Slovak declension

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The Slovak language, like most Slavic and Latin languages, is an inflected language, meaning that the endings (and sometimes also the stems) of most words (nouns, adjectives, pronouns and numerals) change depending on the given combination of the grammatical gender, the grammatical number and the grammatical case of the particular word in the particular sentence:

a) Gender: There are four grammatical genders in Slovak language: animate masculine, inanimate masculine, feminine and neuter. In popular description, the first two genders are often covered under common masculine gender. Almost all Slovak nouns and adjectives, as well as some pronouns and numerals can be categorized into one of these genders. Exceptions are pluralia tantum (Vianoce - Christmas) and words that are drifting into other gender and are currently in the neuter (knieža - Fürst), and masculine animals that are animate in singular and mostly inanimate in plural.

b) Number: Like in English, there is the singular and the plural. Morphological traces of ancient dual number remained, but are not a separate grammar category anymore. A particular case is associated with three distinct groups of numerals associated with nouns:

c) Morphological cases:

  • the nominative case (N) = the subject; the basic form of the word; answers the question Who / What; for example father (sg), fathers (pl)
  • the genitive case (G) =
    • (1) in English "of x" or "x's" ; answers the questions Of whom / Of what; for example father's (sg. ), fathers' (pl);
    • (2) is used after the prepositions bez (without), blízko (near), do (to, into), doprostred (in(to) the middle of), mimo (out(side) of), miesto (instead of), okolo (around), od (from), podľa (according to), pomimo (next to, around), pomocou (by means of), pozdĺž (along), u (at), uprostred (in the middle of), vedľa (next to, adjacent to), vnútri (in, inside of), vyše (above), z (out of, from), *za (behind)
  • the dative case (D) =
    • (1) in English "to x"; answers the question To whom / To what; for example to the father (sg), to the fathers (pl);
    • (2) is used after the prepositions k (to, towards), kvôli (because of), napriek (in spite of), naproti (facing, opposing), oproti ((facing, opposing)), voči (facing, against)
  • the accusative case (A) =
    • (1) the direct object; answers the question Whom / What; for example [I see the] father (sg), fathers (pl);
    • (2) is used after the prepositions: cez(through), *medzi (between, among), *na (on, at), *nad (above), *po (after, for), *o (about, on), *pod (under), pre (for, because of), *pred (before, in front of), *v (in, on), vzhľadom na (regarding, concerning), *za (behind, for)
  • the locative case (L) = used after the prepositions *na (on), *po (after), *o (about, on), pri (at, next to), *v (in, on)
  • the instrumental case (I) =
    • (1) in English "by (means of) x"; answers the question By (means of) whom / By (means of) what; for example [written] by the father;
    • (2) is used after the prepositions: *medzi (between, among), *nad (above), *pod, (under), *pred (before, in front of), s (with), *za (behind, at the back of)
  • The (syntactic) vocative case (V) is not morphologically marked anymore in modern Slovak (unlike in modern Czech). Today the (syntactic) vocative is realised by the (morphological) nominative case, just like in English, German and many other languages. However, the ancient vocative declensions have survived (mostly in conserved, archaic words or language, e.g. in fairy tales, folklore, or in an ironic sense) in some words, some examples: syn (son) - V: synku, brat (brother) - V: bratu, bratku), chlapec (boy, knave) - V:chlapče), švagor (brother-in-law) - V: švagre or N, kmotor (godparent) - V:kmotre or N), chlap (man, male) - V: chlape, priateľ (friend) V: priateľu or N, pán (mister, lord) - V: pane or N), majster (master artist) - V: majstre or N), boh (god) - V: bože, mama (mum, mother) - V: mamo, mami) and was retrofitted (with the help of Czech influence) to some more words, like šéf (chief, boss) - V: šéfe. There is a dispute among some Slovak linguists whether to include vocative into grammar categories but with declension (mostly) equal to the nominative, or to unify it with nominative case category. But since the morphological vocative is used only for the above restricted number of words and in addition only in some contexts, it is surely an exaggeration to say that the (morphological) vocative is still in the Slovak language. Note however that there is no dispute that the syntactic vocative is present in Slovak (and in every other language). Slovak schools have been teaching for at least 30 years that there is no grammar category of vocative anymore in use, and since 1990 they have not mentioned the vocative at all. Also, the Slovak Encyclopedia of Linguistics (1993) explicitly says: the vocative is nowadays replaced by the nominative.

