Skidmore, Owings & Merrill
|Founded||Chicago, Illinois, United States (1936 )|
John O. Merrill
|John O. Merrill
Fazlur Rahman Khan
|Services||Architecture, Building Services/MEP Engineering, Graphics, Interior Design, Structural Engineering, Civil Engineering, Sustainable Design and Urban Design & Planning|
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP (SOM) is an American architectural, urban planning, and engineering firm. It was formed in Chicago in 1936 by Louis Skidmore and Nathaniel Owings; in 1939 they were joined by John O. Merrill. They opened their first branch in New York City, New York in 1937. SOM is one of the largest architectural firms in the world. Their primary expertise is in high-end commercial buildings, as it was SOM that led the way to the widespread use of the modern international-style or "glass box" skyscraper. They have built several of the tallest buildings in the world, including the John Hancock Center (1969, second tallest in the world when built), Willis Tower (1973, tallest in the world for over twenty years), and Burj Khalifa (2010, current world's tallest building). SOM provides services in Architecture, Building Services/MEP Engineering, Digital Design, Graphics, Interior Design, Structural Engineering, Civil Engineering, Sustainable Design and Urban Design & Planning.
Many of SOM's post-war designs have become icons of American modern architecture, including the Manhattan House (1950), designated as a New York City landmark in 2007 by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; and the Lever House (1952), also in New York City; as well as the Air Force Academy Chapel (1958) in Colorado Springs, Colorado; and the John Hancock Center (1969) and Sears Tower (1973), both in Chicago.
Although SOM was one of the first major modern American architectural firms to promote a corporate face (i.e. not specifically crediting individual architects for their buildings), many famous architects, engineers and interior designers have been associated with the various national offices.
Notable SOM architects include: Gordon Bunshaft, Natalie de Blois, Myron Goldsmith, Bruce Graham, Brigitte Peterhans, Gertrude Kerbis, Walter Netsch, Edward Charles Bassett, Adrian Smith, Larry Oltmanns, Fazlur Rahman Khan. Lucien Lagrange, and David Childs.
The earliest amongst the many SOM engineers was John O. Merrill. Fazlur Khan, another engineer at SOM, is considered "the greatest structural engineer of the second half of the 20th century"; he is best known for his design and construction of the Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower), and John Hancock Center and for his designs of structural systems that remain fundamental to all high-rise skyscrapers. Indeed, Khan is responsible for developing the algorithms that made the Hancock building and many subsequent skyscrapers possible. Another notable SOM engineer is Bill Baker, who is best known as the engineer of Burj Khalifa (Dubai, 2010), the world’s tallest manmade structure. To support the tower’s record heights and slim footprint, he developed the “buttressed core” structural system, consisting of a hexagonal core reinforced by three buttresses that form a Y shape.
Throughout its history, SOM has been recognized with more than 1,700 awards for quality and innovation. More than 900 of these awards have been received since 1998. In 1996 and 1962, SOM received the Architecture Firm Award from the American Institute of Architects, which recognizes the design work of an entire firm. SOM is the only firm to have received this honor twice.
August 2009, SOM received four of 13 R+D Awards from Architect Magazine. In addition, a collaboration between SOM and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, The Center for Architecture, Science and Ecology, was honored with a fifth award.
SOM has completed over 10,000 projects around the nation and in more than 50 countries around the world and maintains offices in Chicago, New York City, San Francisco, Washington, D.C., London, Hong Kong, Abu Dhabi, Mumbai and Shanghai.
Burj Khalifa (Arabic: برج خليفة "Khalifa Tower"), formerly known as Burj Dubai, is a supertall skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and is the tallest man-made structure ever built, at 829.8 m (2,722 ft). Construction began on 21 September 2004, and the building officially opened on 4 January 2010. The tower's architect and engineer is Skidmore, Owings and Merrill. George J. Efstathiou was the Managing Partner for the project. Bill Baker, the Chief Structural Engineer for the project, invented the buttressed core structural system in order to enable the tower to achieve such heights economically. Adrian Smith, who worked with Skidmore, Owings and Merrill until 2006, was the Consulting Design Partner. The primary builder is a joint venture of South Korean Samsung C&T, who also built the Taipei 101 and Petronas Twin Towers, Besix and Arabtec. The total budget for the Burj Khalifa project is about US $1.5 billion; and for the entire new "Downtown Dubai", US $20 billion.
