Slonim

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Slonim
Слонім
Слоним
Slonim
St Andrew's Church
St Andrew's Church
Flag of Slonim
Flag
Official seal of Slonim
Seal
Slonim is located in Belarus
Slonim
Slonim
Location of Slonim, shown within the Grodno Region
Coordinates: 53°05′N 25°19′E / 53.083°N 25.317°E / 53.083; 25.317
Country
Subdivision
Belarus
Grodno Region
Founded 1252
Government
 • Mayor Iosif Paulyukevich
Elevation 156 m (512 ft)
Population (2009)[1]
 • Total 48,970
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 231800
Area code(s) +375 1562
License plate 4
Website Official website

Slonim (Belarusian: Сло́нім, Russian: Сло́ним, Polish: Słonim, Yiddish: סלאנים, Slonim) is a city in Grodno Region, Belarus, capital of the Slonim district. It is located at the junction of the Shchara and Isa rivers, 143 km southeast of Grodno. The population in 2010 was 49,000.

Etymology and historical names[edit]

Slonim has been known by several versions of its name: Сло́нім (Belarusian), Słonim (Polish), Сло́ним (Russian). Slonim was first mentioned in chronicles in 1252 as Uslonim and in 1255 as Vslonim. According to one version (which is also considered to be an official one), the name of the city originates from the Slavic word 'zaslona' (a screen), meaning that the city used to be an outpost at the southern border of Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Another version, proposed by Jazep Stabroŭski, states that Slonim is a derivative from 'Uzslenimas' in the Lithuanian language simply means 'beyond the valley'.

Russian historians also tried to connect the name 'Slonim' to 'slon' ('an elephant' in Russian) in the 19th century. However, this version was never taken seriously.

History[edit]

The earliest record is of a wooden fort on the left bank of the Shchara river in the 11th century, although there may have been earlier settlement.

The area was disputed between Lithuania and Kievan Rus' in early history and it changed hands several times. In 1040, the Kievans won control of the area after a battle but lost Slonim to the Lithuanians in 1103. The Rutenians retook the area early in the 13th century but were expelled by a Tartar invasion in 1241 and the town was pillaged. When, later in the year, the Tartars withdrew, Slonim became Lithuanian again.

In the second half of the 13th century Slonim finally became a part of Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

In 1569, Lithuania and Poland united and Slonim became an important regional centre within Commonwealth of Lithuania-Poland. From 1631 to 1685 the city flourished as the seat of the Lithuanian diet.

The Commonwealth of Lithuania-Poland was dismantled in a series of three "partitions" in the second half of the 18th century and divided among its neighbours, Germany, Austria and Russia which took the largest portion of the territory. Slonim was in the area annexed by Russia. The wars had damaged Slonim, but in the 18th century, a local landowner, count Oginski, encouraged the recovery of the area; a canal was dug to connect the Shchara with the Dnieper river, now known as the Oginski Canal. Ogiński also built a greater complex, combining an opera theater, a school of music and a school of ballet, a printing house.

Slonim, Paradna Street before World War II

Russian control lasted until 1915, when the German army captured the town. After the First World War, the Slonim area was disputed between the Soviet Union and the newly recreated state of Poland. The town suffered badly in the Polish-Soviet war of 1920. It was ceded by the Bolsheviks to Poland in the 1921 Peace of Riga and became a part of Nowogródek Voivodeship (1919–39).

Slonim was one of the many towns in Poland and Russia that had a significant Jewish population. The imposing Great Synagogue, built in 1642, survived the destruction and brutal Nazi (Einsatzgruppen) murder of the 10,000 strong Slonim Jewish community in 1942. The 10 small synagogues around the Great Synagogue, did not. There were dozens of small Synagogues in Slonim called Stiblach.

In 1939, the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union resulted in the invasion of Poland by the two powers and its division between them. Slonim was in the area designated by the Pact to fall within the Soviet sphere of influence. The Soviets placed that area within the Byelorussian SSR. Two years later, Germany invaded the Soviets (Operation Barbarossa) and Slonim was captured. Soon after, 70% of Slonim's Jews had been killed in a single Nazi operation[2] (9,000 on 14 November 1941).[3] The second mass murder of 8,000 Jews took place in 1942.[4] In 1944, the Soviet Union retained possession of this part of the former Poland, as agreed between the Allies.

After the breakup of the Soviet Union, Belarus became an independent state.

