Slavery in the Spanish New World colonies
|By country or region|
|Opposition and resistance|
Slavery in the Spanish colonies began with settlers' enslaving the local indigenous peoples in the Antilles. The Spanish colonists used production quotas to force the local labor to work, in order to generate a return on their expedition and colonization investments. During the first decades of the colonization, the widespread and abusive slavery resulted in the deaths of thousands of indigenous peoples, who died from forced labor in crop fields, mines and searching for gold. After decades of pressure, primarily from priests and friars who argued that slavery was incompatible with Christianity, the Council of the Indies, mandated to protect the native people by the Laws of the Indies, stopped the encomienda system and the enforced slavery of the natives. Together with high fatalities from infectious diseases brought from Europe, the native population died in great number in a matter of decades, depopulating the West Indies.
The changes did not stop forced labor in the Spanish colonies on the mainland, which took on a new guise under the repartimiento. In addition, in the West Indies, the colonists needed a new source of labor and began to import African slaves, joining the transatlantic slave trade. Spanish colonists in both the islands and on the mainland were customers of Dutch and British slave traders; Spain generally did not mount its own slave ships or deal directly with personnel in Africa. It ended both Indian and African slavery in the mainland of the Americas in the eighteenth century. In Cuba and Puerto Rico, where sugar cane production was highly profitable based on slave labor, African slavery persisted until 1866 and 1873, respectively.
Indigenous people enslaved by the Spanish
Spanish colonization of the Americas began with the capture and subjugation of local Indigenous peoples of the Americas, mainly of the Native Caribbean people by Columbus on his four voyages. Initially, enslavement represented one means by which the Columbus and other Castilians (Spaniards) mobilized native labor and met production quotas. Unlike the Portuguese Crown's support for the slave trade, los Reyes Católicos opposed the introduction of slavery to Castile and Aragon on religious grounds. When Columbus returned with slaves, they ordered many of the survivors to be returned to their Caribbean homelands. The papal bull Sublimus Dei of 1537, to which Spain was committed, also officially banned slavery, but it was rescinded a year after its promulgation. The Spanish used other forms of coerced labor in their colonies, such as the Indian Reductions method, the encomienda system, repartimiento, and the mita.
After passage of the 1542 New Laws, the Spanish greatly restricted the power of the encomienda system. The statutes of 1573, within the "Ordinances Concerning Discoveries," forbade certain kinds of coerced labor and regulated treatment of the local population. It required appointment of a "protector de indios", an ecclesiastical representative who acted as the protector of the Indians and represented them in formal litigation. These laws did not significantly change the practice of encomienda and mita forced labor.
Later in the 16th century, in the viceroyalties of New Spain and Peru, thousands of indigenous people were forced to hard work as underground miners in the mines of Potosi, Guanajuato and Zacatecas.
The Jesuit Spanish missions in Paraguay, similar to the Franciscans in California in North America, practiced Indian Reductions. They forced the Guaraní indigenous people to move to new mission locations and to take up subsistence farming and labor to support the mission industries. The coerced labor was not by purchase but military enforcement. This was repeated in other Spanish colonies and provinces, effectively making the Native residents locally sourced serfs.
Africans during the Spanish Conquest
Beginning in 1502, the Spanish imported Africans as laborers to the Americas. They continued to import African slaves, generally buying them from Arab and Portuguese traders (the former also were transporting slaves to the West Indies and Americas.) The Spanish finally outlawed slavery in the 19th century in all colonies with the exceptions of Cuba and Puerto Rico. It persisted in those jurisdictions in a semi-legal state until being abolished in 1866 and 1863, respectively.
Most of the earliest black immigrants to the Americas were "Atlantic Creoles," as the charter generation is described by the American historian Ira Berlin. Mixed-race men of African and Portuguese/Spanish descent, some slaves and others free, sailed with Iberian ships and worked in the ports of Spain and Portugal; some were born in Europe, others in African ports as sons of Portuguese trade workers and African women. African slaves were also taken to Portugal, where they married local women. The mixed-race men often grew up bilingual, making them useful as interpreters in African and Iberian ports.
Estevanico, recorded as a black slave from Morocco, survived the disastrous Narváez expedition from 1527 to 1536, when most of the men died. After the ships, horses, equipment and finally most of the men were lost, with three other survivors, Estvanico spent six years traveling overland from present-day Texas to Sinaloa, and finally reaching the Spanish settlement at Mexico City. He learned several Native American languages in the process. He went on to serve as a well-respected guide. Later, while leading an expedition in what is now Mexico in search of the Seven Cities of Gold, he was killed in a dispute with the Zuñi local people.