One World Trade Center
One World Trade Center, formerly known as Freedom Tower, is located in New York City. After Daniel Libeskind won the competition for master-planning, SOM was awarded the architectural design contract for the Freedom Tower, despite having withdrawn their entry in the original design competition.
The Beacon is one of the largest condominium complexes in San Francisco and anchors much of the activity in North Mission Bay. In 2014, the California Supreme Court issued a landmark decision changing architectural duty to include future owners of a property.
In addition to architectural services, Skidmore, Owings and Merrill has also competed in the field of large scale planning programs. An example of one important commission was as the lead design firm for the Boston Transportation Planning Review, a metropolitan wide re-design of Boston's entire transit and roadway infrastructure in the 1970s.
- Postal, Matthew A. (2007). "Designation report" (PDF). Nyc.gov.
- Adams, Nicholas. "Skidmore, Owings & Merrill: The Experiment since 1936." Milan: Electa. 2006.
- Kamin, Blair. "Why Architecture Matters." Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 2003.
- "Oral History of Gordon Bunshaft (1909-1990)". The Art Institute of Chicago.
- "Gordon Bunshaft Interviewed by Betty J. Blum, April 4-7, 1989". SOM Journal 3. Hatje Cantz.
- "Natalie de Blois Interviewed by Detlef Mertins, June 17, 2004". SOM Journal 4. Hatje Cantz.
- "Oral History of Natalie De Blois". The Art Institute of Chicago.
- "Myron Goldsmith: Keating Hall at IIT, by Nicholas Adams". SOM Journal 5. Hatje Cantz.
- "Oral History of Myron Goldsmith (1918-1996)". The Art Institute of Chicago.
- "Late SOM Architect Bruce Graham Honored: In Recognition of Graham's 40-year Career in Chicago, the Tribute to the Mastermind of the Willis (Sears) Tower and John Hancock Center Included the Dedication of Honorary Bruce J. Graham Way".
- "Oral History of Bruce Graham (1925-2010)". The Art Institute of Chicago.
- "Research | The Art Institute of Chicago". Artic.edu. Retrieved 2013-06-14.
- "Oral history of Brigitte Peterhans / interviewed by Betty J. Blum, compiled under the auspices of the Ryerson and Burnham Libraries, the Art Institute of Chicago. :: Chicago Architects Oral History Project". Digital-libraries.saic.edu. Retrieved 2013-06-14.
- "Oral History of Gertrude Kerbis (b. 1926)". The Art Institute of Chicago.
- "Oral History of Walter Netsch (1920-2008)". The Art Institute of Chicago.
- "Walter Netsch Interviewed by Detlef Mertins, May 21, 2001". SOM Journal 1. Hatje Cantz.
- "Edward Charles Bassett (1921-1999)". The Art Institute of Chicago.
- "Architecture+ Awards | 2004 Jury". Arcplusonline.com. Retrieved 2013-06-14.
- "fazlurrkhan.com". fazlurrkhan.com. Retrieved 2013-06-14.
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- "David Childs, SOM architect, presents final design for the Freedom Tower - June 2007".
- [dead link]
- FundingUniverse: SOM company history.
- Ali Mir (2001), Art of the Skyscraper: the Genius of Fazlur Khan, Rizzoli International Publications, ISBN 0-8478-2370-9
- Engineer Bill Baker Is the King of Superstable 150-Story Structures, Wired.com
- Pace, Eric. "Davis Allen, 82, a Designer Of Modern Business Interiors," New York Times. May 23, 1999.
- "Architect Magazine Names SOM its Number One Architecture Firm in the United States". SOM.com. May 2010.
- "SOM Awards". SOM.com.
