Slavery in Russia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Despite the abolition of Slavery in Russia in 1723, when Peter the Great converted household slaves to serfs, Russia remains the 6th largest holder of slaves- estimated at 516,000 in 2013. [1]

In June 2013, US Department of State released a report on slavery, placing Russia in the worst offenders category.[2][3]The slavery mostly affects the Uzbekistan and Tajikistan nationals,who migrated to Russia but have a problems with Federal Migration Service.[4][5][6][7]

History[edit]

In Kievan Rus and Muscovy, the slaves were usually classified as kholops. A kholop's master had unlimited power over his life: he could kill him, sell him, or use him as payment upon a debt. The master, however, was responsible before the law for his kholop's actions. A person could become a kholop as a result of capture, selling himself or herself, being sold for debts or committed crimes, or marriage to a kholop. Until the late 10th century, the kholops represented a majority among the servants who worked lordly lands.

In 1382 the Golden Horde under Khan Tokhtamysh sacked Moscow, burning the city and carrying off thousands of inhabitants as slaves; such raids were made routinely until well into the 16th century.[8] In 1521, the combined forces of Crimean Khan Mehmed I Giray and his Kazan allies attacked Moscow and captured thousands of slaves.[9][10] In 1571, the Crimean Tatars attacked and sacked Moscow, burning everything but the Kremlin and taking thousands of captives as slaves.[11] In Crimea, about 75% of the population consisted of slaves.[12]

Mikhail Tyszkiewicz, the Lithuanian envoy to the Crimean Tatars in 1537–39, wrote:

Among these unfortunates there are many strong ones; if they [the Tatars] have not castrated them yet, they cut off their ears and nostrils, burned cheeks and fore-heads with the burning iron and forced them to work with their chains and shackles during the daylight, and sit in the prisons during the night; they are sustained by the meager food consisting of the dead animals’ meat, rotten, full of worms, which even a dog would not eat. The youngest women are kept for wanton pleasures....[13]

By the sixteenth century, slavery in Muscovy consisted mostly of those who sold themselves into slavery owing to poverty.[14] They worked predominantly as household servants, among the richest families, and indeed generally produced less than they consumed.[15] Laws forbade the freeing of slaves in times of famine, to avoid feeding them, and slaves generally remained with the family a long time; the Domostroy, an advice book, speaks of the need to choose slaves of good character and to provide for them properly.[16] Slavery remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter the Great converted the household slaves into house serfs. Russian agricultural slaves were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679.[14]

Recent reports have identified human trafficking and slavery of Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan nationals in contemporary Russian society.[17] .[18][19][20]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.ungift.org/doc/knowledgehub/resource-centre/2013/GlobalSlaveryIndex_2013_Download_WEB1.pdf
  2. ^ http://rendezvous.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/06/20/27-million-people-said-to-live-in-modern-slavery/?_r=
  3. ^ http://usnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2013/06/19/19042103-modern-day-slavery-state-dept-says-millions-of-human-trafficking-victims-go-unidentified
  4. ^ Victoria Lomasko's reports about 'shop slaves'
  5. ^ BBC News "Trafficking: The ordeal of a Moscow 'shop slave'"
  6. ^ U.S. State Dept Trafficking in Persons Report, June 2009
  7. ^ Institute for War and Peace Special Report: Uzbeks Prey to Modern Slave Trade
  8. ^ The Full Collection of the Russian Annals, vol.13, SPb, 1904
  9. ^ The Tatar Khanate of Crimea
  10. ^ Supply of Slaves
  11. ^ Moscow - Historical background
  12. ^ Historical survey > Slave societies
  13. ^ Michalon Lituanus, “De Moribus Tartarorum, Lituanorum et Moschorum, FragminaX,” in Russia, seu Moscovia, itemque Tartaria (Leiden, 1630), 191[1]
  14. ^ a b Richard Hellie, Slavery in Russia, 1450-1725 (1984)
  15. ^ Carolyn Johnston Pouncey, The Domostroi: Rules for Russian Households in the Time of Ivan the Terrible, p15 ISBN 0-8014-9689-6
  16. ^ Carolyn Johnston Pouncey, The Domostroi: Rules for Russian Households in the Time of Ivan the Terrible, p33 ISBN 0-8014-9689-6
  17. ^ Victoria Lomasko's reports about 'shop slaves'
  18. ^ BBC News "Trafficking: The ordeal of a Moscow 'shop slave'"
  19. ^ U.S. State Dept Trafficking in Persons Report, June 2009
  20. ^ Institute for War and Peace Special Report: Uzbeks Prey to Modern Slave Trade

External links[edit]