However, there is a different form of morphological vocative emerging in spoken language, used with some familiar forms of personal names (Paľo - Pali, Jano, Jana - Jani, Zuza - Zuzi) and familiar forms of kinship words, such as mama - mami (mum, mother), oco - oci (dad, father), tata, tato - tati (dad, daddy), baba, babka - babi (gran, granny, grandmother). This usage is very similar to the "new Russian vocative" (Маш', Петь', мам'), and it is not accepted into standardised codified language. This probably developed out of proper names that were formed using the Hungarian diminutive suffix -i and that are used in spoken Slovak, and therefore is often homonymous with nominative (semi-)diminutive forms of the names.

Legend[edit]

  • "ends in" in the following refers to the ending in the nominative singular (N sg), unless stated differently
  • Soft consonants are: all consonants with the diacritic mark ˇ (for example š, ľ) + c, dz, j. Hard and neutral consonants are all the remaining consonants
  • For masculine nouns, adjectives, pronouns and numerals it is necessary to distinguish between animate and inanimate ones. An animate noun is a person (for example father, Peter) and an inanimate noun is any other noun (for example table, fear, democracy). Animals are usually viewed as persons only in sg. For the animate nouns, the G is identical with the A (both in sg. and in pl.), and for the inanimate nouns, the N is identical with the A (both in sg. and in pl. ). Animate/Inanimate adjectives, pronouns and numerals are those referring to an animate/inanimate noun respectively (for example in "my father" the "my" is animate, because father is animate).
  • sg = singular, pl = plural
  • N, G, D, A, L, I are abbreviations of grammatical cases (see above)

Nouns[edit]

For each gender, there are four basic declension paradigms (that is declension models).

Note that many nouns (especially those following the paradigm chlap) have different endings then those of the paradigms in one or several grammatical cases. They are neither defined, nor listed in the following. The complete number of different paradigms for nouns is somewhere about 200.

A very small number of foreign nouns is not declined (that is the stem and ending never change).

The Masculine Gender[edit]

  animate and ends in anything except -a animate and ends in -a inanimate and ends in a hard or neutral consonant inanimate and ends in a soft consonant
  sg. pl. sg. pl. sg. pl. sg. pl.
N chlap chlapi hrdina hrdinovia dub duby stroj stroje
G chlap-a chlap-ov hrdin-u hrdin-ov dub-a dub-ov stroj-a stroj-ov
D chlapovi chlapom hrdinovi hrdinom dubu dubom stroju strojom
A chlapa chlapov hrdinu hrdinov dub duby stroj stroje
L chlapovi chlapoch hrdinovi hrdinoch dube duboch stroji strojoch
I chlapom chlapmi hrdinom hrdinami dubom dubmi strojom strojmi

There is also a 5th paradigm for foreign nouns ending in .-i, -y, -e, -í, -é, -ě, -ä (for example pony, kuli, Tököli, Goethe, Krejčí, abbé, Poupě) and foreign personal names ending in -ü, -ö (for example Jenö), which goes as follows:

  • Sg: N: pony, G: ponyho, D: ponymu, A: ponyho, L and I: ponym
  • Pl: like hrdina.

