Ski jumping

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Ski Jumping
Vikersund skiflygingsbakke.jpg
Vikersundbakken in Modum, Norway is the world's largest ski jumping hill. (Picture taken before it was redesigned in 2010/2011)
Highest governing body International Ski Federation
First played 1808
Eidsberg, Norway
Team members Individual or groups
Olympic Since the first ever Winter Olympics in 1924
Ski jumping facility in Einsiedeln, Switzerland
The Ski Jumping Complex in Pragelato during the 2006 Winter Olympics of Turin.
Matti Nykänen ski jumping hill (K100) and a smaller K64 hill in Jyväskylä, Finland.

Ski jumping is a form of nordic skiing in which athletes descend a take-off ramp, called an inrun, jump, and fly as far as possible. Points are awarded for distance and style. Competition is sanctioned by the International Ski Federation (FIS). Skis are wide and long (260 to 275 centimetres (102 to 108 in)). Ski jumping is predominantly a winter sport, and has been part of the Winter Olympic Games since their inception in 1924.[1] It can also be performed in summer on artificial surfaces.

Ski jumping, with cross-country skiing is one of the two sports in Nordic combined.


Ski jumping as a sport originated in Norway. Norwegian lieutenant Olaf Rye was the first known ski jumper.[2] In 1809, he launched himself 9.5 meters in the air as a show of courage to his fellow soldiers. By 1862, ski jumpers were facing much larger jumps and traveling longer. The very first recorded public competition was held at Trysil, Norway, on 22 January 1862. At this first competition, judges already awarded points for style ("elegance and smoothness"), participants had to complete three jumps without falling and rules were agreed upon in advance.[3] It is clear from the news report published in Morgenbladet that the ski jumping in Trysild was entertainment, but also a national, competitive sports event. The first known female ski jumper participated at the Trysil competition in 1863.[4] Norway's Sondre Norheim jumped 30 meters without the benefit of poles.[2] In 1866, the first skiing event held in Christiania near Old Aker Church was a combined cross-country, slalom and jumping competition, and attracted an audience of some 2,000 people. Sondre Norheim won his first competition in Christiania in 1868.[4] The first widely known ski jumping competition was the Husebyrennene, held in Oslo in 1879, with Olaf Haugann of Norway setting the first world record for the longest ski jump at 20 meters.[5] Explorer Fridtjof Nansen was a skilled skier and was number 7 in the 1881 competition at Huseby.[4] Until 1884–1886 jumping and cross-country was a single integrated competition: In 1886 at Huseby cross-country and jumping were held on separate days, and final results were calculated from the combined achievements (similar to present nordic combined).[4] The annual event was moved to Holmenkollen from 1892, and Holmenkollen has remained the pinnacle of ski jumping venues. To distinguish ski jumping competition only from Nordic combined, it is still referred to as "spesielt hopprenn" in Norwegian (ski jumping only).

In 1929, Norwegian instructors arrived in Sapporo to train the Japanese in ski jumping.[3]

The Large Hill competition was included on the Olympic programme for the 1964 Olympic Games in Innsbruck.


The FIS Ski Jumping World Cup,which includes the Four Hills Tournament, is contested on three types of hills:

  • Normal hill competitions: the calculation line is found at approximately 80–100 metres (260–330 ft). Distances over 110 metres (360 ft) can be reached.
  • Large hill competitions: the calculation line is found at approximately 120–130 metres (390–430 ft). Distances of over 145 metres (476 ft) can be obtained on the larger hills. Both individual and team competitions are run on these hills.
  • Ski-flying competitions: the calculation line is found at 185 metres (607 ft).

Amateur and junior competitions are held on smaller hills. The second level of competition is the FIS Ski Jumping Continental Cup.

Individual ski jumping at the Winter Olympics consists of a training jump and two scored jumps. The team event consists of four members of the same nation, who each jump twice.

Summer jumping[edit]

Ski jumping can also be performed in the summer on a porcelain track and plastic grass combined with water. There are also many competitions during the summer, including the FIS Grand Prix Ski Jumping.

Women's ski jumping[edit]

Women competed at the 2009 Nordic World Ski Championships followed by a women's team event at the 2011 world championships.

