Slavery in Portugal
|By country or region|
|Opposition and resistance|
Slavery in Portugal occurred since before the country's formation. During the pre-independence period, inhabitants of the current Portuguese territory were often enslaved and enslaved others. After independence, during the existence of the Kingdom of Portugal, the country played a leading role in the Atlantic Slave Trade, which involved the mass trade and transportation of slaves from Africa and other parts of the world to the American continent. Slavery was abolished in Portugal in 1761 by the Marquis of Pombal.
Slavery was a major economic and social institution in Europe during the classical era and a great deal is known about the ancient Greeks and Romans in relation to the topic. Rome added Portugal to its empire (2nd century BC), the latter a province of Lusitania at the time, and the name of the future kingdom was derived from "Portucale", a Roman and post-Roman settlement situated at the month of the Douro River. The details of slavery in Roman Portugal are not well-known; however, there were several forms of slavery, including enslaved miners and domestic servants.
Visigothic and Suebi kingdoms
The Visigoths and the Suebi (Germanic tribes), of the 5th century AD, seized control of the Iberian peninsula as the Roman Empire fell. At the time, Portugal did not exist as a separate kingdom, but was primarily a part of the Visigothic Iberian kingdom (the Visigothic ruling class lived apart and heavily taxed the native population). However, during this period, a gradual transition to feudalism and serfdom was occurring throughout Europe.
After the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in the 8th century, the territory of both modern-day Portugal and Spain fell under Islamic control. The pattern of slavery and serfdom in the Iberian Peninsula differs from the rest of Western Europe due to the Islamic conquest. Moors from North Africa crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and defeated the Visigothic rulers of Iberia (8th century). They established Moorish kingdoms in Iberia, including the area that is occupied by modern Portugal. In comparison to the north, classical-style slavery continued for a longer period of time in southern Europe and trade between Christian Europe, across the Mediterranean, with Islamic North Africa meant that Slavic and Christian iberian slaves appeared in Italy, Spain, Southern France and Portugal; in the 8th century, the Islamic conquest in Portugal and Spain changed this pattern.
Trade ties between the Moorish kingdoms and the North African Moorish state led to a greater flow of trade within those geographical areas, when compared to Italy and southern France. In addition, the Moors engaged sections of Spaniards and Portuguese Christians in slave labor. There was not a racial component to slavery in Iberia. The Moors utilised ethnic European slaves, 1/12 of Iberian population were slave Europeans, less than 1% of Iberia were Moors and most than 99% were native Iberians. Periodic Arab and Moorish raiding expeditions were sent from Islamic Iberia to ravage the remaining Christian Iberian kingdoms, bringing back stolen goods and slaves. In a raid against Lisbon in 1189, for example, the Almohad caliph Yaqub al-Mansur held 3,000 females and children as captives, while his governor of Córdoba, in a subsequent attack upon Silves, held 3,000 Christian slaves in 1191. In addition, the Christian Iberians who lived within Arab and Moorish-ruled territories were not only subject to discriminatory laws and taxes, but were also coerced into Islamic faith.
Muslim Moors who converted to Christianity, known as Mouriscos, were enslaved by the Portuguese during the Reconquista; 9.3 per cent of slaves in southern Portugal were Moors and many Moors were enslaved in 16th-century Portugal. It has been documented that other slaves were treated better than Mouriscos, the slaves were less than 1% of population.
Age of Discovery
||The neutrality of this section is disputed. (January 2012)|
Arabs also enslaved substantial numbers of Europeans. According to Robert Davis, between one million and 1.25 million Europeans were captured by Barbary pirates, who were vassals of the Ottoman Empire; they were then sold as slaves between the 16th and 19th centuries. These slaves were captured mainly from Italian, Spanish and Portuguese seaside villages and the impact of these attacks was devastating—Portugal and Spain lost many ships and long stretches of the Portuguese, Spanish and Italian coasts were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants. Pirate raids discouraged settlement along the coast until the 19th century, while the coastal Europeans from Southern Europe built fortifications and lived in fear of the razzias.
Slavery in Macau and the coast of China
Beginning in the 16th century, the Portuguese tried to establish trading ports and settlements along the coast of China. Early attempts at establishing such bases, such as those in Ningbo and Quanzhou, were however destroyed by the Chinese, following violent raids by the settlers to neighboring ports, which included pillaging and plunder and sometimes enslavement. The resulting complaints made it to the province's governor who commanded the settlement destroyed and the inhabitants wiped out. In 1545, a force of 60,000 Chinese troops descended on the community, and 800 of the 1,200 Portuguese residents were massacred, with 25 vessels and 42 junks destroyed.
