|This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2008)|
|Highest governing body||International Ski Federation|
|Team members||Individual or groups|
|Olympic||Since the first ever Winter Olympics in 1924|
Ski jumping is a sport in which skiers go down a take-off ramp, jump, and attempt to fly as far as possible. Judges award points for technique (often referred to as style points). The skis used for ski jumping are wide and long (260 to 275 centimetres (102 to 108 in)). Ski jumping is predominantly a winter sport, performed on snow, and is part of the Winter Olympic Games, but can also be performed in summer on artificial surfaces – porcelain or frost rail track on the inrun, plastic on the landing hill. Ski jumping belongs to the Nordic type of competitive skiing.
- 1 History
- 2 Competition
- 3 Highest attendance
- 4 Records
- 5 Score
- 6 Rules
- 7 Technique
- 8 Popularity
- 9 Controversy
- 10 Ski flying
- 11 Notable ski jumpers
- 12 Important venues
- 13 National records
- 14 Water ski jumping
- 15 See also
- 16 References
- 17 External links
Ski jumping as a sport originated in Norway. Norwegian lieutenant Olaf Rye was the first known ski jumper. In 1809, he launched himself 9.5 meters in the air as a show of courage to his fellow soldiers. By 1862, ski jumpers were facing much larger jumps and traveling longer. The very first recorded public competition was held at Trysil, Norway, on 22 January 1862. At this first competition, judges already awarded points for style ("elegance and smoothness"), participants had to complete three jumps without falling and rules were agreed upon in advance. It is clear from the news report published in Morgenbladet that the ski jumping in Trysild was entertainment, but also a national, competitive sports event. The first known female ski jumper participated at the Trysil competition in 1863. Norway's Sondre Norheim jumped 30 meters without the benefit of poles. In 1866, the first skiing event held in Christiania near Old Aker Church was a combined cross country, slalom and jumping competition, and attracted an audience of some 2,000 people. Sondre Norheim won his first competition in Christiania in 1868. The first widely known ski jumping competition was the Husebyrennene, held in Oslo in 1879, with Olaf Haugann of Norway setting the first world record for the longest ski jump at 20 meters. Explorer Fridtjof Nansen was a skilled skier and was number 7 in the 1881 competition at Huseby. Until 1884–1886 jumping and cross-country was a single integrated competition: In 1886 at Huseby cross-country and jumping were held on separate days, and final results were calculated from the combined achievements (similar to present nordic combined). The annual event was moved to Holmenkollen from 1892, and Holmenkollen has remained the pinnacle of ski jumping venues. To distinguish ski jumping competition only from Nordic combined, it is still referred to as "spesielt hopprenn" in Norwegian (ski jumping only).
According to the International Olympic Committee's site:
Ski jumping has been part of the Olympic Winter Games since the first Games in Chamonix Mont-Blanc in 1924. The Large Hill competition was included on the Olympic programme for the 1964 Olympic Games in Innsbruck.
In 1929, Norwegian instructors arrived in Sapporo to train the Japanese in ski jumping.
Today, FIS Ski Jumping World Cup are held on three types of hills:
- Normal hill competitions
- for which the calculation line is found at approximately 80–100 metres (260–330 ft). Distances of up to and over 110 metres (360 ft) can be reached.
- Large hill competitions
- for which the calculation line is found at approximately 120–130 metres (390–430 ft). Distances of over 145 metres (476 ft) can be obtained on the larger hills. Both individual and team competitions are run on these hills.
- Ski-flying competitions
- for which the calculation line is found at 185 metres (607 ft). The Ski Flying World Record of 246.5 metres (809 ft) is held by Johan Remen Evensen, and was set in Vikersundbakken, Norway in February 2011.
Amateur and junior competitions are held on smaller hills.
Individual Olympic competition consists of a training jump and two scored jumps. The team event consists of four members of the same nation, who each jump twice.
Ski jumping is one of the two elements of the Nordic combined sport.
Ski jumping can also be performed in the summer on a porcelain track and plastic grass combined with water. There are also many competitions during the summer. The World Cup (Summer Grand Prix) often includes those hills:
Women's ski jumping
On 26 May 2006, the International Ski Federation (FIS) decided to allow women to ski jump at the 2009 Nordic World Ski Championships in Liberec, Czech Republic and then to have a team event for women at the 2011 world championships. FIS also decided to submit a proposal to the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to allow women to compete at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver.