In 2006 the FIS proposed that women could compete at the 2010 Winter Olympics,[6] but this was rejected by the IOC because of the low number of athletes and participating countries at the time.[7]

A group of fifteen competitive female ski jumpers later filed a suit against the Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games on the grounds that it violated the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms since men were competing.[8][9] The suit failed, with the judge ruling that the situation was not governed by the charter. Virginia Madsen told the story in the film called Fighting Gravity (2009).

The 2011–12 World Cup season was the very first in which women competed at World Cup level; previously, women had only competed in Continental Cup seasons.[10] The inaugural women's World Cup champion was Sarah Hendrickson. A further milestone was reached when women's ski jumping was included as part of the 2014 Winter Olympics.

Because they are lighter than men, female ski jumpers need a longer inrun and reach a higher landing speed. Injuries have affected a number of the sport's female athletes including Lisa Demetz,[11] Daniela Iraschko,[12] Anja Tepeš,[13] Caroline Espiau,[14] Alexandra Pretorius,[15] Sarah Hendrickson,[16] Jacqueline Seifriedsberger,[17] and Svenja Würth,[18] Ema Klinec,[19] Ramona Straub,[20] Anja Tepeš,[21] Daniela Iraschko-Stolz,[22] Bigna Windmüller,[23] Lindsey Van,[24] Carina Vogt,[25] Manuela Malsiner,[26] and Elena Runggaldier.[27]


A number of events took place in 2012:

  • The first mixed pairs event was held at Mostec, Slovenia.[28][29] ski jumping complex located in Šiška District, Ljubljana. On four different hills of size HS14, HS23, HS38 and HS62 mixed teams competed with each other by rules of elimination system. Slovenians Maja Vtič and Tomaž Naglič won.[30]
  • Mixed jumping at the FIS Grand Prix Ski Jumping event and first ever on plastic was held in Courchevel, France. Competition was held on normal La Praz olympic HS96 hill. The first full four member Mixed Team and first ever Grand Prix mixed team winner in history was team of Japan.
  • The first FIS World Cup Mixed Team event took place in Lillehammer, Norway. Competition was held on normal Lysgårdsbakken olympic HS100 hill. Each national mixed team consisted of four ski jumpers, two men and two women. The first World Cup mixed team winner was team of Norway.

Scoring and rules[edit]

Ski jumpers below the minimum safe body mass index are penalized with a shorter maximum ski length, reducing the aerodynamic lift they can achieve. These rules have been credited with stopping the most severe cases of underweight athletes, but some competitors still lose weight to maximize the distance they can jump.[31]

The winner is decided on a scoring system based on distance, style, inrun length and wind conditions.

Aerodynamics has become a factor of increasing importance in modern ski jumping, with recent rules addressing the regulation of ski jumping suits. This follows a period when loopholes in the rules seemed to favour skinny jumpers in stiff, air foil-like suits.

Each hill has a target called the calculation point (or K point or "critical point") which is a par distance to aim for. It is also the place where many jumpers land, in the middle of the landing area. This point is marked by the K line on the landing strip. For K-90 and K-120 competitions, the K line is at 90 metres (300 ft) and 120 metres (390 ft) respectively. Skiers are awarded 60 points if they land on the K Line. Skiers earn extra points for flying beyond the K Line, or lose points for every meter(~3 ft) they land short of the mark. The typical meter value is 2 points in small hills, 1.8 points in large hills and 1.2 points in ski-flying hills. Thus, it is possible for a jumper to get a negative score if the jump is way short of the K line with poor style marks (typically a fall). The value of a meter is determined from the size of the hill. The K point is the point on the hill where the slope begins to flatten as measured from the take off.

In addition, five judges are based in a tower to the side of the expected landing point. They can award up to 20 points each for style based on keeping the skis steady during flight, balance, good body position, and landing. The highest and lowest style scores are disregarded, with the remaining three scores added to the distance score. Thus, a perfectly scored K-120 jump – with at least four of the judges awarding 20 points each – and the jumper landing on the K-point, is awarded a total of 120 points.

In January 2010, a new scoring factor was introduced to compensate for variable outdoor conditions. Aerodynamics and take-off speed are important variables that determine the value of a jump, and if weather conditions change during a competition, the conditions will not be equal for everyone, which is unfair. The jumper will now receive or lose points if the inrun (or start gate) length is adjusted to provide optimal takeoff speed. An advanced calculation also determines plus/minus points for the actual wind conditions at the time of the jump. These points are added or withdrawn from the original scores from the jump itself.