Until the mid-17th century, during the early Portuguese mandate of Macau, some 5,000 slaves lived in the territory, in addition to 2,000 Portuguese and an ever-growing number of Chinese, which in 1664 reached 20,000.  This number decreased in the following decades to between 1000 and 2000. Most of the slaves were of African origin, although they also included people from all around Asia, namely Chinese, Japanese, Malay, Indonesian and Indian people, mostly women with which the Portuguese often married.  
On June 24, 1622, the Dutch attacked Macau in the Battle of Macau, expecting to turn the area into a Dutch possession, with a 800-strong invasion force led by under Captain Kornelis Reyerszoon. The relatively small number of defenders repulsed the Dutch attack, which was not repeated. The majority of the defenders were Africans slaves, with only a few dozen Portuguese soldiers and priests in support, and they accounted for most of the victims in the battle.    Following the defeat, the Dutch Governor Jan Coen said of the Macao slaves, that "it was they who defeated and drove away our people there".     In the 1800s, during the Qing dynasty, the British consul noted that some Portuguese were still buying children between five and eight years of age.
During the abolitionist period of the 19th century during which the African slave trade was under intense pressure to stop, Macau, along with Hong Kong and other Southeast Asian port cities, was converted into a coolie trading center, sending Chinese laborers to the Americas as part of a de facto slave trade were abuses were rife.  
In 1814, the Chinese Jiaqing Emperor added a clause to the section of the fundamental laws of China titled "Wizards, Witches, and all Superstitions, prohibited", later modified in 1821 and published in 1826 by the Daoguang Emperor, which sentenced Europeans, namely Portuguese Christians who would not repent their conversion, to be sent to Muslim cities in Xinjiang as slaves to Muslim leaders.
|This section requires expansion. (December 2012)|
During transport to Portugal, slaves were fastened and chained with manacles, padlocks, and rings around their necks. Portuguese owners could whip, chain, and pour burning hot wax and fat onto the skin of their slaves, and punish their slaves in any way that they wished, as long as the slaves remained alive. The Portuguese also used branding irons to brand their slaves as property.
Voices condemning the slave trade were raised quite early on during the Atlantic Slave Trade period. Among them was Gaspar da Cruz (1550-1575), a Dominican friar who dismissed any arguments by the slave traffickers that they had "legally" purchased already-enslaved children, the earliest or among the earliest condemnations of slavery in Europe during this period.
From an early age during the Atlantic Slave Trade period, the crown attempted to stop the trading of non-African slaves. The enslavement and overseas trading of Chinese slaves, who were prized by the Portuguese, was specifically addressed in response to Chinese authorities' requests, who, although not against the enslavement of people in Macau and Chinese territories, which was common practice, at different times attempted to stop the transport of slaves to outside the territory. In 1595, a Portuguese royal decree banned the selling and buying of ethnically Chinese slaves; it was reiterated by the Portuguese King in February 19, 1624, and, in 1744, by the Qianlong Emperor, who forbade the practice to Chinese subjects, reiterating his order in 1750. However, these laws were not able to stop the trade completely, and in the 16th century a small number of Chinese slaves were still owned by Portuguese slave owners in southern Portugal (twenty-nine to thirty-four people), a practice which lasted until the 1700s. In the American colonies, Portugal halted the use of Chinese, Japanese, Europeans, and Indians to work as slaves for sugar plantations[when?], which was reserved exclusively for African slaves.
The abolition of all forms of slavery occurred in 1761 on mainland Portugal and Portuguese India through a decree by the Marquis of Pombal, followed, in 1777, by Madeira. The transatlantic slave trade was definitely outlawed altogether by Portugal in 1836, at the same time as other European powers. Slavery within the African Portuguese colonies, however, would only be definitely abolished in 1869, following a treaty between United States and Britain for the suppression of the slave trade. In Brazil, which had become independent from Portugal in 1822, slavery was finally abolished in 1888.
- Arab slave trade
- Atlantic slave trade
- Barbary pirates
- Economic history of Portugal
- Slavery in ancient Rome
- Slavery in Angola
- Slavery in Brazil
- Slavery in China
- Slavery in India
- Peter C. Mancall, Omohundro Institute of Early American History & Culture (2007). The Atlantic world and Virginia, 1550-1624. UNC Press Books. p. 228. ISBN 0-8078-5848-X. Retrieved 2010-10-14.