On 28 November 2006, the proposal for a women's ski jumping event was rejected by the Executive Board of the IOC. The reason for the rejection cited the low number of athletes as well as few participating countries in the sport. The Executive Board stated that women's ski jumping has yet to be fully established internationally. Jacques Rogge, president of the International Olympic Committee stated that women's ski jumping will not be an Olympic event because "we do not want the medals to be diluted and watered down," referring to the relatively small number of potential competitors in women's ski jumping.
A group of 15 competitive female ski jumpers filed a suit against the Vancouver Organizing Committee (VANOC) saying that conducting a men's ski jumping event without a women's event in the Vancouver Winter Olympics in 2010 would be in direct violation of Section 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The arguments associated with this suit were presented from 20 to 24 April 2009 and a judgment came down on 10 June 2009 against the ski jumpers. The judge ruled that although the women were being discriminated against, the issue is an International Olympic Committee responsibility and thus not governed by the charter. It further ruled that the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms does not apply to VANOC. Three British Columbia judges unanimously denied an appeal on 13 November 2009. The American actress and documentary film producer Virginia Madsen has chronicled the Canadian team's efforts in a film called Fighting Gravity (2009).
On 6 April 2011 the International Olympic Committee officially accepted women ski jumping into the official Olympic program for the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia. The first ladies' ski jumping gold medalist is the German Carina Vogt.
Within 15 months, 14 female World Cup athletes suffered serious injuries, some of them repeatedly, and had to retire for long recovery periods. Many of them could not take part in the first Olympics with female ski jumping at Sochi. On 28 November 2012, Lisa Demetz tore her ACL in Lillehammer. On 12 January 2013, Daniela Iraschko, the 2011 World Champion, fell in Hinterzarten and withdrew, Anja Tepeš suffered a serious injury on 17 March in Oslo, 2013 Cup de France winner Espiau suffered a knee injury in June and on 12 August 2013 Alexandra Pretorius, two-times women's Grand Prix winner, suffered a serious knee injury in Courchevel. On 21 August 2013, Sarah Hendrickson, the 2013 World Champion, suffered a knee ligament damage in Oberstdorf. On 20 December 2013, Jacqueline Seifriedsberger fell during the training jumps for the World Cup event in Hinterzarten, and on 3 January 2014 Svenja Würth fell during the training jumps in Chaikovsky. On 11 January 2014, Ema Klinec, ranking first after the first jump, fell in Predazzo. The series of knee injuries has not come to an end after the Olympic Games in Sochi. Within one week, two World Cup athletes tore their ligaments. On 15 February, Ramona Straub fell in Lahti and on 20 February 2014 Anja Tepeš tore, among others, her cruciate ligament again in Planica, and Iraschko-Stolz repeated, as it were, her 2013 fall on 24 February 2014 in Seefeld. Also in Seefeld, at a training jump Bigna Windmüller tore her ligaments, which had already been hurt during the qualification jumps at the Olympics in Sochi. On 28 February 2014, former World Champion Lindsey Van could not take part in the World Cup event in Rasnov due to ligaments broken in the training, and Sochi gold medalist Carina Vogt could not start either at Rasnov, Oslo and the Grand Final in Planica on 22 March 2014 due to knee problems. During training jumps for the last 2013/14 World Cup competition in Planica, two Italian athletes had to withdraw after accidents: Manuela Malsiner fell on 21 March 2014 and Elena Runggaldier announced that she could not take part in the competition because of a knee injury
Female ski jumpers need a longer inrun than their male colleagues to make up for their light weight and, as it seems, reach a higher landing speed. The impressive number of knee injuries was widely discussed in the media at the end of the season 2013/14 and will lead to modifications in the regulations, e.g. the ladies' jumping suits will be wider to slow down the landing speed.
On 16 June 2012 a historic first ever world premiere of Mixed Team ski jumping event performing men and women together was held at Mostec in Ljubljana, Slovenia. In each team there was a couple, one man and one woman. Competition was also called Battles of Genders or Duels of Genders and was part of a traditional 42nd International Revial Ski Jumping competition on hills of Arena Triglav Mostec ski jumping complex located in Šiška District, Ljubljana. On four different hills of size HS14, HS23, HS38 and HS62 mixed teams (only couples) for the first time competed with each other by rules of elimination system. Slovenian ski jumpers Maja Vtič and Tomaž Naglič are the first Mixed Team couple winners in history.
