Animal slaughter

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Stunning a cow with a captive bolt pistol

Animal slaughter is the killing of nonhuman animals, usually referring to killing domestic livestock. In general, the animals would be killed for food, however, they might also be slaughtered for other reasons such as being diseased and unsuitable for consumption.

The animals most commonly slaughtered for food are cattle and water buffalo for beef and veal, sheep and lambs for lamb and mutton, goats for goat meat, pigs for pork and ham, deer for venison, horses for horse meat, poultry (mainly chickens, turkeys and ducks) and increasingly, fish in the aquaculture industry (fish farming).

Modern history[edit]

Blueprint for a slaughterhouse designed by Benjamin Ward Richardson, published 1908.

The use of a sharpened blade for the slaughtering of livestock has been practiced throughout history. Prior to the development of electric stunning equipment, some species were killed by simply striking them with a blunt instrument, sometimes followed by exanguination with a knife.

The belief that this was unnecessarily cruel and painful to the animal eventually led to the adoption of specific stunning and slaughter methods in many countries. One of the first campaigners on the matter was the eminent physician, Benjamin Ward Richardson, who spent many years of his later working life developing more humane methods of slaughter. As early as 1853, he designed a chamber that could gas animals to death. He also founded the Model Abattoir Society in 1882 to investigate and campaign for humane methods of slaughter, and experimented with the use of electric current at the Royal Polytechnic Institution.[1]

Sheep at Maidstone cattle market, Kent, 1944.

The development of stunning technologies occurred largely in the first half of the twentieth century. In 1911, the Council of Justice to Animals (later the Humane Slaughter Association) was established in England to improve the slaughter of livestock.[2] In the early 1920s, the HSA introduced and demonstrated a mechanical stunner, which led to the adoption of humane stunning by many local authorities.[3]

The HSA went on to play a key role in the passage of the Slaughter of Animals Act 1933. This made the mechanical stunning of cows and electrical stunning of pigs compulsory, with the exception of Jewish and Muslim meat.[3][4] Modern methods, such as the captive bolt pistol and electric tongs were required and the Act's wording specifically outlawed the poleaxe. The period was marked by the development of various innovations in slaughterhouse technologies, not all of them particularly long-lasting.

Methods[edit]

Many countries have adopted the principle of a two-stage process for the non-ritual slaughter of animals. This is to ensure a rapid death with minimal suffering. The first stage of the process, usually called stunning, renders the animal unconscious, but not necessarily dead. In the second stage, the animal is killed. Countries differ in the methods which have been legalised for different species or different ages.

Stunning[edit]

Various methods are used to render an animal unconscious during animal slaughter.

Electrical (stunning or slaughtering with electric current)
This method is used for swine, sheep, calves, cattle, and goats. The current is applied either across the brain or the heart to render the animal unconscious before being killed.
Gaseous(Carbon dioxide)
This method can be used for sheep, calves and swine. The animal is asphyxiated by the use of CO2 gas before being killed. In several countries, CO2 stunning is mainly used on pigs. A number of pigs enter a chamber which is then sealed and filled with 80% to 90% CO2 in air. The pigs lose consciousness within 13 to 30 seconds. Research has produced conflicting results with some showing pigs tolerate CO2 stunning and others showing they do not.[5][6][7]
Gaseous (Inert gas asphyxiation)
Various concentrations of argon and nitrogen have been used to induce unconsciousness, often in conjunction with CO2. Domestic turkeys are averse to high concentrations of CO2 (72% CO2 in air) but not low concentrations (a mixture of 30% CO2 and 60% argon in air with 3% residual oxygen).[8]
Mechanical (Captive bolt pistol)
This method can be used for sheep, swine, goats, calves, cattle, horses, mules, and other equines. A captive bolt pistol is applied to the head of the animal to quickly render them unconscious before being killed. There are three types of captive bolt pistols, penetrating, non-penetrating and free bolt. The use of penetrating captive bolts has, largely, been discontinued in commercial situations to minimize the risk of transmission of disease when parts of the brain enter the bloodstream.
Mechanical (gunshot/free bullet)
This method can be used for cattle, calves, sheep, swine, goats, horses, mules, and other equines. A conventional firearm is used to fire a bullet into the brain of the animal to render the animal quickly unconscious (and presumably dead). A second method may be used (e.g. drug administration) to ensure the animal is dead.

Killing[edit]

Exsanguination
The animal either has its throat cut or has a chest stick inserted cutting close to the heart. In both these methods, main veins and/or arteries are cut and allowed to bleed.[9][10]

National laws[edit]

Canada[edit]

In Canada, the handling and slaughter of food animals is a shared responsibility of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), industry, stakeholders, transporters, operators and every person who handles live animals. Canadian law requires that all federally registered slaughter establishments ensure that all species of food animals are handled and slaughtered humanely. The CFIA verifies that federal slaughter establishments are compliant with the Meat Inspection Regulations. The CFIA's humane slaughter requirements take effect when the animals arrive at the federally registered slaughter establishment. Industry is required to comply with the Meat Inspection Regulations for all animals under their care. The Meat Inspection Regulations define the conditions for the humane slaughter of all species of food animals in federally registered establishments. Some of the provisions contained in the regulations include:

  • guidelines and procedures for the proper unloading, holding and movement of animals in slaughter facilities
  • requirements for the segregation and handling of sick or injured animals
  • requirements for the humane slaughter of food animals[11]

United Kingdom[edit]

Animal slaughter in the UK is governed under both its own laws and EU law regarding slaughter. The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) is the main governing body responsible for legislation and codes of practice covering animal slaughter in the UK.