Masculine animal nouns are declined like chlap in the singular, but in plural usually like dub (if they end in a hard or neutral consonant) or like stroj (otherwise)

Notes on chlap:

  • For the nouns ending in a vowel (for example -o, -u) the vowel is not part of the stem, but the ending in N sg: for example dedo has G/D sg… deda/dedovi etc. (not dedoa/dedoovi etc. ).
  • many nouns lose an e/o/i from the stem in all cases except N sg (for example vrabec - vrabca);
  • in some short nouns, the -e- changes its position in all cases except N sg (for example žnec - ženca)
  • some nouns ending in -k / -ch change the k / ch in c / s in N pl, for example žiak - žiaci
  • most Latin and Greek nouns in -us, -as, -es, -os lose the us / as / es / os in all cases except N sg (for example génius - génia; but for example fiškus - fiškusa)

Notes on hrdina: -

Notes on dub:

  • many nouns lose an e/ o / i / í /ie/ á from the stem in all cases except N sg and A sg (for example výmysel - výmysla, chrbát - chrbta, ohníček - ohníčka, dnešok - dneška, ocot - octa )
  • some Greek and Latin nouns in -us, -es, -os lose the us / es / os in all cases except N sg and A sg (e.g. komunizmus - komunizmu; but e.g. autobus - autobusu, cirkus - cirkusu)
  • some Slovak words lose the acute or the i/u from a diphthong in all cases except N sg and Asg :, for example mráz - mraza, chlieb - chleba, vietor - vetra (here at the same time loss of o), stôl - stola, bôr - bora
  • in G pl, some nouns change the a/e/i/o/u (without an acute or a preceding i) in the stem to á/é/í/ó/ú (raz - ráz, Vojany - Voján, Krompachy - Krompách) or in some cases to ia/ie/iu/ô (for example čas -čias, Margecany - Margecian, Žabokreky - Žabokriek), unless the preceding syllable in the stem already contains a vowel with an acute or a diphthong (for example Hájniky - Hájnik)
  • in L sg, nouns ending in g/k/h have -u rather than -e

Notes on stroj:

  • many nouns lose the e/ o / i / í /ie/ á in all cases except N sg and A sg (for example marec - marca, delenec- delenca, veniec- venca, deň- dňa, stupeň - stupňa, lakeť - lakťa )
  • some nouns lose the acute or the i/u from a diphthong in all cases except N sg and Asg :, for example dážď - dažďa, nôž - noža
  • in G pl, geographical names in pl. (plurale tantum) change the a/e/i/o/u (without an acute or a preceding i) in the stem to á/é/í/ó/ú (for example Tlmače - Tlmáč) or in some cases to ia/ie/iu/ô (for example Ladce - Ladiec) in the G pl, unless the preceding syllable in the stem already contains an acute or a diphthong

The Feminine Gender[edit]

  ends in -hard or neutral consonant + a ends in -soft consonant + a (or in -ia / -ya) ends in a consonant other than for kosť (next column). ends in -c /s / p / v / sť
  sg. pl. sg. pl. sg. pl. sg. pl.
N žena ženy ulica ulice dlaň dlane kosť kosti
G ženy žien ulice ulíc dlane dlaní kosti kostí
D žene ženám ulici uliciam dlani dlaniam kosti kostiam
A ženu ženy ulicu ulice dlaň dlane kosť kosti
L žene ženách ulici uliciach dlani dlaniach kosti kostiach
I ženou ženami ulicou ulicami dlaňou dlaňami kosťou kosťami

There is also a 5th paradigm for feminine nouns ending in -ná or -ovná (for example princezná), where the singular and N pl and A pl are like pekná (see under adjectives) and the remaining plural is like žena. In the G pl, there are changes in the stem: if the noun ends in -vowel + ná, then this vowel receives an acute (for example švagriná - švagrín), but otherwise an -ie- is inserted (for example princezná - princezien).

There is also a 6th paradigm for the feminine nouns ending in -ea (idea, Kórea), which goes like žena, except that D sg and Lsg are idei, and G pl is ideí without change in the stem.