On 14 August 2012 first ever full four members (two men and two women) ski jumping Mixed Team, a first ever Mixed Team FIS Grand Prix Ski Jumping event and first ever on plastic was held in Courchevel, France. Competition was held on normal La Praz olympic HS96 hill. The first full four member Mixed Team and first ever Grand Prix mixed team winner in history was team of Japan.
On 23 November 2012 first historic FIS World Cup Mixed Team event took place in Lillehammer, Norway. Competition was held on normal Lysgårdsbakken olympic HS100 hill. Each national mixed team consisted of four ski jumpers, two men and two women. The first World Cup mixed team winner was team of Norway.
Single daily events with more than 50,000 people. List is not complete:
|1||220,000||Garmisch-Partenkirchen||Feb 16, 1936||Große Olympiaschanze||1936 Winter Olympics|
|2||143,000||Holmenkollen, Oslo||Feb 14, 1952||Holmenkollbakken||1952 Winter Olympics|
|3||120,000||Zakopane||Feb 18, 1962||Wielka Krokiew||1962 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships|
|4||106,000||Holmenkollen, Oslo||Mar 00, 1946||Holmenkollbakken||The Peace Competition|
|5||80,000-100,000||Planica||Mar 16, 1985||Velikanka bratov Gorišek||1985 FIS Ski-Flying World Championships|
|6||70,000||Planica||Mar 22, 1997||Velikanka bratov Gorišek||1996–97 FIS World Cup Final|
|7||70,000||Holmenkollen, Oslo||Mar 03, 2011||Holmenkollbakken||2011 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships|
|8||55,000||Planica||Mar 20, 2010||Letalnica bratov Gorišek||2010 FIS Ski-Flying World Championships|
|9||50,000||Planica||Mar 14, 1987||Velikanka bratov Gorišek||1986–87 FIS World Cup Final|
|10||50,000||Hakuba, Nagano||Feb 17, 1998||Hakuba Ski Jumping Stadium||1998 Winter Olympics|
All Pre-World Cup, Olympic Games, World Championships & World Cup events are included. (As of March 23, 2014)
|Olympic Games (1924–2010)|
|individual victories||Simon Ammann||4|
|total medals (Ind. + Team)||Matti Nykänen||5|
|team victories||Finland, Germany, Austria||2|
|youngest winner individual (Albertville'92)||Toni Nieminen||16 y, 261 d|
|oldest winner individual (Lillehammer'94)||Jens Weißflog||29 y, 214 d|
|oldest medalist (Sochi '14)||Noriaki Kasai||41 y, 254 d|
|by No. of Olympic appearances||Noriaki Kasai||7|
|FIS Nordic World Ski Championships (1925–2011)|
|most individual victories||Adam Małysz||4|
|most individual medals||Adam Małysz||6|
|total medals (Ind. + Team)||Janne Ahonen, Martin Schmitt||10|
|most team victories||Austria||9|
|most team medals||Austria||15|
|youngest winner individual (Thunder Bay'95)||Tommy Ingebrigtsen||17 y, 222 d|
|oldest winner individual (Liberec'09)||Andreas Küttel||29 y, 308 d|
|No. of Championships appearances||Noriaki Kasai||11|
|World Cup (1979–2014)|
|most overall wins||Adam Małysz, Matti Nykänen||4|
|most overall wins in a row||Adam Małysz||3|
|most individual victories||Gregor Schlierenzauer||52|
|most individual podiums||Janne Ahonen||108|
|most individual Top 10 results||Janne Ahonen||247|
|most team victories||Austria||27|
|most team medals||Austria||58|
|most individual performances||Noriaki Kasai||452|
|most team performances||Noriaki Kasai||48|
|total performances (Ind. + Team)||Noriaki Kasai||500|
|most seasons performing||Noriaki Kasai||25|
|most ski-flying individual victories||Gregor Schlierenzauer||14|
|youngest winner individual (Lahti'80)||Steve Collins||15 y, 362 d|
|oldest winner individual (Kulm'14)||Noriaki Kasai||41 y, 219 d|
|youngest winner overall (1991–92)||Toni Nieminen||16 y, 303 d|
|oldest winner overall (2011–12)||Anders Bardal||29 y, 207 d|
|oldest World Cup performance jumper ind.||Takanobu Okabe||43 y, 91 d|
|oldest jumper on World Cup podium ind.||Noriaki Kasai||41 y, 274 d|