Historic population[edit]

Population of Slonim fluctuated, influenced by local prosperity and wars {1883, 21,110; 1897 15,893}. Jewish settlement in Slonim appears to have started in 1388, following encouragement from the Lithuanian authorities. They were credited with the development of local commerce in the 15th century, nonetheless, they were temporarily expelled by the Lithuanian Duchy in 1503. In the late 19th century, Slonim's Jewish population had risen to more than 10,000.[2] The Slonimer Hasidic dynasty came from there. Michael and Ephraim Marks (of Marks & Spencer) were born in Slonim.

The wealthiest family in Slonim before WW2, were the Rabinowicz brothers Vigdor and Yossel. Their father Dovber Rabinowicz was married to a Rivka Rochel (née Kancepolski). After WW1, they entered the forestry business together with Yaakov Milikowski, and were known as the Rabmils. They escaped the Nazi atrocities by flying to Israel ( Palestine at the time.) Vigor's son, Professor Raviv, became a world famous Computer scientist. In 1971, after spending a sabbatical year in Israel and talking with the late David Cohen, General Manager of IBM-Israel at that time, Raviv convinced IBM management to begin a research and development activity in Haifa, Israel. Under his dynamic and respected leadership, this research center, that began as an attachment to the Technion Institute, eventually employed 300 people.


Economy[edit]

Slonim's importance derives from the river, which is navigable and joins the Oginsky canal, connecting the Niemen with the Dnieper.

Slonim has varied food, consumer, and engineering industries. Corn, tar, and especially timber are exported. There is the Slonim artistic goods factory, a worsted factory and “Textilschik”, a paperboard factory, a motor- and a car repair plants, dry non-fat milk factory and meat processing plant. There are also flax preprocessing, feed mill and woodworking enterprises in the town.

The 11th Guards Mechanized Brigade, withdrawn from Germany in 1992, is stationed in the town.

Media[edit]

Slonim's biggest newspaper is the independent Gazeta Slonimskaya (Газета Слонімская). Founded in 1997, it is a weekly newspaper with a circulation over 5,000 copies. It is published every Wednesday, and contains local and regional news, sections on sport, culture and lifestyle, and local advertising. It is currently 40 pages, plus an additional weekly 8-page supplement called Otdushina (Отдушина), focusing on youth, culture and religious affairs. The newspaper is written in both Russian and Belarusian.[5]

An earlier Gazeta Slonimskaya was originally published in 1938 and 1939, at that time in Polish.[6]

Another local newspaper is "Slonimski vesnik". Being a state owned newspaper it is ruled and censored by local authorities. "Slonimski vesnik" is published three times a week and has a circulation of around 3,000 copies.

Transport and infrastructure[edit]

Slonim has road-links with Baranovichi, Ivatsevichi, Ruzhany, Volkovysk, Lida. There are around a dozen of bus-routes in Slonim and half a dozen of mini-buses routes. Taxi is widely available. Slonim is on the railway line between Baranavichy and Vaukavysk.

Notable buildings[edit]

The ruined Slonim Synagogue

The two main religions in Slonim are Orthodox and Roman Catholic Christianity.

Slonim has also a theatre and a museum of regional studies, as well as a medical school. There is a new recreation area development in north-east Slonim called Enka. The main sports are: running, gymnastics, football and ice hockey. The telecommunication guyed mast, 350 metres tall, for FM-/TV-broadcasting is located at Novaya Strazha (53°03′53″N 25°28′31″E / 53.06472°N 25.47528°E / 53.06472; 25.47528). Northeast of Slonim, there is a CHAYKA-transmitter.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "World Gazetteer". Archived from the original on 11 January 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Lichtenstein, Kalman (1998). "The Ledger of Slonim". Joanne Saltman. Retrieved 8 September 2007. 
  3. ^ Gilbert, Martin (1986). The Holocaust. London: Fontana Press. p. 184. ISBN 0-00-637194-9. 
  4. ^ Gilbert, Martin (1986). The Holocaust. London: Fontana Press. p. 403. ISBN 0-00-637194-9. 
  5. ^ "Контакт". 30 November 2008. Retrieved 24 October 2009. 
  6. ^ "История газеты". 28 November 2008. Retrieved 24 October 2009. 
  7. ^ "Jews of Belarus Move to Save Their Past". Joanne Saltman. 1998. Retrieved 11 September 2007. 
  8. ^ Wollaston, Sam (7 September 2007). "Last night's TV". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 7 September 2007. 
  9. ^ Shot and pushed in a ditch...how the Nazis slaughtered all but one of Natasha's family, Daily Mail, 28 January 2007

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 53°05′N 25°19′E / 53.083°N 25.317°E / 53.083; 25.317