Notes on žena:

  • The following nouns are declined like ulica instead of žena: večera, rozopra, konopa, Hybe and (the plurale tantum) dvere
  • In the G pl of some nouns, an ie/ e / o / á / ô is inserted in the last syllable of the stem (for example hra - hier, čipka - čipiek /čipôk, karta - kariet /karát, kvapka - kvapiek / kvapák /kvapôk, vojna - vojen, látka - látok)
  • In the G pl of some nouns, in the last syllable of the stem the a / i / y / u / ä / e / o /syllabic r / syllabic l (without an acute or a preceding i) is changed into á (or ia) / í / ý / ú /ia / ie / ô/ ŕ/ ĺ respectively (sila - síl, skala - skál, chyba - chýb, ruka - rúk, fakulta - fakúlt, päta - piat, slza - sĺz, črta-čŕt, brzda - bŕzd, slza-sĺz)

Notes on ulica:

  • In the G pl of some nouns, an ie is inserted (for example jedľa - jedieľ, sukňa - sukieň)
  • In the G pl of some nouns, in the last syllable of the stem the a / i / y / u / e / o /syllabic r (without an acute or a preceding i) is changed into á (or ia)/ í / ý / ú /ie / ô/ ŕ respectively (for example ulica - ulíc, sudkyňa -sudkýň, Krkonoše, Krkonôš, košeľa - košieľ, guľa - gúľ, hoľa - hôľ, fľaša - fliaš

Notes on dlaň:

  • The following nouns are declined like dlaň, not like kosť: obec, päsť, čeľusť.
  • The following feminine nouns are not declined like dlaň, but like kosť: jar, zver, chuť, ortuť, pamäť, smrť, pleť, sneť, rukoväť, smeť, púť, spleť, svojeť, reč, seč, meď, soľ, hluš, myš, voš, lož, bel, Sereď, Sibír, Budapešť, Bukurešť, Lešť and a few other nouns. The words myseľ, chuť, raž, tvár, hneď can be declined like dlaň or like kosť in the singular, but only like dlaň in the plural. The word hrsť is declined like dlaň in the singular, but like kosť in the plural.
  • most nouns in -eň lose the e in all cases except N sg and A sg (for example úroveň - úrovne)

Notes on kosť:

  • see the first two notes under dlaň
  • some nouns lose the e / o in all cases except N sg and A sg (for example ves - vsi, lož - lži, cirkev-cirkvi)

The Neuter Gender[edit]

  ends in - o ends in - e (except -ie) ends in - ie ends in - a or -ä
  sg. pl. sg. pl. sg. pl. sg. pl.
N mesto mestá srdce srdcia vysvedčenie vysvedčenia dievča dievčatá /
dievčence
G mesta miest srdca sŕdc vysvedčenia vysvedčení dievčaťa dievčiat/
dievčeniec
D mestu mestám srdcu srdciam vysvedčeniu vysvedčeniam dievčaťu dievčatám/
dievčencom
A mesto mestá srdce srdcia vysvedčenie vysvedčenia dievča dievčatá/
dievčence
L meste mestách srdci srdciach vysvedčení vysvedčeniach dievčati dievčatách /
dievčencoch
I mestom mestami srdcom srdcami vysvedčením vysvedčeniami dievčaťom dievčatami /
dievčencami

For (any) neuter nouns ending in -vowel+um/on (for example štúdium, ganglion) there is actually a 5th paradigm (štúdium), which is declined like mesto except that the -um- / -on- is omitted in all cases except N sg and A sg., L sg ends in -u (štúdiu), and G pl in -í (štúdií).

Notes on mesto:

  • Latin and Greek neuter nouns ending in -consonant +um/on (for example fórum, epiteton) are declined like mesto, except that the -um- / -on- is omitted in all cases except N sg and A sg (for example N sg and A sg: publikum, G sg: publika, D sg: publiku etc. )
  • in the G pl of some nouns, an ie/ e / o / á /(rarely é) is inserted in the last syllable of the stem (for example clo-ciel, mydlo-mydiel, zvieratko-zvieratiek, jedlo - jedál, vrecko-vrecák/vreciek, vlákno - vláken / vlákien, číslo - čísel / čísiel, lajno - lajen, lýtko - lýtok, teliesko - teliesok
  • in the G pl of some nouns, in the last syllable of the stem the a / i / y / u / ä / e / o /syllabic r / syllabic l (without an acute or a preceding i) is changed into á / í / ý / ú /ia / ie / ô/ ŕ/ ĺ respectively (kladivo - kladív, zrno - zŕn)