|oldest jumper World Cup TOP 10 ind.||Noriaki Kasai||41 y, 289 d|
|most wins in one season individual||Gregor Schlierenzauer||13|
|most points in one season individual||Gregor Schlierenzauer||2083|
|most times winning individual points||Noriaki Kasai||361x|
|FIS Ski-Flying World Championships (1972–2010)|
|most individual victories||Walter Steiner, Sven Hannawald, Roar Ljøkelsøy||2|
|most individual medals||Matti Nykänen||5|
|total medals (Ind. + Team)||Janne Ahonen||7|
|most team victories||Austria||3|
|most team medals||Norway, Finland, Austria||4|
|youngest winner individual (Oberstdorf'08)||Gregor Schlierenzauer||18 y, 47 d|
|oldest winner individual (Vikersund'12)||Robert Kranjec||30 y, 224 d|
|by No. of Championships appearances||Janne Ahonen||9|
|Four Hills Tournament (1952–2011)|
|most overall victories||Janne Ahonen||5|
|most individual victories||Jens Weißflog||10|
|youngest winner individual (Oberstdorf'91)||Toni Nieminen||16 y, 212 d|
|oldest winner individual (Bischofshofen'96)||Jens Weißflog||31 y, 169 d|
|youngest winner overall||Toni Nieminen||16 y, 220 d|
|oldest winner overall||Jens Weißflog||31 y, 169 d|
|Other records (all times)|
|1st ever jump over 100m – fall (Ponte di Legno, Italy, 1935)||Olav Ulland||103.5 m|
|1st official jump over 100m (Planica, Slovenia, 1936)||Sepp Bradl||101.5 m|
|1st ever jump over 200m – fall (Planica, Slovenia, 1994)||Andreas Goldberger||202.0 m|
|1st official jump over 200m (Planica, Slovenia, 1994)||Toni Nieminen||203.0 m|
|most jumps over 200m||Robert Kranjec||156|
|World record (Vikersund'11)||Johan Remen Evensen||246.5 m|
|Helmet cam world record (Planica'13)||Jurij Tepeš||223.5 m|
|30+ years old world record (Vikersund'12)||Robert Kranjec||244.0 m|
|35+ years old world record (Planica'10)||Noriaki Kasai||224.0 m|
|40+ years old world record (Planica'13)||Noriaki Kasai||221.5 m|
|Junior world record (Planica'08)||Gregor Schlierenzauer||232.5 m|
|1st World Cup individual event||Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy||1979|
|1st World Cup team event||Predazzo, Italy||1992|
|1st ever mixed team event||Mostec, Ljubljana, Slovenia||2012|
|1st World Cup mixed team event||Lillehammer, Norway||2012|
The winner is decided on a scoring system based on distance, style, inrun length and wind conditions.
Each hill has a target called the calculation point (or K point or "critical point") which is a par distance to aim for. It is also the place where many jumpers land, in the middle of the landing area. This point is marked by the K line on the landing strip. For K-90 and K-120 competitions, the K line is at 90 metres (300 ft) and 120 metres (390 ft) respectively. Skiers are awarded 60 points if they land on the K Line. Skiers earn extra points for flying beyond the K Line, or lose points for every meter(~3 ft) they land short of the mark. The typical meter value is 2 points in small hills, 1.8 points in large hills and 1.2 points in ski-flying hills. Thus, it is possible for a jumper to get a negative score if the jump is way short of the K line with poor style marks (typically a fall). The value of a meter is determined from the size of the hill. The K point is the point on the hill where the slope begins to flatten as measured from the take off.
In addition, five judges are based in a tower to the side of the expected landing point. They can award up to 20 points each for style based on keeping the skis steady during flight, balance, good body position, and landing. The highest and lowest style scores are disregarded, with the remaining three scores added to the distance score. Thus, a perfectly scored K-120 jump – with at least four of the judges awarding 20 points each – and the jumper landing on the K-point, is awarded a total of 120 points.
