|This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2008)|
|Highest governing body||International Ski Federation|
|Team members||Individual or groups|
|Olympic||Since the first ever Winter Olympics in 1924|
Ski jumping is a form of nordic skiing in which athletes descend a take-off ramp, called an inrun, jump, and fly as far as possible. Points are awarded for distance and style. Competition is sanctioned by the International Ski Federation (FIS). Skis are wide and long (260 to 275 centimetres (102 to 108 in)). Ski jumping is predominantly a winter sport, and has been part of the Winter Olympic Games since their inception in 1924. It can also be performed in summer on artificial surfaces.
- 1 History
- 2 Competition
- 3 Scoring and rules
- 4 Technique
- 5 Ski flying
- 6 All-time records
- 7 Notable ski jumpers
- 8 National records
- 9 See also
- 10 References
Ski jumping as a sport originated in Norway. Norwegian lieutenant Olaf Rye was the first known ski jumper. In 1809, he launched himself 9.5 meters in the air as a show of courage to his fellow soldiers. By 1862, ski jumpers were facing much larger jumps and traveling longer. The very first recorded public competition was held at Trysil, Norway, on 22 January 1862. At this first competition, judges already awarded points for style ("elegance and smoothness"), participants had to complete three jumps without falling and rules were agreed upon in advance. It is clear from the news report published in Morgenbladet that the ski jumping in Trysild was entertainment, but also a national, competitive sports event. The first known female ski jumper participated at the Trysil competition in 1863. Norway's Sondre Norheim jumped 30 meters without the benefit of poles. In 1866, the first skiing event held in Christiania near Old Aker Church was a combined cross-country, slalom and jumping competition, and attracted an audience of some 2,000 people. Sondre Norheim won his first competition in Christiania in 1868. The first widely known ski jumping competition was the Husebyrennene, held in Oslo in 1879, with Olaf Haugann of Norway setting the first world record for the longest ski jump at 20 meters. Explorer Fridtjof Nansen was a skilled skier and was number 7 in the 1881 competition at Huseby. Until 1884–1886 jumping and cross-country was a single integrated competition: In 1886 at Huseby cross-country and jumping were held on separate days, and final results were calculated from the combined achievements (similar to present nordic combined). The annual event was moved to Holmenkollen from 1892, and Holmenkollen has remained the pinnacle of ski jumping venues. To distinguish ski jumping competition only from Nordic combined, it is still referred to as "spesielt hopprenn" in Norwegian (ski jumping only).
In 1929, Norwegian instructors arrived in Sapporo to train the Japanese in ski jumping.
The Large Hill competition was included on the Olympic programme for the 1964 Olympic Games in Innsbruck.
- Normal hill competitions: the calculation line is found at approximately 80–100 metres (260–330 ft). Distances over 110 metres (360 ft) can be reached.
- Large hill competitions: the calculation line is found at approximately 120–130 metres (390–430 ft). Distances of over 145 metres (476 ft) can be obtained on the larger hills. Both individual and team competitions are run on these hills.
- Ski-flying competitions: the calculation line is found at 185 metres (607 ft).
Amateur and junior competitions are held on smaller hills. The second level of competition is the FIS Ski Jumping Continental Cup.
Individual ski jumping at the Winter Olympics consists of a training jump and two scored jumps. The team event consists of four members of the same nation, who each jump twice.
Ski jumping can also be performed in the summer on a porcelain track and plastic grass combined with water. There are also many competitions during the summer, including the FIS Grand Prix Ski Jumping.
Women's ski jumping
Women competed at the 2009 Nordic World Ski Championships followed by a women's team event at the 2011 world championships.
A group of fifteen competitive female ski jumpers later filed a suit against the Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games on the grounds that it violated the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms since men were competing. The suit failed, with the judge ruling that the situation was not governed by the charter. Virginia Madsen told the story in the film called Fighting Gravity (2009).
The 2011–12 World Cup season was the very first in which women competed at World Cup level; previously, women had only competed in Continental Cup seasons. The inaugural women's World Cup champion was Sarah Hendrickson. A further milestone was reached when women's ski jumping was included as part of the 2014 Winter Olympics.
Because they are lighter than men, female ski jumpers need a longer inrun and reach a higher landing speed. Injuries have affected a number of the sport's female athletes including Lisa Demetz, Daniela Iraschko, Anja Tepeš, Caroline Espiau, Alexandra Pretorius, Sarah Hendrickson, Jacqueline Seifriedsberger, Svenja Würth, Ema Klinec, Ramona Straub, Anja Tepeš, Daniela Iraschko-Stolz, Bigna Windmüller, Lindsey Van, Carina Vogt, Manuela Malsiner, and Elena Runggaldier.
A number of events took place in 2012:
- The first mixed pairs event was held at Mostec, Slovenia. ski jumping complex located in Šiška District, Ljubljana. On four different hills of size HS14, HS23, HS38 and HS62 mixed teams competed with each other by rules of elimination system. Slovenians Maja Vtič and Tomaž Naglič won.