In the individual event, the scores from each skier's two competition jumps are combined to determine the winner.


The ski jump is divided into four parts: in-run, take-off (jump), flight and landing. In each part the athlete is required to pay attention to and practice a particular technique in order to maximize the outcome of ultimate length and style marks.

Using the V-technique, popularised in late 1980s by Jan Boklöv from Sweden and Jiří Malec from Czechoslovakia, skiers are able to exceed the distance of the take-off hill by about 10% compared to the previous technique with parallel skis. Previous techniques first included the Kongsberger technique, the Daescher technique and the Windisch technique.[32] Until the mid-1970s, the ski jumper came down the in-run of the hill with both arms pointing forwards. This changed when the former East German Ski jumper Jochen Danneberg introduced the new in-run technique of directing the arms backwards in a more aerodynamic position.

The landing requires the skiers to touch the ground in the Telemark landing style. This involves the jumper landing with one foot in front of the other, mimicking the style of the Norwegian inventors of Telemark skiing. Failure to comply with this regulation leads to the deduction of style marks (points).

Ski flying[edit]

Ski flying is an extension of ski jumping. The events take place on hills with a K-point of at least 185 metres (607 ft).[33]

The first ski flying hill was built in Planica in Slovenia. In 1936, the FIS started to regulate the construction of the jumping hills and issued international standards for their construction and maintenance. Back then, it was forbidden to build a ski jumping hill which made it possible to make jumps longer than 80 meters. Nevertheless the first-ever ski flying hill was built in Planica, Slovenia. It took several more years before competitions on this hill were approved by FIS.[citation needed] The "father" of ski flying is Janez Gorišek, an engineer, sportsman and enthusiastic sport-promoter who designed the Planica ski-jump.

There are five active ski flying hills, all in Europe. The biggest is Vikersundbakken in Vikersund, Norway. Others are Oberstdorf, Germany; Kulm, Austria; Letalnica, Planica, Slovenia; and Harrachov, Czech Republic. The only hill outside of Europe is Copper Peak in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. It is not active but there are plans to rebuild it to FIS standards.[34]

Jumps of more than 200 metres (660 ft) have occurred at all ski flying hills. The current World Record is 246.5 metres (809 ft), set by Norwegian Johan Remen Evensen at Vikersund in 2011.

The Fédération Internationale de Ski (FIS) Ski flying World Championships started in 1972 and occur biennially. The 2010 FIS World Championships in ski flying were organised in Planica, and in 2012 the FIS World Championships took place in Vikersund, Norway.

1992, 1994, 1996, 1998 Ski flying World Championships individual day event wins in two series also counted as an individual World Cup win.

List of ski flying hills[edit]

Hill name[35] Location Opened K-point Hill size Hill record
Norway Vikersundbakken Vikersund, Norway 1936 K-195 HS 225 246.5 metres (809 ft)
Slovenia Letalnica Bratov Gorišek Planica, Slovenia 1969 K-200 HS 225 239.0 metres (784.1 ft)
Austria Kulm Bad Mitterndorf, Austria 1950 K-200 HS 225 237.5 metres (779 ft)
Germany Heini-Klopfer-Skiflugschanze Oberstdorf, Germany 1950 K-185 HS 213 225.5 metres (740 ft)
Czech Republic Čerťák Harrachov, Czech Republic 1979 K-185 HS 205 214.5 metres (704 ft)
United States Copper peak Ironwood, MI, USA 1970 K-145 HS 180 158.0 metres (518.4 ft)

Official jumps over 200m[edit]

Most of the top competitors in "regular" ski jumping tend to be among the best in ski flying competitions. However, some jumpers, such as Martin Koch of Austria, Johan Remen Evensen from Norway and Slovenia's Robert Kranjec have been regarded as ski flying specialists.