In practice, jumpers rarely get the full 60 points from the judges ... a good score is in the mid to upper fifties. The best jumpers, however, will usually exceed the K line, so they'll get a bit more than 60 points for distance. A 120 point ride is good (example: 54 points from judges, 66 for distance), and if they do that in both rounds, they'll get a 240 point score for the day. However, since they cannot get more than 60 points from the judges, but can earn unlimited points by jumping much farther than the K point (par), it's not uncommon to see scores of 270 to 280 points for the top jumpers in a World Cup competition. So ... on any size hill, a 240 point day is good ... but the best jumpers will often score much higher than that.
In January 2010, a new scoring factor was introduced to compensate for variable outdoor conditions. Aerodynamics and take-off speed are important variables that determine the value of a jump, and if weather conditions change during a competition, the conditions will not be equal for everyone, which is unfair. The jumper will now receive or lose points if the inrun length is adjusted to provide optimal takeoff speed. An advanced calculation also determines plus/minus points for the actual wind conditions at the time of the jump. These points are added or withdrawn from the original scores from the jump itself.
In the individual event, the scores from each skier's two competition jumps are combined to determine the winner.
Ski jumpers below the minimum safe body mass index are penalized with a shorter maximum ski length, reducing the aerodynamic lift they can achieve. These rules have been credited with stopping the most severe cases of underweight athletes, but some competitors still lose weight to maximize the distance they can jump.
The ski jump is divided into four separate sections; 1) In-run, 2) Take-off (jump), 3) Flight and 4) Landing, In each part the athlete is required to pay attention to and practice a particular technique in order to maximize the outcome of ultimate length and style marks.
Using the modern V-technique, popularised in late 1980s by Jan Boklöv from Sweden and Jiří Malec from Czechoslovakia, world-class skiers are able to exceed the distance of the take-off hill by about 10% compared to the previous technique with parallel skis. Aerodynamics has become a factor of increasing importance in modern ski jumping, with recent rules addressing the regulation of ski jumping suits. This follows a period when loopholes in the rules seemed to favour skinny jumpers in stiff, air foil-like suits.
Previous techniques first included the Kongsberger technique, developed in Kongsberg, Norway by two ski jumpers, Jacob Tullin Thams and Sigmund Ruud following World War I. In this technique, the upper body was bent at the hip, with a wide forward lean, and arms extended to the front with the skis parallel to each other; jump length ranged from 45 meters to over 100 meters. In the 1950s Andreas Daescher of Switzerland and Erich Windisch of Germany modified the Kongsberger technique by placing their arms backward toward the hips for a closer lean. The Daescher technique and Windisch technique were the standard for ski jumping from the 1950s. In the early 1980s, Steve Collins used an inverse V technique. Using this technique, he won events and set records, but the technique was something of a novelty and was not adopted by others.
Until the mid-1970s, the ski jumper came down the in-run of the hill with both arms pointing forwards. This changed when the former East German Ski jumper Jochen Danneberg introduced the new in-run technique of directing the arms backwards in a more aerodynamic position.
The landing requires the skiers to touch the ground in the Telemark landing style. This involves the jumper landing with one foot in front of the other, mimicking the style of the Norwegian inventors of Telemark skiing. Failure to comply with this regulation leads to the deduction of style marks (points).
Ski jumping is popular among spectators and TV audiences in the Nordic countries and Central Europe. Almost all world-class ski jumpers come from those regions or from Japan. Traditionally, the strongest countries are Finland, Norway, Germany, Austria, Poland, Switzerland, Slovenia, Czech Republic and Japan. However, there have always been successful ski jumpers from other countries as well (see list below). The Four Hills Tournament, held annually at four sites in Bavaria, Germany and Austria around New Year, is very popular.
There have been attempts to spread the popularity of the sport by finding ways by which the construction and upkeep of practicing and competition venues can be made easier. These include plastic fake snow to provide a slippery surface even during the summer time and in locations where snow is a rare occurrence.
Ski Jumping as a competitive sport has been questioned, as competitors exert low physical movement and contest results often have more to do with the strength of variable, arbitrary wind and wind direction.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2014)|
The first ski flying hill was built in Planica in Slovenia. In 1936, the FIS started to regulate the construction of the jumping hills and issued international standards for their construction and maintenance. Back then, it was forbidden to build a ski jumping hill which made it possible to make jumps longer than 80 meters. Nevertheless the first-ever ski flying hill was built in Planica, Slovenia. It took several more years before competitions on this hill were approved by FIS. The "father" of ski flying is Janez Gorišek, an engineer, sportsman and enthusiastic sport-promoter who designed the Planica ski-jump.