Miguel Henríquez, known as the 'Black Demon', was a prominent black Spaniard who served as a buccaneer at Spain's service during the 17th century in the Caribbean waters. He was known for his brutality against British and Dutch prisoners.
Spanish enslavement of Africans
Bartolomé de las Casas (1484–1566) recorded the effects of slavery on the Native populations and argued for an end to it and for the rights of the people. He acquiesced to the Crown's decision to replace Natives with imported African slaves. Its counselors insisted on a source of labor to develop Caribbean plantations. However, he later spoke against African slavery as well once he saw it in action.
In 1502 the Spanish monarchs, Ferdinand and Isabella, granted permission to the colonists of the Caribbean to import African slaves. Opponents cited the weak Christian faith of the Africans and their penchant for escaping to the mountains. Proponents argued that the rapid decline of the Native American population required a consistent supply of reliable workers. The Spanish population at the time was much too small to carry out all the labour needed to assure the economic viability of the colonies. The first years of Spanish presence in the Americas were marked by an outbreak of a tropical epidemic flu; it decimated both the native and Spanish populations. In 1518 the first shipment of African-born slaves was sent to the West Indies. The Spaniards chiefly purchased the slaves from the Portuguese and English traders in Africa. They did not engage directly in the trade and overall imported fewer slaves to the New World than did the Portuguese, British or French.
The Spanish used enslaved Africans as workers to develop their agriculture and settlements. They also used them in defense of the colonies. Originally the Crown relied on private initiative and resources to protect colonial shipping and settlements. In some cases, colonists hired out their slaves or donated them for this purpose; in other cases, the Crown bought the slaves. Building forts and defense works relied on slave labor, but most were privately owned.
The slave populations were extremely low on Cuba and Puerto Rico until the 1760s, when the British took Havana, Cuba, in 1762. After that, the British imported more than 10,000 slaves to Havana, a number that would have taken 20 years to import on other islands. They used it as a base to supply the Caribbean and the lower Thirteen Colonies. This change is almost directly related to the opening of Spanish slave trade to other powers in the 18th century. Spain and Great Britain made a contract in 1713 by which the British would provide the slaves. The Spanish outlawed its own slave trade of Africans.
While historians have studied the production of sugar on plantations by enslaved workers in nineteenth-century Cuba, they have sometimes overlooked the crucial role of the Spanish state before the 1760s. Cuba ultimately developed two distinct but interrelated sources using enslaved labor, which converged at the end of the eighteenth century. The first of these sectors was urban and was directed in large measure by the needs of the Spanish colonial state, reaching its height in the 1760s. As of 1778, it was reported by Thomas Kitchin that "about 52,000 slaves" were being brought from Africa to the West Indies by Europeans, with approximately 4,000 being brought by the Spanish.
The second sector, which flourished after 1790, was rural and was directed by private slaveholders/planters involved in the production of export agricultural commodities, especially sugar. After 1763 the scale and urgency of defense projects led the state to deploy many of its enslaved workers in ways that were to anticipate the work regimes on sugar plantations in the nineteenth century. Another important group of workers enslaved by the Spanish colonial state in the late eighteenth century were the king's laborers, who worked on the city's fortifications.¹
The Spanish colonies were late to exploit slave labor in the production of sugarcane, particularly on Cuba. The Spanish colonies in the Caribbean were among the last to abolish slavery. While the British colonies abolished slavery completely by 1834, Spain abolished slavery in Puerto Rico in 1873 and in Cuba in 1866. On the mainland of Central and South America, Spain ended African slavery in the eighteenth century. Peru was one of the countries that revived the institution for some decades after declaring independence from Spain in the early 19th century.
Liberation of British and American slaves in Spanish Florida
Since the beginning of the 18th century, Spanish Florida attracted numerous African slaves who escaped from British slavery in the Thirteen Colonies. Once the slaves reached Florida, the Spanish freed them if they converted to Roman Catholicism. Most settled in a community called Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose, the first settlement of free slaves in North America.
The former slaves also found refuge among the Creek and Seminole, Native Americans who had established settlements in Florida at the invitation of the Spanish government. In 1771, Governor John Moultrie wrote to the English Board of Trade, “It has been a practice for a good while past, for negroes to run away from their Masters, and get into the Indian towns, from whence it proved very difficult to get them back.” When British government officials pressured the Native Americans to return the fugitive slaves, they replied that they had "merely given hungry people food, and invited the slaveholders to catch the runaways themselves."