  • As of 9 January 2015.
Rank Ski Jumper #
1  Robert Kranjec (SLO) 157
2  Martin Koch (AUT) 133
3  Adam Małysz (POL) 112
4  Gregor Schlierenzauer (AUT) 108
5  Simon Ammann (SUI) 107
6  Matti Hautamäki (FIN) 104
7  Thomas Morgenstern (AUT) 102
8  Bjørn Einar Romøren (NOR) 93
9  Anders Jacobsen (NOR) 79
10  Anders Bardal (NOR) 77
  •   active ski jumper

All-time records[edit]

As of 9 January 2015

Highest attendance[edit]

Single daily events with more than 50,000 people. List is not complete:

Rank Attendance Location Date Hill Competition
1 220,000 Germany Garmisch-Partenkirchen 16 Feb 1936 Große Olympiaschanze 1936 Winter Olympics
2 143,000 Norway Holmenkollen 14 Feb 1952 Holmenkollbakken 1952 Winter Olympics
3 120,000 Poland Zakopane 18 Feb 1962 Wielka Krokiew 1962 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships
4 106,000 Norway Holmenkollen Mar 1946 Holmenkollbakken The Peace Competition
5 100,000 Slovenia Planica 16 Mar 1985 Velikanka bratov Gorišek 1985 FIS Ski-Flying World Championships
6 70,000 Slovenia Planica 22 Mar 1997 Velikanka bratov Gorišek 1996–97 FIS World Cup Final
7 70,000 Norway Holmenkollen 3 Mar 2011 Holmenkollbakken 2011 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships
8 55,000 Slovenia Planica 20 Mar 2010 Letalnica bratov Gorišek 2010 FIS Ski-Flying World Championships
9 50,000 Slovenia Planica 14 Mar 1987 Velikanka bratov Gorišek 1986–87 FIS World Cup Final
10 50,000 Japan Nagano 17 Feb 1998 Hakuba Ski Jumping Stadium 1998 Winter Olympics

Notable ski jumpers[edit]

The most notable ski jumpers may be considered those who have managed to show a perfect jump, which means that all five judges attributed the maximum style score of 20 points for their jumps.

So far only 5 jumpers are recorded to have achieved this:

Name Date Location Competition Rank
Austria Anton Innauer 7 March 1976[36] Germany Oberstdorf Ski flying (International ski flying weeks) 1
Japan Kazuyoshi Funaki 15 February 1998[37] Japan Nagano Olympic Winter Games, large hill, second jump 1
Germany Sven Hannawald 8 February 2003[38] Germany Willingen Worldcup competition, large hill, first jump 1
Japan Hideharu Miyahira 8 February 2003[38] Germany Willingen Worldcup competition, large hill, second jump 6
Austria Wolfgang Loitzl 6 January 2009[39] Austria Bischofshofen Four Hills Jumping, large hill, first jump 1

Sven Hannawald and Wolfgang Loitzl were attributed four times 20 (plus another 19,5) style score points for their second jump, thus receiving nine times the maximum score of 20 points within one competition.

Other notable ski jumpers can be found in the following lists:


The view from the top of the ski jump in Park City, Utah after the 2002 Salt Lake Olympics
Ski jumping facility in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Letalnica Bratov Gorišek (outrun)
Letalnica Bratov Gorišek (inrun)
Currently active
Country Flag Name
Austria Austria Gregor Schlierenzauer
Andreas Kofler
Michael Hayböck
Manuel Fettner
Thomas Diethart
Wolfgang Loitzl
Stefan Kraft
Bulgaria Bulgaria Vladimir Zografski
Canada Canada Mackenzie Boyd-Clowes
Czech Republic Czech Republic Jakub Janda
Roman Koudelka
Jan Matura
Antonín Hájek
Čestmír Kožíšek
Lukáš Hlava
Finland Finland Janne Happonen
Lauri Asikainen
Ville Larinto
Anssi Koivuranta
Janne Ahonen
Olli Muotka
Sami Niemi
Jarkko Määttä
France France Vincent Descombes Sevoie
Ronan Lamy Chappuis
Germany Germany Michael Neumayer
Marinus Kraus
Richard Freitag
Andreas Wank
Andreas Wellinger
Severin Freund
Markus Eisenbichler
Karl Geiger
Greece Greece Nico Polychronidis
Italy Italy Sebastian Colloredo
Andrea Morassi
Roberto Dellasega
Davide Bresadola
Japan Japan Noriaki Kasai
Taku Takeuchi
Daiki Ito
Shōhei Tochimoto
Reruhi Shimizu
Junshirō Kobayashi
Yūta Watase
Kento Sakuyama
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Ivan Karaulov
Nikolay Karpenko
Alexey Korolev
Radik Zhaparov
Konstantin Sokolenko
Evgeni Levkin
Korea South Korea Choi Heung-Chul
Choi Yong-Jik
Kim Hyun-Ki
Kang Chil-Gu
Norway Norway Tom Hilde
Vegard Haukø Sklett
Bjørn Einar Romøren
Anders Bardal
Ole Marius Ingvaldsen
Anders Fannemel
Rune Velta
Anders Jacobsen
Phillip Sjøen
Daniel-André Tande
Poland Poland Kamil Stoch
Piotr Żyła
Stefan Hula
Krzysztof Miętus
Jan Ziobro
Maciej Kot
Dawid Kubacki
Krzysztof Biegun
Klemens Murańka
Jakub Wolny
Romania Romania Sorin Iulian Pîtea
Russia Russia Denis Kornilov
Dimitry Vassiliev
Ilya Rosliakov
Michail Maksimotschkin
Wladislaw Bojarinzew
Slovakia Slovakia Tomas Zmoray
Slovenia Slovenia Robert Kranjec
Jernej Damjan
Peter Prevc
Tomaž Naglič
Andraž Pograjc
Dejan Judež
Anže Semenič
Mitja Mežnar
Rok Justin
Anže Lanišek
Cene Prevc
Nejc Dežman
Robert Hrgota
Matjaž Pungertar
Jurij Tepeš
Jaka Hvala
Jure Šinkovec
Sweden Sweden Carl Nordin
Switzerland Switzerland Simon Ammann
Gregor Deschwanden
Ukraine Ukraine Vitaliy Shumbarets
USA United States Nicholas Alexander
Peter Frenette
Nicholas Fairall
Anders Johnson



