
Jan Ziobro
Maciej Kot
Dawid Kubacki
Krzysztof Biegun
Klemens Murańka
Romania Romania Sorin Iulian Pîtea
Russia Russia Denis Kornilov
Dimitry Vassiliev
Ilya Rosliakov
Slovakia Slovakia Tomas Zmoray
Slovenia Slovenia Robert Kranjec
Jernej Damjan
Peter Prevc
Tomaž Naglič
Andraž Pograjc
Dejan Judež
Anže Semenič
Mitja Mežnar
Rok Justin
Anže Lanišek
Cene Prevc
Nejc Dežman
Robert Hrgota
Matjaž Pungertar
Jurij Tepeš
Jaka Hvala
Sweden Sweden Carl Nordin
Switzerland Switzerland Simon Ammann
Gregor Deschwanden
Ukraine Ukraine Vitaliy Shumbarets
USA United States Nicholas Alexander
Peter Frenette
Nicholas Fairall
Anders Johnson

Female[edit]

Unsuccessful[edit]

Important venues[edit]

The second largest jump in the world, Letalnica Bratov Gorišek, in Planica, Slovenia

National records[edit]

GDR stamp – Memorial for the Skijumper
Rank Nation Record holder Length Venue Year Source
1.  Norway Johan Remen Evensen 246.5 metres (809 ft) Vikersund 2011 [46]
2.  Slovenia Robert Kranjec 244.0 metres (800.5 ft) Vikersund 2012 [46]
3.  Austria Gregor Schlierenzauer 243.5 metres (799 ft) Vikersund 2011 [46]
4.  Finland Janne Happonen 240.0 metres (787.4 ft) Vikersund 2011 [46]
 Japan Daiki Ito Vikersund 2012 [46]
6.   Switzerland Simon Ammann 238.5 metres (782 ft) Vikersund 2011 [46]
7.  Czech Republic Antonín Hájek 236.0 metres (774.3 ft) Planica 2010 [46]
8.  Poland Piotr Żyła 232.5 metres (763 ft) Vikersund 2012 [46]
Kamil Stoch Vikersund 2013 [46]
9.  Russia Denis Kornilov 232.0 metres (761.2 ft) Vikersund 2012 [46]
10.  Germany Michael Neumayer 231.0 metres (757.9 ft) Vikersund 2013 [46]
11.  France Vincent Descombes Sevoie 225.0 metres (738.2 ft) Vikersund 2012 [46]
12.  United States Alan Alborn 221.5 metres (727 ft) Planica 2002 [46]
13.  Italy Andrea Morassi 216.5 metres (710 ft) Planica 2012 [46]
14.  Bulgaria Vladimir Zografski 213.5 metres (700 ft) Planica 2013 [46]
15.  Sweden Isak Grimholm 207.5 metres (681 ft) Planica 2007 [46]
 South Korea Choi Heung-Chul Planica 2008 [46]
17.  Canada Mackenzie Boyd-Clowes 205.0 metres (672.6 ft) Harrachov 2013 [46]
18.  Estonia Kaarel Nurmsalu 204.0 metres (669.3 ft) Vikersund 2012 [46]
19.  Belarus Petr Chaadaev 197.5 metres (648 ft) Kulm 2006 [46]
20.  Kazakhstan Radik Zhaparov 196.5 metres (645 ft) Planica 2007 [46]
21.  Slovakia Martin Mesik 195.5 metres (641 ft) Kulm 2006 [46]
22.  Ukraine Vitaliy Shumbarets 189.5 metres (622 ft) Planica 2009 [46]
23.  Greece Nico Polychronidis 186.0 metres (610.2 ft) Oberstdorf 2013 [46]
24.  Netherlands Christoph Kreuzer 162.0 metres (531.5 ft) Planica 2002 [46]
25.  Turkey Faik Yüksel 150.0 metres (492.1 ft) Oberstdorf 2000's [47]
26.  Georgia Koba Tsakadze 142.0 metres (465.9 ft) Vikersund 1967 [48]
27.  Spain Bernat Sola 141.0 metres (462.6 ft) Tauplitz 1986 [46]
28.  Hungary Gábor Gellér 139.0 metres (456.0 ft)  ? 1980's [46]
29.  Denmark Andreas Bjelke Nygaard 137.0 metres (449.5 ft) Lillehammer 2000's [46]
30.  Romania Sorin Iulian Pîtea 127.0 metres (416.7 ft) Sochi 2014 [46]
31.  Kyrgyzstan Dmitry Chvykov 124.0 metres (406.8 ft) Innsbruck 2002 [49]
32.  China Tian Zhandong 121.5 metres (399 ft) Bischofshofen 2004 [50]
33.  United Kingdom Glynn Pedersen 113.5 metres (372 ft) Salt Lake City 2001 [51]
34.  Croatia Josip Šporer 102.0 metres (334.6 ft) Planica 1940's [46]
 Latvia Kristaps Nežborts Liberec 2012 [52]
36.  Lithuania Zbigniew Kiwert 86.0 metres (282.2 ft) Nizhny Novgorod 1960 [53]
37.  Iceland Skarphéðinn Guðmundsson 80.0 metres (262.5 ft) Squaw Valley 1960 [54]
38.  Macedonia Goga Popov junior 62.0 metres (203.4 ft) Planica 1952 [55]
39.  Australia Hal Nerdal 53.0 metres (173.9 ft) Squaw Valley 1960 [46]
Chris Hellerud Falun 1974 [56]
40.  Uganda Dunstan Odeke 50.0 metres (164.0 ft) Oslo 1990's [56]
41.  Montenegro Božo Čvorović 46.0 metres (150.9 ft) Žabljak 1960's [57]
42.  Serbia Vid Černe 40.0 metres (131.2 ft) Jahorina 1949 [58]
43.  Bosnia and Herzegovina Džemo Zahirović 36.0 metres (118.1 ft) Jahorina 1949 [59]
44.  Belgium Rembert Notten 35.0 metres (114.8 ft) Rückershausen 2012 [60][61][62]
 Ireland Richard Brown Göteborg 2002 [46]
46.  Greenland Hans Holm 23.3 metres (76 ft) Nuuk 1949 [63]
47.  New Zealand Brian MacMillan 18.6 metres (61 ft) Mount Cook 1937 [64]