- Mixed jumping at the FIS Grand Prix Ski Jumping event and first ever on plastic was held in Courchevel, France. Competition was held on normal La Praz olympic HS96 hill. The first full four member Mixed Team and first ever Grand Prix mixed team winner in history was team of Japan.
- The first FIS World Cup Mixed Team event took place in Lillehammer, Norway. Competition was held on normal Lysgårdsbakken olympic HS100 hill. Each national mixed team consisted of four ski jumpers, two men and two women. The first World Cup mixed team winner was team of Norway.
Scoring and rules
Ski jumpers below the minimum safe body mass index are penalized with a shorter maximum ski length, reducing the aerodynamic lift they can achieve. These rules have been credited with stopping the most severe cases of underweight athletes, but some competitors still lose weight to maximize the distance they can jump.
The winner is decided on a scoring system based on distance, style, inrun length and wind conditions.
Aerodynamics has become a factor of increasing importance in modern ski jumping, with recent rules addressing the regulation of ski jumping suits. This follows a period when loopholes in the rules seemed to favour skinny jumpers in stiff, air foil-like suits.
Each hill has a target called the calculation point (or K point or "critical point") which is a par distance to aim for. It is also the place where many jumpers land, in the middle of the landing area. This point is marked by the K line on the landing strip. For K-90 and K-120 competitions, the K line is at 90 metres (300 ft) and 120 metres (390 ft) respectively. Skiers are awarded 60 points if they land on the K Line. Skiers earn extra points for flying beyond the K Line, or lose points for every meter(~3 ft) they land short of the mark. The typical meter value is 2 points in small hills, 1.8 points in large hills and 1.2 points in ski-flying hills. Thus, it is possible for a jumper to get a negative score if the jump is way short of the K line with poor style marks (typically a fall). The value of a meter is determined from the size of the hill. The K point is the point on the hill where the slope begins to flatten as measured from the take off.
In addition, five judges are based in a tower to the side of the expected landing point. They can award up to 20 points each for style based on keeping the skis steady during flight, balance, good body position, and landing. The highest and lowest style scores are disregarded, with the remaining three scores added to the distance score. Thus, a perfectly scored K-120 jump – with at least four of the judges awarding 20 points each – and the jumper landing on the K-point, is awarded a total of 120 points.
In January 2010, a new scoring factor was introduced to compensate for variable outdoor conditions. Aerodynamics and take-off speed are important variables that determine the value of a jump, and if weather conditions change during a competition, the conditions will not be equal for everyone, which is unfair. The jumper will now receive or lose points if the inrun (or start gate) length is adjusted to provide optimal takeoff speed. An advanced calculation also determines plus/minus points for the actual wind conditions at the time of the jump. These points are added or withdrawn from the original scores from the jump itself.
In the individual event, the scores from each skier's two competition jumps are combined to determine the winner.
The ski jump is divided into four parts: in-run, take-off (jump), flight and landing. In each part the athlete is required to pay attention to and practice a particular technique in order to maximize the outcome of ultimate length and style marks.
Using the V-technique, popularised in late 1980s by Jan Boklöv from Sweden and Jiří Malec from Czechoslovakia, skiers are able to exceed the distance of the take-off hill by about 10% compared to the previous technique with parallel skis. Previous techniques first included the Kongsberger technique, the Daescher technique and the Windisch technique. Until the mid-1970s, the ski jumper came down the in-run of the hill with both arms pointing forwards. This changed when the former East German Ski jumper Jochen Danneberg introduced the new in-run technique of directing the arms backwards in a more aerodynamic position.
The landing requires the skiers to touch the ground in the Telemark landing style. This involves the jumper landing with one foot in front of the other, mimicking the style of the Norwegian inventors of Telemark skiing. Failure to comply with this regulation leads to the deduction of style marks (points).
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2014)|
The first ski flying hill was built in Planica in Slovenia. In 1936, the FIS started to regulate the construction of the jumping hills and issued international standards for their construction and maintenance. Back then, it was forbidden to build a ski jumping hill which made it possible to make jumps longer than 80 meters. Nevertheless the first-ever ski flying hill was built in Planica, Slovenia. It took several more years before competitions on this hill were approved by FIS. The "father" of ski flying is Janez Gorišek, an engineer, sportsman and enthusiastic sport-promoter who designed the Planica ski-jump.
There are five active ski flying hills, all in Europe. The biggest is Vikersundbakken in Vikersund, Norway. Others are Oberstdorf, Germany; Kulm, Austria; Letalnica, Planica, Slovenia; and Harrachov, Czech Republic. The only hill outside of Europe is Copper Peak in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. It is not active but there are plans to rebuild it to FIS standards.
Jumps of more than 200 metres (660 ft) have occurred at all ski flying hills. The current World Record is 251.5 metres (825 ft), set by Norwegian Anders Fannemel at Vikersund in 2015.
The Fédération Internationale de Ski (FIS) Ski flying World Championships started in 1972 and occur biennially. The 2010 FIS World Championships in ski flying were organised in Planica, and in 2012 the FIS World Championships took place in Vikersund, Norway.