National records[edit]

GDR stamp – Memorial for the Skijumper
Rank Nation Record holder Length Venue Year Source
1.  Norway Johan Remen Evensen 246.5 metres (809 ft) Vikersund 2011 [40]
2.  Slovenia Robert Kranjec 244.0 metres (800.5 ft) Vikersund 2012 [40]
3.  Austria Gregor Schlierenzauer 243.5 metres (799 ft) Vikersund 2011 [40]
4.  Finland Janne Happonen 240.0 metres (787.4 ft) Vikersund 2011 [40]
 Japan Daiki Ito Vikersund 2012 [40]
6.   Switzerland Simon Ammann 238.5 metres (782 ft) Vikersund 2011 [40]
7.  Germany Severin Freund 237.5 metres (779 ft) Kulm 2015 [40]
8.  Czech Republic Antonín Hájek 236.0 metres (774.3 ft) Planica 2010 [40]
9.  Poland Piotr Żyła 232.5 metres (763 ft) Vikersund 2012 [40]
Kamil Stoch Vikersund 2013 [40]
10.  Russia Denis Kornilov 232.0 metres (761.2 ft) Vikersund 2012 [40]
11.  France Vincent Descombes Sevoie 225.0 metres (738.2 ft) Vikersund 2012 [40]
12.  United States Alan Alborn 221.5 metres (727 ft) Planica 2002 [40]
13.  Italy Andrea Morassi 216.5 metres (710 ft) Planica 2012 [40]
14.  Bulgaria Vladimir Zografski 213.5 metres (700 ft) Planica 2013 [40]
15.  Sweden Isak Grimholm 207.5 metres (681 ft) Planica 2007 [40]
 South Korea Choi Heung-Chul Planica 2008 [40]
17.  Canada Mackenzie Boyd-Clowes 205.0 metres (672.6 ft) Harrachov 2013 [40]
18.  Estonia Kaarel Nurmsalu 204.0 metres (669.3 ft) Vikersund 2012 [40]
19.  Belarus Petr Chaadaev 197.5 metres (648 ft) Kulm 2006 [40]
20.  Kazakhstan Radik Zhaparov 196.5 metres (645 ft) Planica 2007 [40]
21.  Slovakia Martin Mesik 195.5 metres (641 ft) Kulm 2006 [40]
22.  Ukraine Vitaliy Shumbarets 189.5 metres (622 ft) Planica 2009 [40]
23.  Greece Nico Polychronidis 186.0 metres (610.2 ft) Oberstdorf 2013 [40]
24.  Netherlands Christoph Kreuzer 162.0 metres (531.5 ft) Planica 2002 [40]
25.  Turkey Faik Yüksel 150.0 metres (492.1 ft) Oberstdorf 2000's [41]
26.  Georgia Koba Tsakadze 142.0 metres (465.9 ft) Vikersund 1967 [42]
27.  Spain Bernat Sola 141.0 metres (462.6 ft) Tauplitz 1986 [40]
28.  Hungary Gábor Gellér 139.0 metres (456.0 ft)  ? 1980's [40]
29.  Denmark Andreas Bjelke Nygaard 137.0 metres (449.5 ft) Lillehammer 2000's [40]
30.  Romania Sorin Iulian Pîtea 127.0 metres (416.7 ft) Sochi 2014 [40]
31.  Kyrgyzstan Dmitry Chvykov 124.0 metres (406.8 ft) Innsbruck 2002 [43]
32.  China Tian Zhandong 121.5 metres (399 ft) Bischofshofen 2004 [44]
33.  United Kingdom Glynn Pedersen 113.5 metres (372 ft) Salt Lake City 2001 [45]
34.  Croatia Josip Šporer 102.0 metres (334.6 ft) Planica 1940's [40]
 Latvia Kristaps Nežborts Liberec 2012 [46]
36.  Lithuania Zbigniew Kiwert 86.0 metres (282.2 ft) Nizhny Novgorod 1960 [47]
37.  Iceland Skarphéðinn Guðmundsson 80.0 metres (262.5 ft) Squaw Valley 1960 [48]
38.  Macedonia Goga Popov junior 62.0 metres (203.4 ft) Planica 1952 [49]
39.  Australia Hal Nerdal 53.0 metres (173.9 ft) Squaw Valley 1960 [40]
Chris Hellerud Falun 1974 [50]
40.  Uganda Dunstan Odeke 50.0 metres (164.0 ft) Oslo 1990's [50]
41.  Montenegro Božo Čvorović 46.0 metres (150.9 ft) Žabljak 1960's [51]
42.  Serbia Vid Černe 40.0 metres (131.2 ft) Jahorina 1949 [52]
43.  Bosnia and Herzegovina Džemo Zahirović 36.0 metres (118.1 ft) Jahorina 1949 [53]
44.  Belgium Rembert Notten 35.0 metres (114.8 ft) Rückershausen 2012 [54][55][56]
 Ireland Richard Brown Göteborg 2002 [40]
46.  Greenland Hans Holm 23.3 metres (76 ft) Nuuk 1949 [57]
47.  New Zealand Brian MacMillan 18.6 metres (61 ft) Mount Cook 1937 [58]