Water ski jumping[edit]

See also: Water skiing

The ski jump is performed on two long skis similar to those a beginner uses, with a specialized tail fin that is somewhat shorter and much wider (so it will support the weight of the skier when he is on the jump ramp). Skiers towed behind a boat at fixed speed, maneuver to achieve the maximum speed when hitting a ramp floating in the water, launching themselves into the air with the goal of traveling as far as possible before touching the water. Professional ski jumpers can travel up to 70 metres (230 ft). The skier must successfully land and retain control of the ski rope to be awarded the distance.

An extreme version of this sport named Ski Flying was promoted by Scot Ellis and Jim Cara, in which boat speeds and ramp heights are increased.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Sihera, Elaine (January 13, 2010). "History of Ski Jumping Winter Olympics Norway Matt Nykanen Sondre Nordheim Olaf Rye". Olympics. Sporting Life 360°. Retrieved 2014-02-26. 
  2. ^ a b Saur, Lasse (1999): Norske ski – til glede og besvær. Research report, Høgskolen i Finnmark.
  3. ^ a b c d Haarstad, Kjell (1993): Skisportens oppkomst i Norge. Trondheim: Tapir.
  4. ^ Oslo – Huseby (Ski Jumping Hill Archive)
  5. ^ "Ski Jumping". International Olympic Committee. 
  6. ^ "FIS MEDIA INFO: Decisions of the 45th International Ski Congress in Vilamoura/Algarve (POR)". Fédération Internationale de Ski. 2006-05-26. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  7. ^ IOC approves skicross; rejects women's ski jumping
  8. ^ "Rogge: Women jumpers would dilute Olympics medals". CTV News. 2008-02-28. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  9. ^ Cindy Chan (2009-04-29). "Female Ski Jumpers Seem Olympic Inclusion". Epoch Times. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  10. ^ Christa Case Bryant (2009-11-08). "Why women can't ski jump in the Winter Olympics". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  11. ^ Rod Mickelburgh (2009-07-10). "No female flight in 2010: B.C. court rejects ski jump bid". CTV Olympics. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  12. ^ CBC News (2009-07-10). "Female ski jumpers lose Olympic battle". CBC News. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  13. ^ Tatianan Siegel, "Virginia Madsen to defy 'Gravity'", Variety, Apr. 8, 2009
  14. ^ Olympic.org
  15. ^ [1]
  16. ^ See http://www.ladiesskijumping.com/news.html?pokaz_news=397&vo=8. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  17. ^ See http://berkutschi.com/de/front/news/show/2590-daniela-iraschko-erfolgreich-operiert. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  18. ^ See http://berkutschi.com/en/front/news/2792-anja-tepes-seriously-injured. Retrieved 21 August 2013,
  19. ^ See http://www.ladiesskijumping.com/wiadomosci/467/French-preparation-is-on-target. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
  20. ^ See http://www.calgaryherald.com/sports/Calgary+jumper+injures+knee+during+training+France/8780737/story.html. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  21. ^ See http://olympictalk.nbcsports.com/2013/08/21/sarah-hendrickson-ski-jumping-injury/. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  22. ^ See http://www.ladiesskijumping.com/wiadomosci/503/World-Cup-continues-in-Hinterzarten. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  23. ^ See http://www.ladiesskijumping.com/wiadomosci/508/Svenja-Wuerth-seriously-injured. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  24. ^ See http://www.fis-ski.com/ski-jumping/news-multimedia/news/article=ema-klinec-injured.html. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  25. ^ See http://www.ladiesskijumping.com/wiadomosci/545/Ramona-Straub-tore-her-cruciate-ligament/. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
  26. ^ See http://www.ladiesskijumping.com/wiadomosci/546/Anja-Tepes-tore-her-ACL-again. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
  27. ^ See http://www.ladiesskijumping.com/wiadomosci/548/New-knee-injury-for-Daniela-Iraschko-Stolz. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