There are five ski flying hills in the world today: Vikersundbakken in Vikersund, Norway; Oberstdorf, Germany; Kulm Austria; Letalnica, Planica, Slovenia; and Harrachov, Czech Republic. A sixth hill, Copper Peak in the western Upper Peninsula of Michigan, is currently disused, although there are plans to rebuild it to FIS standards. There are plans for more ski flying hills, even for an indoor ski flying hill in Ylitornio, Finland. The biggest hill is Vikersundbakken in Vikersund.
Jumps of more than 200 metres (660 ft) have occurred at all ski flying hills. The current World Record is 246.5 metres (809 ft), set by Norwegian Johan Remen Evensen at Vikersund in 2011.
The Fédération Internationale de Ski (FIS) Ski flying World Championships started in 1972 and occur biennially. The 2010 FIS World Championships in ski flying were organised in Planica, and in 2012 the FIS World Championships took place in Vikersund, Norway.
List of ski flying hills
|Hill name||Location||Opened||K-point||Hill size||Hill record|
|Vikersundbakken||Vikersund, Norway||1936||K-195||HS 225||246.5 metres (809 ft)|
|Letalnica Bratov Gorišek||Planica, Slovenia||1969||K-200||HS 225||239.0 metres (784.1 ft)|
|Heini-Klopfer-Skiflugschanze||Oberstdorf, Germany||1950||K-185||HS 213||225.5 metres (740 ft)|
|Kulm||Bad Mitterndorf, Austria||1950||K-185||HS 200||215.5 metres (707 ft)|
|Čerťák||Harrachov, Czech Republic||1979||K-185||HS 205||214.5 metres (704 ft)|
Official jumps over 200m
Most of the top competitors in "regular" ski jumping tend to be among the best in ski flying competitions. However, some jumpers, such as Martin Koch of Austria, Johan Remen Evensen from Norway and Slovenia's Robert Kranjec are regarded as ski flying specialists.
- As of 24 March 2013.
|1.||Robert Kranjec (SLO)||156|
|2.||Martin Koch (AUT)||133|
|3.||Adam Małysz (POL)||112|
|4.||Simon Ammann (SUI)||107|
|Gregor Schlierenzauer (AUT)||107|
|6.||Matti Hautamäki (FIN)||104|
|7.||Thomas Morgenstern (AUT)||102|
|8.||Bjørn Einar Romøren (NOR)||93|
|9.||Anders Jacobsen (NOR)||77|
|10.||Anders Bardal (NOR)||76|
active ski jumper
Notable ski jumpers
The most notable ski jumpers may be considered those who have managed to show a perfect jump, which means that all five judges attributed the maximum style score of 20 points for their jumps.
So far only 5 jumpers are recorded to have achieved this:
|Anton Innauer||7 March 1976||Oberstdorf||Ski flying (International ski flying weeks)||1|
|Kazuyoshi Funaki||15 February 1998||Nagano||Olympic Winter Games, large hill, second jump||1|
|Sven Hannawald||8 February 2003||Willingen||Worldcup competition, large hill, first jump||1|
|Hideharu Miyahira||8 February 2003||Willingen||Worldcup competition, large hill, second jump||6|
|Wolfgang Loitzl||6 January 2009||Bischofshofen||Four Hills Jumping, large hill, first jump||1|
Sven Hannawald and Wolfgang Loitzl were attributed four times 20 (plus another 19,5) style score points for their second jump, thus receiving nine times the maximum score of 20 points within one competition.