After the American Revolution, slaves from the State of Georgia and the Low Country escaped to Florida. The U.S. Army led increasingly frequent incursions into Spanish territory, including the 1817–1818 campaign by Andrew Jackson that became known as the First Seminole War. The United States afterwards effectively controlled East Florida. According to Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, the US had to take action there because Florida had become "a derelict open to the occupancy of every enemy, civilized or savage, of the United States, and serving no other earthly purpose than as a post of annoyance to them.". Spain requested British intervention, but London declined to assist Spain in the negotiations. Some of President James Monroe's cabinet demanded Jackson's immediate dismissal, but Adams realized that it put the U.S. in a favorable diplomatic position. Adams negotiated very favorable terms.
As Florida had become a burden to Spain, which could not afford to send settlers or garrisons, the Crown decided to cede the territory to the United States. It accomplished this through the Adams–Onís Treaty in 1820.
Ending of slavery
Support for abolitionism rose in Great Britain. Slavery was abolished under the French Revolution, including in the Caribbean. Slaves in Saint-Domingue established independence, founding the republic of Haiti in 1804.
Later slave revolts were arguably part of the upsurge of liberal and democratic values centered on individual rights and liberties which accompanied the transition to capitalism in Europe. As emancipation became more of a concrete reality, the slaves' concept of freedom changed. No longer did they seek to overthrow the whites and re-establish carbon-copy African societies as they had done during the earlier rebellions; the vast majority of slaves were creole, native born where they lived, and envisaged their freedom within the established framework of the existing society.
The Spanish American wars of independence emancipated most of the overseas territories of Spain; in Central and South America, various nations emerged from these wars. The wars were influenced by the ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and economic affairs, which also led to the reduction and ending of feudalism. It was not a unified process. Some countries, including Peru and Ecuador, reintroduced slavery for some time after achieving independence.
In the treaty of 1814, the king of Spain promised to consider means for abolishing the slave trade. In the treaty of September 23, 1817, with Great Britain, the Spanish Crown said that "having never lost sight of a matter so interesting to him and being desirous of hastening the moment of its attainment, he has determined to co-operate with His Britannic Majesty in adopting the cause of humanity." The king bound himself "that the slave trade will be abolished in all the dominions of Spain, May 30, 1820, and that after that date it shall not be lawful for any subject of the crown of Spain to buy slaves or carry on the slave trade upon any part of the coast of Africa." The date of final suppression was October 30. The subjects of the king of Spain were forbidden to carry slaves for any one outside of the Spanish dominions, or to use the flag to cover such dealings.³
The Assembly of Year XIII of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata declared the freedom of wombs. It did not end slavery completely, but emancipated the sons of slaves. Many slaves gained emancipation by joining the armies, either against royalists during the War of Independence, or during the later Civil Wars. For example, the Argentine Confederation ended slavery definitely with the sanction of the Argentine Constitution of 1853.
|This section requires expansion. (October 2010)|
- CIA Factbook Haiti
- Sergio Tognetti, "The Trade in Black African slaves in fifteenth-century Florence," a chapter in T. F. Earle and K. J. P. Lowe, editors, Black Africans in Renaissance Europe Cambridge University Press, 2005 id = ISBN 978-0-521-81582-6
- Juan Friede and Benjamin Keen, Bartolome de las Casas in History. Toward an Understanding of the Man and His Work Northern Illinois University Press, 1971. id = ISBN 0-87580-025-4
- Rogozinsky, Jan. A Brief History of the Caribbean. Plume. 1999.
- Kitchin, Thomas (1778). The Present State of the West-Indies: Containing an Accurate Description of What Parts Are Possessed by the Several Powers in Europe. London: R. Baldwin. p. 12.
- Miller, E: "St. Augustine's British Years," The Journal of the St. Augustine Historical Society, 2001, p. 38. .
- Alexander Deconde, A History of American Foreign Policy (1963) p. 127
- Weeks (2002)
- De Las Casas, Bartolomé, The Devastation of the Indies, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore & London, 1992.
- De Las Casas, Bartolomé, History of the Indies, translated by Andrée M. Collard, Harper & Row Publishers, New York, 1971,
- De Las Casas, Bartolomé, In Defense of the Indians, translated by Stafford Poole, C.M., Northern Illinois University, 1974.
- Shepherd, Verene A., ed. Slavery Without Sugar. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2002. Print.
- Bush, Barbara. Slave Women in Caribbean Society, London: James Curry Ltd, 1990. Print.
- Aimes, Hubert H. A History of Slavery in Cuba 1511 to 1868, New York, NY : Octagon Books Inc, 1967. Print.
- Weeks, William E. (1992), John Quincy Adams and American Global Empire, Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, ISBN 0-8131-9058-4.