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- Ernest S. Dodge (1976). Islands and Empires: Western Impact on the Pacific and East Asia. Volume 7 of Europe and the World in Age of Expansion. U of Minnesota Press. p. 226. ISBN 0-8166-0853-9. Retrieved 18 October 2011. "The Portuguese, who considered all Eastern peoples legitimate prey, established trading settlements at Ningpo and in Fukien, but both were wiped out by massacres in 1545 and 1549. For some years the Portuguese were second only to the"
- Kenneth Scott Latourette (1964). The Chinese, their history and culture, Volumes 1-2 (4, reprint ed.). Macmillan. p. 235. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "A settlement which the Portuguese established near Ningpo was wiped out by a massacre (1545), and a similar fate overtook a trading colony in Fukien (1549). For a time the Portuguese retained a precarious tenure only on islands south of Canton"(the University of Michigan)
- Kenneth Scott Latourette (1942). The Chinese, their history and culture, Volumes 1-2 (2 ed.). Macmillan. p. 313. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "A settlement which the Portuguese established near Ningpo was wiped out by a massacre (1545), and a similar fate overtook a trading colony in Fukien (1549). For a time the Portuguese retained a precarious tenure only on islands south of Canton"(the University of Michigan)
- John William Parry (1969). Spices: The story of spices. The spices described. Volume 1 of Spices. Chemical Pub. Co. p. 102. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "The Portuguese succeeded in establishing a settlement near Ningpo which was wiped out by massacre in 1545; another Portuguese settlement in Fukien province met a similar fate in 1549, but they finally succeeded in establishing a"(the University of California)
- Witold Rodziński (1983). A history of China, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). Pergamon Press. p. 203. ISBN 0-08-021806-7. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "A further attempt was made by the Portuguese in 1 522 by Affonso de Mello Coutinho which also suffered defeat. In spite of these initial setbacks the Portuguese succeeded, probably by bribing local officials, in establishing themselves in Ningpo (Chekiang) and in Ch'uanchou (Fukien), where considerable trade with the Chinese was developed. In both cases, however, the unspeakably brutal behavious of the Portuguese caused a revulsion of Chinese feeling against the newcomers. In 1545 the Portuguese colony in Ningpo was completely wiped out after three years of existence and later, in 1549, the same fate met the settlement in Ch'iianchou. Somewhat later, the Portuguese did succeed finally in gaining"(the University of Michigan)
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- Charles Kendall Adams, Rossiter Johnson (1902). Universal cyclopaedia and atlas, Volume 8. NEW YORK: D. Appleton and Company. p. 490. Retrieved 18 July 2011.(Original from the New York Public Library)
- George Bryan Souza (2004). The Survival of Empire: Portuguese Trade and Society in China and the South China Sea 1630-1754 (reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 32. ISBN 0-521-53135-7. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "5000 slaves 20000 Chinese 1643 2000 moradores (Portuguese civil citizens) 1644"
- Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia and the Americas. Walter de Gruyter. 1996. p. 323. ISBN 3-11-013417-9. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "The Portuguese population of Macao was never very large. Between the period 1601 -1669, a typical cross section of the population consisted of about 600 casados, 100-200 other Portuguese, some 5000 slaves and a growing number of Chinese"
- Zhidong Hao (2011). Macau History and Society (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong University Press. p. 63. ISBN 988-8028-54-5. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "This is a time when there were most African slaves, about 5100. In comparison there were about 1000 to 2000 during the later Portuguese rule in Macau."
- Trevor Burnard (2010). Gad Heuman, Trevor Burnard, ed. The Routledge history of slavery (illustrated ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 57. ISBN 0-415-46689-X. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "South Asia also exported bondspeople: Indians, for example, were exported as slaves to Macao, Japan, Indonesia"
- Indrani Chatterjee, Richard Maxwell Eaton, ed. (2006). Slavery and South Asian history (illustrated ed.). Indiana University Press. p. 238. ISBN 0-253-21873-X. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "Portuguese,”he concluded;“The Portuguese beat us off from Macao with their slaves.”10 The same year as the Dutch ... an English witness recorded that the Portuguese defense was conducted primarily by their African slaves,who threw"
- Middle East and Africa. Taylor & Francis. 1996. p. 544. ISBN 1-884964-04-4,. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "A miscellaneous assemblage of Portuguese soldiers, citizens, African slaves, friars, and Jesuits managed to withstand the attack. Following this defeat, the Dutch made no further attempts to take Macau, although they continued to harass"
- Christina Miu Bing Cheng (1999). Macau: a cultural Janus (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong University Press. p. 159. ISBN 962-209-486-4. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "invaded Macau on 24 June 1622 but was defeated by a handful of Portuguese priests, citizens and African slaves"
- Steven Bailey (2007). Strolling in Macau: A Visitor's Guide to Macau, Taipa, and Coloane (illustrated ed.). ThingsAsian Press. p. 15. ISBN 0-9715940-9-0. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "On June 24, 1622, a Dutch fleet under Captain Kornelis Reyerszoon assembled a landing force of some 800 armed sailors, a number thought more than sufficient to overpower Macau's relatively weak garrison. Macau's future as a Dutch colony seemed all but assured, since the city's ... still remained under construction and its defenders numbered only about 60 soldiers and 90 civilians, who ranged from Jesuit priests to African slaves"
