Somnolence

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Somnolence
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 R40.0
ICD-9 780.09
MedlinePlus 003208

Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (cf. hypersomnia). It has two distinct meanings, referring both to the usual state preceding falling asleep,[1] and the chronic condition referring to being in that state independent of a circadian rhythm. "Somnolence" is derived from the Latin "somnus" meaning "sleep."

Hazards[edit]

Sleepiness can be dangerous when performing tasks that require constant concentration, such as driving a vehicle. When a person is sufficiently fatigued, microsleeps may be experienced.[citation needed]

Illness[edit]

The human body can become sleepy in response to infection.[2] Such somnolence is one of several sickness behaviors or reactions to infection that some theorize evolved to promote recovery by conserving energy while the body fights the infection using fever and other means.[3][4]

Diagnosis[edit]

A number of diagnostic tests, including the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, are available to help ascertain the seriousness and likely causes of abnormal somnolence.[citation needed]

Associated conditions[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bereshpolova, Y.; Stoelzel, C. R.; Zhuang, J.; Amitai, Y.; Alonso, J.-M.; Swadlow, H. A. (2011). "Getting Drowsy? Alert/Nonalert Transitions and Visual Thalamocortical Network Dynamics". Journal of Neuroscience 31 (48): 17480–7. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2262-11.2011. PMID 22131409. 
  2. ^ Mullington, Janet; Korth, Carsten; Hermann, Dirk M.; Orth, Armin; Galanos, Chris; Holsboer, Florian; Pollmächer, Thomas (2000). "Dose-dependent effects of endotoxin on human sleep". American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 278 (4): R947–55. PMID 10749783. 
  3. ^ Hart, Benjamin L. (1988). "Biological basis of the behavior of sick animals". Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 12 (2): 123–37. doi:10.1016/S0149-7634(88)80004-6. PMID 3050629. 
  4. ^ Kelley, Keith W.; Bluthé, Rose-Marie; Dantzer, Robert; Zhou, Jian-Hua; Shen, Wen-Hong; Johnson, Rodney W.; Broussard, Suzanne R. (2003). "Cytokine-induced sickness behavior". Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 17 (1): 112–118. doi:10.1016/S0889-1591(02)00077-6. PMID 12615196. 
  5. ^ Zimmermann, C.; Pfeiffer, H. (2007). "Schlafstörungen bei Depression". Der Nervenarzt 78 (1): 21–30. doi:10.1007/s00115-006-2111-1. PMID 16832696. 
  6. ^ Watanabe, Norio; Omori, Ichiro M; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Cipriani, Andrea; Barbui, Corrado; Churchill, Rachel; Furukawa, Toshi A (2011). "Mirtazapine versus other antidepressive agents for depression". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (12): CD006528. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006528.pub2. PMC 4158430. PMID 22161405.