  28. ^ See http://www.fis-ski.com/ski-jumping/news-multimedia/news/article=bigna-windmueller-and-lindsey-van-injured.html. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  29. ^ See http://www.ladiesskijumping.com/wiadomosci/550/Lindsey-Van-injured. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  30. ^ See http://www.focus.de/sport/wintersport/skispringen-skisprung-olympiasiegerin-vogt-sagt-start-in-rasnov-ab_id_3653705.html. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  31. ^ See http://www.sportnews.bz/it/altri-sport/salto-con-gli-sci/dettaglio-news/news/brutta-caduta-in-allenamento-per-manuela-malsiner.html. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  32. ^ See https://www.facebook.com/pages/Elena-Runggaldier-Fanpage/138338596335863?ref=stream&hc_location=timeline. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  33. ^ Cf. the article in the Austrian daily Tiroler Tageszeitung, 21 March 2014, p. 33, in which the FIS official and technical director of the Austrian high performance centre Schigymnasium Stams, Harald Haim, talks about various improvements and mentions 16 torn ligaments female ski jumpers had suffered in the last two seasons.
  34. ^ "Prvič v zgodovini smučarskih skokov – tekma mešanih parov", Športna zveza Ljubljane, June 16, 2012
  35. ^ ski jumping hills in Mostec skisprungschanzen.com
  36. ^ video, tvslo.si (slovene), June 16, 2012
  37. ^ For Ski Jumpers, a Sliding Scale of Weight, Distance and Health
  38. ^ Development of ski jumping technique
  39. ^ Berkutschi.com. "Ski flying". Retrieved 11 February 2011. 
  40. ^ [2][dead link]
  41. ^ International Ski Federation. "Homologated Ski Jumping Hills". 
  42. ^ Vom Olymp zu den Fischen auf faz.net
  43. ^ Australian Olympic Committee commenting the Olympic Winter Games of Nagano 1998
  44. ^ a b FIS result list 8 February 2003, Rank 1 Hannawald, Rank 6 Miyahira (PDF-File, 379 kB)
  45. ^ FIS result list 6 January 2009, Rank 1 Loitzl (PDF-File, 273 kB)
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af "Rekordy i statystyki: Loty narciarskie". skokinarciarskie.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  47. ^ 24ur.com (from 6:28–6:38)
  48. ^ "Skifliegen: Zwei Weltrekorde". Arbeiter-Zeitung: 10. 1967. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  49. ^ "Results Training 1 Innsbruck, THU 3 JAN 2002". fis-ski.com. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  50. ^ "FIS Continental Cup Ski-Jumping 12th COC Competition Bischofshofen Ski-Jumping Individual K125 Official Results". fis-ski.com. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  51. ^ Adrian Dworakowski. "Nie tylko Eddie Edwards czyli o skoczkach z Wielkiej Brytanii". skijumping.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  52. ^ Paweł Borkowski. "Nežborts z nowym rekordem Łotwy! Zobacz, jak skaczą Łotysze (wideo)". nicesport.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  53. ^ Henryk Mażul (May 2006). "Ptaki w locie naśladując". tygodnik.lt (in Polish). Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  54. ^ "Skíðastökkið verður hápunktur leikanna". Alþýðublaðið: 16. 1960-02-28. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  55. ^ "Пред "Четирите скокалници" имаше четирикатна скокалница на Шапка". novamakedonija.com.mk (in Macedonian). Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  56. ^ a b Adrian Dworakowski. "Egzotyczne skoki narciarskie". skijumping.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  57. ^ "Žabljak". skisprungschanzen.com. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  58. ^ "Prva skijaška skakaonica u Palama". palelive.com (in Bosnian). Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  59. ^ "ISTORIJA SKIJANJA NA JAHORINI I BIH". ssk.co.ba (in Bosnian). Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  60. ^ "Neerpeltenaar kroont zich tot Belgisch kampioen schansspringen" (in Dutch). Het Belang van Limburg. 2012-06-13. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  61. ^ Broekx, Jesse (2012-06-11). "Tom Waes niet langer beste Belgische schansspringer" (in Dutch). sport.be.msn.com. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  62. ^ Van Horne, Kizzy (2012-06-14). "Twintiger snoept Belgisch record schansspringen van Tom Waes af" (in Dutch). Het Nieuwsblad. Retrieved 14 June 2012. 
  63. ^ "Rekord i Skihop.". Grønlandsposten. 1949-03-15. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 
  64. ^ "Ski-ing. Americans at Mount Cook. Durrance wins two events". Auckland Star: 15. 1937-07-27. Retrieved 12 February 2013. 

External links[edit]