- List of AIA Firm Award Recipients http://www.aia.org/practicing/awards/AIAS075259
- "Third Annual R+D Awards: Sustainable Form-Inclusion System". Architect Magazine. August 2009.
- "Third Annual R+D Awards: Oasis Generator". Architect Magazine. August 2009.
- "Third Annual R+D Awards: Pin-Fuse Joint". Architect Magazine. August 2009.
- "Third Annual R+D Awards: San Francisco Digital Context Analysis Model". Architect Magazine. August 2009.
- "Third Annual R+D Awards: Active Phytoremediation Wall System". Architect Magazine. August 2009.
- Burj Khalifa Opening Ceremony. Dubai, United Arab Emirates: Dubai One TV. 2010-01-04. Event occurs at 16:00Z.
- "Official Opening of Iconic Burj Dubai Announced". Gulfnews. 4 November 2009. Retrieved 4 November 2009.
- "Burj Dubai, Dubai, at Emporis.com". Emporis. Retrieved 1 March 2007.
- "Burj Dubai reaches a record high". Emaar Properties. 21 July 2007. Retrieved 24 November 2008.
- Keegan, Edward (15 October 2006). "Adrian Smith Leaves SOM, Longtime Skidmore partner bucks retirement to start new firm". ArchitectOnline. Retrieved 23 March 2009.
- "Burj Dubai, Dubai - SkyscraperPage.com". SkyscraperPage. Retrieved 23 March 2009.
- "What to see". Dubai Travel Desk. Retrieved 23 March 2009.[dead link]
- Egelko, Bob (4 July 2014). "Building's residents may sue architect, state high court rules: Ruling says architect has duty to occupants". SF Gate (Hearst Communications). Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- "Oak Ridge New Town Master Plan, Oak Ridge, Tennessee". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- Manhattan House, New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission.
- "Lever House, New York, New York". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "Manufacturers Hanover Trust – 510 Fifth Avenue - New York, New York". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- Inland Steel Building, Chicago, Illinois.
- "Portland Memorial Coliseum - Portland, Oregon". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- David W. Dunlap (20 October 1987). "J. Walter Severinghaus, 81, Former Architect". The New York Times.
J. Walter Severinghaus, an architect who played a key role in building the practice of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill and such structures as One Chase Manhattan Plaza... was a partner in the New York City office of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, which he joined in 1938, when the Chicago-based firm was beginning to expand. He was made a partner in 1949.
- One Chase Manhattan Plaza, New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission.
- "McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope - Tucson, Arizona". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "Yale University – Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library - New Haven, Connecticut". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "United States Air Force Academy – Cadet Chapel - Colorado Springs, Colorado". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "University of Illinois at Chicago – Phase III: Behavioral Sciences Building - Chicago, Illinois". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "McCormick Place - Phase 2 - Exposition Center Expansion North Building - Chicago, Illinois". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "Kirchsteigfeld - Kirchsteigfeld, Germany". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "Sioux City Art Center - Sioux City, Iowa". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "Atlantico Pavilion - Lisbon, Portugal". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "Jin Mao Tower - Shanghai, China". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "University of Utah Campus Master Plan - Salt Lake City, Utah". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "222 Main - Salt Lake City, Utah". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "John Jay College of Criminal Justice - New York, New York". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "510 Fifth Avenue Renovation and Adaptive Reuse - New York, New York". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "University of North Carolina Genome Science Lab - Chapel Hill, North Carolina". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "Zuellig Building - Manila, Philippines". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "Chongqing Rural Commercial Bank Financial Building - Chongqing, China". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "One World Trade Center - New York, New York". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "Pearl River Tower - Guangzhou, China". Som.com. 2010-02-23. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "KAFD Conference Center - Riyadh, Saudi Arabia". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport – Terminal 2 - Mumbai, India". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "University Center - The New School". Som.com. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- "United States Air Force Academy – Center for Character & Leadership Development". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "NATO Headquarters - Brussels, Belgium". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "OKO Tower - Moscow, Russia". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
- "Poly International Plaza - Beijing, China". Som.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
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