See also[edit]


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  4. ^ a b c d Haarstad, Kjell (1993): Skisportens oppkomst i Norge. Trondheim: Tapir.
  5. ^ Oslo – Huseby (Ski Jumping Hill Archive)
  6. ^ "FIS MEDIA INFO: Decisions of the 45th International Ski Congress in Vilamoura/Algarve (POR)". Fédération Internationale de Ski. 2006-05-26. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  7. ^ IOC approves skicross; rejects women's ski jumping
  8. ^ Cindy Chan (2009-04-29). "Female Ski Jumpers Seem Olympic Inclusion". Epoch Times. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  9. ^ Christa Case Bryant (2009-11-08). "Why women can't ski jump in the Winter Olympics". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  10. ^ Jessica (2011-12-04). "USA's Sarah Hendrickson wins first-ever Women's Ski Jumping World Cup competition". Women's Sports & Entertainment Network. Retrieved 2015-01-28.
  11. ^ See Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  12. ^ See Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  13. ^ See Retrieved 21 August 2013,
  14. ^ See Retrieved 23 August 2013.
  15. ^ See Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  16. ^ See Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  17. ^ See Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  18. ^ See Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  19. ^ See Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  20. ^ See Retrieved 26 February 2014.
  21. ^ See Retrieved 26 February 2014.
  22. ^ See Retrieved 26 February 2014.
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  24. ^ See Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  25. ^ See Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  26. ^ See Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  27. ^ See Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  28. ^ "Prvič v zgodovini smučarskih skokov – tekma mešanih parov", Športna zveza Ljubljane, June 16, 2012
  29. ^ ski jumping hills in Mostec
  30. ^ video, (slovene), June 16, 2012
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  32. ^ Development of ski jumping technique
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  36. ^ Vom Olymp zu den Fischen auf
  37. ^ Australian Olympic Committee commenting the Olympic Winter Games of Nagano 1998
  38. ^ a b FIS result list 8 February 2003, Rank 1 Hannawald, Rank 6 Miyahira (PDF-File, 379 kB)
  39. ^ FIS result list 6 January 2009, Rank 1 Loitzl (PDF-File, 273 kB)
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