Other notable ski jumpers can be found in the following lists:
- Winners of the FIS Ski Jumping World Cup
- Winners of Olympic Winter Games / Ski Jumping
- Winners of Nordic World Ski Championships / Ski Jumping
- Winners of the Four Hill Jumping
- Sarah Hendrickson
- Sara Takanashi
- Anette Sagen
- Eva Ganster
- Lindsey Van
- Jessica Jerome
- Daniela Iraschko
- Elena Runggaldier
- Evelyn Insam
- Lisa Demetz
- Coline Mattel
- Anna Hafele
- Magdalena Schnurr
- Ulrike Grässler
- Line Jahr
- Jacqueline Seifriedsberger
- Juliane Seyfarth
- Eva Logar
- Maja Vtič
- Anja Tepeš
- Špela Rogelj
- Katja Požun
- Urša Bogataj
- Vinko Bogataj – Best known as "The Agony of Defeat man" because of the constant use of footage of his spectacular tumble in the title sequence of ABC's Wide World of Sports
- Eddie "The Eagle" Edwards – Popular favourite – and last-place finisher – at the 1988 Winter Olympics
|1.||Norway||Johan Remen Evensen||246.5 metres (809 ft)||Vikersund||2011|||
|2.||Slovenia||Robert Kranjec||244.0 metres (800.5 ft)||Vikersund||2012|||
|3.||Austria||Gregor Schlierenzauer||243.5 metres (799 ft)||Vikersund||2011|||
|4.||Finland||Janne Happonen||240.0 metres (787.4 ft)||Vikersund||2011|||
|6.||Switzerland||Simon Ammann||238.5 metres (782 ft)||Vikersund||2011|||
|7.||Czech Republic||Antonín Hájek||236.0 metres (774.3 ft)||Planica||2010|||
|8.||Poland||Piotr Żyła||232.5 metres (763 ft)||Vikersund||2012|||
|9.||Russia||Denis Kornilov||232.0 metres (761.2 ft)||Vikersund||2012|||
|10.||Germany||Michael Neumayer||231.0 metres (757.9 ft)||Vikersund||2013|||
|11.||France||Vincent Descombes Sevoie||225.0 metres (738.2 ft)||Vikersund||2012|||
|12.||United States||Alan Alborn||221.5 metres (727 ft)||Planica||2002|||
|13.||Italy||Andrea Morassi||216.5 metres (710 ft)||Planica||2012|||
|14.||Bulgaria||Vladimir Zografski||213.5 metres (700 ft)||Planica||2013|||
|15.||Sweden||Isak Grimholm||207.5 metres (681 ft)||Planica||2007|||
|South Korea||Choi Heung-Chul||Planica||2008|||
|17.||Canada||Mackenzie Boyd-Clowes||205.0 metres (672.6 ft)||Harrachov||2013|||
|18.||Estonia||Kaarel Nurmsalu||204.0 metres (669.3 ft)||Vikersund||2012|||
|19.||Belarus||Petr Chaadaev||197.5 metres (648 ft)||Kulm||2006|||
|20.||Kazakhstan||Radik Zhaparov||196.5 metres (645 ft)||Planica||2007|||
|21.||Slovakia||Martin Mesik||195.5 metres (641 ft)||Kulm||2006|||
|22.||Ukraine||Vitaliy Shumbarets||189.5 metres (622 ft)||Planica||2009|||
|23.||Greece||Nico Polychronidis||186.0 metres (610.2 ft)||Oberstdorf||2013|||
|24.||Netherlands||Christoph Kreuzer||162.0 metres (531.5 ft)||Planica||2002|||
|25.||Turkey||Faik Yüksel||150.0 metres (492.1 ft)||Oberstdorf||2000's|||
|26.||Georgia||Koba Tsakadze||142.0 metres (465.9 ft)||Vikersund||1967|||
|27.||Spain||Bernat Sola||141.0 metres (462.6 ft)||Tauplitz||1986|||
|28.||Hungary||Gábor Gellér||139.0 metres (456.0 ft)||?||1980's|||
|29.||Denmark||Andreas Bjelke Nygaard||137.0 metres (449.5 ft)||Lillehammer||2000's|||
|30.||Romania||Sorin Iulian Pîtea||127.0 metres (416.7 ft)||Sochi||2014|||
|31.||Kyrgyzstan||Dmitry Chvykov||124.0 metres (406.8 ft)||Innsbruck||2002|||
|32.||China||Tian Zhandong||121.5 metres (399 ft)||Bischofshofen||2004|||
|33.||United Kingdom||Glynn Pedersen||113.5 metres (372 ft)||Salt Lake City||2001|||
|34.||Croatia||Josip Šporer||102.0 metres (334.6 ft)||Planica||1940's|||
|36.||Lithuania||Zbigniew Kiwert||86.0 metres (282.2 ft)||Nizhny Novgorod||1960|||
|37.||Iceland||Skarphéðinn Guðmundsson||80.0 metres (262.5 ft)||Squaw Valley||1960|||
|38.||Macedonia||Goga Popov junior||62.0 metres (203.4 ft)||Planica||1952|||
|39.||Australia||Hal Nerdal||53.0 metres (173.9 ft)||Squaw Valley||1960|||
|40.||Uganda||Dunstan Odeke||50.0 metres (164.0 ft)||Oslo||1990's|||
|41.||Montenegro||Božo Čvorović||46.0 metres (150.9 ft)||Žabljak||1960's|||
|42.||Serbia||Vid Černe||40.0 metres (131.2 ft)||Jahorina||1949|||
|43.||Bosnia and Herzegovina||Džemo Zahirović||36.0 metres (118.1 ft)||Jahorina||1949|||
|44.||Belgium||Rembert Notten||35.0 metres (114.8 ft)||Rückershausen||2012|||
|46.||Greenland||Hans Holm||23.3 metres (76 ft)||Nuuk||1949|||