Notes on srdce:

  • In the G pl of some nouns, an ie/e is inserted in the last syllable of the stem. (for example citoslovce-citosloviec, okience - okienec, vajce - vajec)
  • In the G pl of some nouns, in the last syllable of the stem the a / i / y / u / ä / e / o /syllabic r / syllabic l (without an acute or a preceding i) is changed into á / í / ý / ú /ia / ie / ô/ ŕ/ ĺ respectively (plece-pliec, srdce-sŕdc, slnce-sĺnc).

Notes on vysvedčenie: -

Notes on dievča:

  • The -a- at the beginning of all endings is replaced by ä in nouns, where a p/b/m/f/v precedes the a (for example žriebä - žriebäťa - žriebäťu… ).
  • Most nouns can take both the -at- endings and the -enc- endings in the plural (for example dievča, húsa, bábä), some nouns however take only the -at- endings (for example knieža, zviera, mláďa) and some nouns only the -enc- endings (for example kura). The following nouns do not take the -en- in the alternative plural endings : prasa (- prasatá / prasce - prasiat / prasiec), teľa, šteňa.

Adjectives[edit]

Paradigms[edit]

Pekný[edit]

This paradigm is used for adjectives ending in -a hard or neutral consonant + ý [in the masculine gender]

  masculine neuter feminine plural
N pekný pekné pekná pekné
(masc. animate: pekní)
G pekného pekného peknej pekných
D peknému peknému peknej pekným
A pekný
(animate: pekného)
pekné peknú pekné
(masc. animate: pekných)
L peknom peknom peknej pekných
I pekným pekným peknou peknými

Cudzí[edit]

This paradigm is used for adjectives ending in -a soft consonant + í [in the masculine gender] (including the comparative and superlative, see below )

Forms: They are like with pekný, but within the endings (that is in what follows after pekn-) always replace ý by í, é by ie, á by ia, and ú by iu., e.g.: pekný - cudzí, pekné(ho) - cudzie(ho), pekný(m) - cudzí(m), pekná - cudzia, peknú - cudziu.

Otcov[edit]

This paradigm is used for adjectives ending in -ov / -in, for example otcov ("father's"), matkin ("mother's"). All of them are possessive adjectives (adjectives in -ov for masculine persons, adjectives in -in for feminine persons).

  masculine neuter feminine plural
N otcov otcovo otcova otcove
(masc. animate: otcovi)
G otcovho otcovho otcovej otcových
D otcovmu otcovmu otcovej otcovým
A otcov
(animate: otcovho)
otcovo otcovu otcove
(masc. animate: otcových)
L otcovom otcovom otcovej otcových
I otcovým otcovým otcovou otcovými

The Comparative and Superlative[edit]

The comparative is formed by replacing the adjective ending -ý/y/i/í by -ejší or -ší. There are exact rules for the choice between these two endings and there are several irregular comparatives. Examples:

Regular: hrozný - hroznejší, bohatý - bohatší …
Irregular: veľký - väčší, malý - menší, dobrý - lepší, zlý - horší, pekný - krajší, čierny - černejší, blízky-bližší, ďaleký - ďalší, hlboký - hlbší …

The comparative forms are declined like cudzí

The superlative (that is biggest, most difficult etc. )is formed as follows: naj+comparative . Examples: pekný - krajší - najkrajší, hrozný- hroznejší - najhroznejší …

The comparative and superlative of adverbs (which by the way end in -o, -e or -y in the basic form)is formed by simply replacing the -(ej)ší from the adjective by -(ej)šie (for example pekne - krajšie - najkrajšie, hrozne - hroznejšie - najhroznejšie, teplo - teplejšie - najteplejšie, pomaly - pomalšie - najpomalšie)

Pronouns[edit]

Personal pronouns[edit]