- Ruth Simms Hamilton, ed. (2007). Routes of passage: rethinking the African diaspora, Volume 1, Part 1. Volume 1 of African diaspora research. Michigan State University Press. p. 143. ISBN 0-87013-632-1. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "Jan Coen, who had been sent to establish a Dutch base on the China coast, wrote about the slaves who served the Portuguese so faithfully: "It was they who defeated and drove away our people last year."" (the University of California)
- Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos (1968). Studia, Issue 23. Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos. p. 89. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "85, quotes a report from the Dutch governor-general, Coen, in 1623: «The slaves of the Portuguese at Macao served them so well and faithfully, that it was they who defeated and drove away our people last year»." (University of Texas)
- Japan and Africa: the evolution and nature of political, economic and human bonds, 1543-1993. HSRC. 1993. p. 23. ISBN 0-7969-1525-3. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "A year later, Captain Coen was still harping on the same theme: "The slaves of the Portuguese at Macao served them so well and faithfully, that it was they who defeated and drove away our people there last year". Captain Coen was"
- Charles Ralph Boxer (1968). Fidalgos in the Far East 1550-1770 (2, illustrated, reprint ed.). Oxford U.P. p. 85. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "The enemy, it was reported, "had lost many more men than we, albeit mostly slaves. Our people saw very few Portuguese". A year later he was still harping on the same theme. "The slaves of the Portuguese at Macao served them so well and faithfully, that it was they who defeated and drove away our people there last" (the University of Michigan)
- P. D. Coates (1988). The China consuls: British consular officers, 1843-1943 (2, illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press,. p. 124. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "a Portuguese slave trade in male and female children aged between 5 and 8, whom Portuguese bought for $3 to $4" (the University of Michigan)
- Nautical magazine and journal of the Royal Naval Reserve, Volume 36. Brown, Son and Ferguson. 1867. p. 516. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "Mr. Whittall moved that the ordinance should be wkhdrawn and another ordinance brought in, prohibiting this coolie trade, that is to say, the engagement of coolies on contracts and their shipment to the West Indies altogether. He did not argue that, conducted as the trade was at Hong Kong, any great evils arose from it, but he spoke without the slightest reserve or hesitation, as also did the Chief Justice and the Governor himself, of the atrocious crimes perpetrated at Macao in open defiance of the intended regulations which exist on paper, and behind which the Macao government shelters itself when attacked. That the Macao coolie trade was an organized slave trade, that no voluntary emigration took place at all, that the unhappy men sent away were kidnapped and forced into slavery by those who made a business of enticing them on board small vessels up and down the coast and then selling them at Macao, all these shameful facts were emphatically asserted and supported, in one case, as will be seen from the report of what took place, by reference to that which was within the personal knowledge of the speakers." (the New York Public Library)
- John King Fairbank, Katherine Frost Bruner, Elizabeth MacLeod Matheson, ed. (1976). The I. G. in Peking: letters of Robert Hart, Chinese Maritime Customs, 1868-1907, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). Harvard University Press. p. 44. ISBN 0-674-44320-9. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "In consequence, Macao had become a smuggling center, especially for opium, and it was the center of the worst of the coolie trade (see note 3). De Mas's mission was to try to arrange with the Portuguese court a treaty whereby Macao"
- Christina Miu Bing Cheng (1999). Macau: a cultural Janus (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong University Press. p. 159. ISBN 962-209-486-4. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "Apart from being a centre of coolie-slave trade, Macau was also known as the Oriental Monte Carlo"
- W. G. Clarence-Smith (1985). The third Portuguese empire, 1825-1975: a study in economic imperialism (illustrated ed.). Manchester University Press ND. p. 71. ISBN 0-7190-1719-X. Retrieved 4th of November, 2011. "As the African slave trade declined the Portuguese became involved in a form of trade in Chinese labour which was in effect a Chinese slave trade."
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- de Pina-Cabral 2002, pp. 114–115: "From very early on, it was recognized that the purchase of Chinese persons (particularly female infants) caused no particular problems in Macao, but that the export of these people as slaves was contrary to the safeguarding of peaceable relations with the Chinese authorities. This point is clearly made by a Royal Decree of 1624 ... [t]hese good intentions were, however, difficult to uphold in the territory where the monetary purchase of persons was easily accomplished and the supply very abundant, particularly of young females."
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- Teixeira Leite 1999, p. 20: "Já por aí se vê que devem ter sido numerosos os escravos chineses que tomaram o caminho de Lisboa — e por extensão o do Brasil ... Em 1744 era o imperador Qianlong quem ordenava que nenhum Chinês ou europeu de Macau vendesse filhos e filhas, prohibição reiterada em 1750 pelo vice-rei de Cantão."
- Mancall 2007, p. 228
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