In the UK the methods of slaughter are largely the same as those used in the United States with some differences. The use of captive bolt equipment and electrical stunning are approved methods of stunning sheep, goats, cattle and calves for consumption[10]- with the use of gas reserved for swine.[12]

United States[edit]

In the United States, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) specifies the approved methods of livestock slaughter:[13]

Each of these methods is outlined in detail, and the regulations require that inspectors identify operations which cause "undue" "excitement and discomfort" of animals.

In 1958, the law that is enforced today by the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) was passed as the Humane Slaughter Act of 1978. This Act requires the proper treatment and humane handling of all food animals slaughtered in USDA inspected slaughter plants. It does not apply to chickens or other birds.[14]

Religious laws for ritual slaughter[edit]

Ritual slaughter of animals is also used for food production. Such slaughter is governed by various laws, most notably, Shechita and Dhabihah.

Shechita – Jewish laws of slaughtering animals[edit]

Animal slaughter in Judaism deals with their religious law of Shechita. The animal must be considered kosher for it to be slaughtered and consumed. The basic law of the Shechita process requires the rapid uninterrupted severance of major vital organs and vessels producing a quick drop in blood pressure in the brain. This abrupt loss of pressure results in the rapid and irreversible cessation of consciousness and sensibility to pain.[15]

Dhabihah – Islamic law of slaughtering animals[edit]

Animal slaughtering in Islam is in accordance with the Qur’an. To slaughter an animal is to cause it to pass from a living state to a dead state. For the meat to be lawful according to Islam, it must come from an animal which is a member of a lawful species and it must be ritually slaughtered, i.e. according to the Law, or the sole code recognized by the group as legitimate. There are three methods of killing: slitting the throat (dabh), plunging the knife into the dimple over the breast bone (nahr), and killing in some other way ('aqr). The slaughter person must say the name of God (bismillah), before slaughtering the animal.[16]

Controversy[edit]

There has been controversy about whether animals should be slaughtered and the methods used. Some people believe sentient beings should not be harmed at all. Religious slaughter laws and practices are under debate, and certification and labeling of meat products remain to be standardised. Animal welfare concerns are being addressed to improve slaughter practices by providing more training and new regulations. There are differences between conventional and religious slaughter practices, although both have been criticized on animal welfare grounds. Concerns about religious slaughter focus on stress caused during pre-slaughter handling, pain and distress that may be experienced during and after neck cutting, and a prolonged time to loss of brain function and death if stunning is not applied.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainPower, D'Arcy (1901). "Richardson, Benjamin Ward". In Sidney Lee. Dictionary of National Biography, 1901 supplement​. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 
  2. ^ "Humane Slaughter Association Newsletter March 2011". Humane Slaughter Association. Retrieved 1 July 2014. 
  3. ^ a b "History of the HSA". Humane Slaughter Association. Retrieved 1 July 2014. 
  4. ^ Leese, Arnold. "The Legalised Cruelty Of Shechita: The Jewish Method Of Cattle-Slaughter". Retrieved 1 July 2014. 
  5. ^ "When is carbon dioxide stunning used in abattoirs?". RSPCA. Retrieved June 14, 2013. 
  6. ^ Jong, E.C., Barnett, J.L. and Hemsworth, P.H., (2000). The aversiveness of carbon dioxide stunning in pigs and a comparison of the CO2 stunner crate vs. the V-restrainer. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 67: 67-76
  7. ^ Raj, A.B.M. and Gregory, N.G., (1995). Welfare implications of the gas stunning of pigs 1. Determination of aversion to the initial inhalation of carbon dioxide or argon. Animal Welfare, 4: 273-280
  8. ^ Raj, M., (1999). Aversive reactions of turkeys to argon, carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide and argon. Veterinary Record, 138:592-593 DOI:10.1136/vr.138.24.592
  9. ^ [1][dead link]
  10. ^ a b "Slaughter Red". Hsa.org.uk. Retrieved 2011-10-18. 
  11. ^ "Humane Handling and Slaughter of Food Animals in Canada". Canadian Food Inspection Agency. 
  12. ^ "Pig Slaughter". Hsa.org.uk. Retrieved 2011-10-18. 
  13. ^ "Humane Slaughter of Livestock Regulations (National Citation: 9 C.F.R. 313.1 - 90)". Animal Legal and Historical Center (regulations from USDA). 2007. 
  14. ^ "Humane Methods of Slaughter Act". National Agricultural Library. 
  15. ^ Jones, Sam. "Halal, shechita and the politics of animal slaughter". The Guardian. 
  16. ^ Benkheira, Mohammed (2000). "Artificial death, canonical death: Ritual slaughter in Islam.". Food and Foodways. 4 8 (4): 227–252. doi:10.1080/07409710.2000.9962092. 
  17. ^ Anil, Haluk. "Religious slaughter: A current controversial animal welfare issue". Animal Frontiers. 

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