List of ski flying hills
|Hill name||Location||Opened||K-point||Hill size||Hill record|
|Vikersundbakken||Vikersund, Norway||1936||K-200||HS 225||251.5 metres (825 ft)|
|Letalnica Bratov Gorišek||Planica, Slovenia||1969||K-200||HS 225||239.0 metres (784.1 ft)|
|Kulm||Bad Mitterndorf, Austria||1950||K-200||HS 225||237.5 metres (779 ft)|
|Heini-Klopfer-Skiflugschanze||Oberstdorf, Germany||1950||K-185||HS 213||225.5 metres (740 ft)|
|Čerťák||Harrachov, Czech Republic||1979||K-185||HS 205||214.5 metres (704 ft)|
|Copper peak||Ironwood, MI, USA||1970||K-145||HS 180||158.0 metres (518.4 ft)|
Official jumps over 200m
Most of the top competitors in "regular" ski jumping tend to be among the best in ski flying competitions. However, some jumpers, such as Martin Koch of Austria, Johan Remen Evensen from Norway and Slovenia's Robert Kranjec have been regarded as ski flying specialists.
- As of 9 January 2015.
|1||Robert Kranjec (SLO)||157|
|2||Martin Koch (AUT)||133|
|3||Adam Małysz (POL)||112|
|4||Gregor Schlierenzauer (AUT)||108|
|5||Simon Ammann (SUI)||107|
|6||Matti Hautamäki (FIN)||104|
|7||Thomas Morgenstern (AUT)||102|
|8||Bjørn Einar Romøren (NOR)||93|
|9||Anders Jacobsen (NOR)||79|
|10||Anders Bardal (NOR)||77|
active ski jumper
As of 9 January 2015
Winter Olympic Games
FIS Nordic World Ski Championships
FIS Ski Flying World Championships
Four Hills Tournament
Single daily events with more than 50,000 people. List is not complete:
|1||220,000||Garmisch-Partenkirchen||16 Feb 1936||Große Olympiaschanze||1936 Winter Olympics|
|2||143,000||Holmenkollen||14 Feb 1952||Holmenkollbakken||1952 Winter Olympics|
|3||120,000||Zakopane||18 Feb 1962||Wielka Krokiew||1962 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships|
|4||106,000||Holmenkollen||Mar 1946||Holmenkollbakken||The Peace Competition|
|5||100,000||Planica||16 Mar 1985||Velikanka bratov Gorišek||1985 FIS Ski-Flying World Championships|
|6||70,000||Planica||22 Mar 1997||Velikanka bratov Gorišek||1996–97 FIS World Cup Final|
|7||70,000||Holmenkollen||3 Mar 2011||Holmenkollbakken||2011 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships|
|8||55,000||Planica||20 Mar 2010||Letalnica bratov Gorišek||2010 FIS Ski-Flying World Championships|
|9||50,000||Planica||14 Mar 1987||Velikanka bratov Gorišek||1986–87 FIS World Cup Final|
|10||50,000||Nagano||17 Feb 1998||Hakuba Ski Jumping Stadium||1998 Winter Olympics|
Notable ski jumpers
The most notable ski jumpers may be considered those who have managed to show a perfect jump, which means that all five judges attributed the maximum style score of 20 points for their jumps.
So far only 5 jumpers are recorded to have achieved this:
|Anton Innauer||7 March 1976||Oberstdorf||Ski flying (International ski flying weeks)||1|
|Kazuyoshi Funaki||15 February 1998||Nagano||Olympic Winter Games, large hill, second jump||1|
|Sven Hannawald||8 February 2003||Willingen||Worldcup competition, large hill, first jump||1|
|Hideharu Miyahira||8 February 2003||Willingen||Worldcup competition, large hill, second jump||6|
|Wolfgang Loitzl||6 January 2009||Bischofshofen||Four Hills Jumping, large hill, first jump||1|
Sven Hannawald and Wolfgang Loitzl were attributed four times 20 (plus another 19,5) style score points for their second jump, thus receiving nine times the maximum score of 20 points within one competition.
Other notable ski jumpers can be found in the following lists:
- Winners of the FIS Ski Jumping World Cup
- Winners of Olympic Winter Games / Ski Jumping
- Winners of Nordic World Ski Championships / Ski Jumping
- Winners of the Four Hill Jumping
- Sarah Hendrickson
- Sara Takanashi
- Anette Sagen
- Eva Ganster
- Lindsey Van
- Jessica Jerome
- Daniela Iraschko
- Elena Runggaldier
- Evelyn Insam
- Lisa Demetz
- Coline Mattel
- Anna Hafele
- Magdalena Schnurr
- Ulrike Grässler
- Line Jahr
- Jacqueline Seifriedsberger
- Juliane Seyfarth
- Eva Logar
- Maja Vtič
- Anja Tepeš
- Špela Rogelj
- Katja Požun
- Urša Bogataj
- Vinko Bogataj – Best known as "The Agony of Defeat man" because of the constant use of footage of his spectacular tumble in the title sequence of ABC's Wide World of Sports
- Eddie "The Eagle" Edwards – Popular favourite – and last-place finisher – at the 1988 Winter Olympics
- List of FIS Ski-Flying World Cup winners
- List of FIS Ski Jumping World Cup team medalists
- List of the longest ski jumps
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