|47.||New Zealand||Brian MacMillan||18.6 metres (61 ft)||Mount Cook||1937|||
Water ski jumping
The ski jump is performed on two long skis similar to those a beginner uses, with a specialized tail fin that is somewhat shorter and much wider (so it will support the weight of the skier when he is on the jump ramp). Skiers towed behind a boat at fixed speed, maneuver to achieve the maximum speed when hitting a ramp floating in the water, launching themselves into the air with the goal of traveling as far as possible before touching the water. Professional ski jumpers can travel up to 70 metres (230 ft). The skier must successfully land and retain control of the ski rope to be awarded the distance.
An extreme version of this sport named Ski Flying was promoted by Scot Ellis and Jim Cara, in which boat speeds and ramp heights are increased.
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- See http://www.ladiesskijumping.com/news.html?pokaz_news=397&vo=8. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- See http://berkutschi.com/de/front/news/show/2590-daniela-iraschko-erfolgreich-operiert. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- See http://berkutschi.com/en/front/news/2792-anja-tepes-seriously-injured. Retrieved 21 August 2013,
- See http://www.ladiesskijumping.com/wiadomosci/467/French-preparation-is-on-target. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
- See http://www.calgaryherald.com/sports/Calgary+jumper+injures+knee+during+training+France/8780737/story.html. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- See http://olympictalk.nbcsports.com/2013/08/21/sarah-hendrickson-ski-jumping-injury/. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- See http://www.ladiesskijumping.com/wiadomosci/503/World-Cup-continues-in-Hinterzarten. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- See http://www.ladiesskijumping.com/wiadomosci/508/Svenja-Wuerth-seriously-injured. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
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- See http://www.ladiesskijumping.com/wiadomosci/546/Anja-Tepes-tore-her-ACL-again. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
- See http://www.ladiesskijumping.com/wiadomosci/548/New-knee-injury-for-Daniela-Iraschko-Stolz. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
- See http://www.fis-ski.com/ski-jumping/news-multimedia/news/article=bigna-windmueller-and-lindsey-van-injured.html. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- See http://www.ladiesskijumping.com/wiadomosci/550/Lindsey-Van-injured. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- See http://www.focus.de/sport/wintersport/skispringen-skisprung-olympiasiegerin-vogt-sagt-start-in-rasnov-ab_id_3653705.html. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- See http://www.sportnews.bz/it/altri-sport/salto-con-gli-sci/dettaglio-news/news/brutta-caduta-in-allenamento-per-manuela-malsiner.html. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
- See https://www.facebook.com/pages/Elena-Runggaldier-Fanpage/138338596335863?ref=stream&hc_location=timeline. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
- Cf. the article in the Austrian daily Tiroler Tageszeitung, 21 March 2014, p. 33, in which the FIS official and technical director of the Austrian high performance centre Schigymnasium Stams, Harald Haim, talks about various improvements and mentions 16 torn ligaments female ski jumpers had suffered in the last two seasons.
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- [dead link]
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ski jumping.|
- skispringen.com – German website about ski jumping
- skijumpingcentral.com – English language ski jumping resource
- Olympic Ski Jumping History
- World's longest ski jump on YouTube Bjørn Einar Romøren video
- International Ski Federation Scoring, rules, measurement of jumps, etc.
- Norge Ski Club / Training area The oldest ski jumping club in the United States of the 2014 US Cup, an international event.
- Minneapolis Ski Club in Bloomington, MN The most urban ski jump club in the US, site of 2013 Jr. Nationals