  I you (sg) he she it we you (pl. or polite form) they (masculine animate, or mixed genders) they (otherwise)
N ja ty on ona ono my vy oni ony
G ma (mňa) ťa (teba) ho (jeho, neho,-ňho, -ň) jej (nej) ho (jeho, neho, -ňho, -ň) nás vás ich (nich) ich (nich)
D mne (mi) tebe (ti) mu (jemu, nemu,-ňmu) jej (nej) mu (jemu, nemu,-ňmu) nám vám im (nim) im (nim)
A ma (mňa) ťa (teba) ho (jeho, neho, -ňho, -ň, -eň) ju (ňu) ho (-ň, -eň) nás vás ich (nich) ich (ne)
L mne tebe ňom nej ňom nás vás nich nich
I mnou tebou ním ňou ním nami vami nimi nimi

There is also the reflexive pronoun sa, which is declined as follows: N: -, G: seba, D: sebe /si, A: seba/sa, L: sebe, I: sebou

Notes:

  • the long forms mňa, teba, seba, mne, tebe, sebe in G, D and A are used after prepositions (for example pre mňa) or when emphasized, especially always at the beginning of the sentence (for example Vidíš len seba., Teba vidím. )
  • the forms jeho, jemu in G, D and A are used when emphasized, especially always at the beginning of the sentence (for example Vidím jeho. Jeho vidím = It is him that I see)
  • the forms in n- (that is neho, nemu, nej, ňu, nich, nim, ne) are used after prepositions (for example pre neho (masc. )); the forms -ňho (or -ň), -ňmu, -ň can be used alternatively after the prepositions do, pre, na, za, o, po, do, u (for example pre neho (masc. ) = preňho = preň); the special form -eň can be used alternatively (for neuter nouns obligatorily) after the prepositions nad, ponad, cez, pod, popod, pred, popred (for example nad neho (masc.) = nadeň ).

Demonstrative Pronouns[edit]

  masculine neuter feminine plural
N ten to tie
(masc. animate: tí)
G toho toho tej tých
D tomu tomu tej tým
A ten
(masc. animate: toho)
to tie
(masc. animate: tých)
L tom tom tej tých
I tým tým tou tými

like ten (that, the) are declined: tamten (that one), henten (that one), tento (this one), tenže (the same)…

like adjectives are declined: for example istý (certain, same), každý (each), iný (other), taký / onaký (such), všetok (all), sám (-self), onen (that one), and žiaden = žiadny (no one) …

Interrogative (and Relative) and Indefinite pronouns[edit]

who: N: kto - G:koho -D:komu - A:koho - L:kom - I:kým [always masculine animate]
what: N: čo - G:čoho - D:čomu - A: čo - L: čom -I:čím [always neuter]

like kto/čo are declined: nikto (nobody), niekto/dakto (someone), niečo/dačo (something), hocikto (who ever), nič (nothing), ktosi (someone), čosi (something) …

like adjectives are declined: čí (whose), niečí /dačí / hocičí (someone's), ničí (noone's), ktorý (which), aký (what, which), nejaký / dajaký / (some), nijaký / niktorý (no), čísi (someone's), číkoľvek (whose ever). akýsi (some), ktorýsi (some), ktorýkoľvek (which ever)…

Possessive pronouns[edit]

  masculine neuter feminine plural
N môj moje moja moje
(masc. animate: moji)
G môjho môjho mojej mojich
D môjmu môjmu mojej mojim
A môj
(animate: môjho)
moje moju moje
(masc. animate: mojich)
L mojom mojom mojej mojich
I mojím mojím mojou mojimi

like môj (my) are declined:

  • tvoj (your (sg. )) and svoj (one's own), except that the o never changes in ô (for example tvoj - tvojho … )
  • náš (our) and váš (your (pl. )), except that the -ô- in môj corresponds to an -á-, and an -o- in môj corresponds to an -a- here (for example náš - G:nášho - L:našom)

not declined are:

  • jeho (his), jej (her), ich (their)

Numerals[edit]

Cardinal Numerals[edit]

Paradigms[edit]

jeden (one): is declined like the adjective pekný

  • Changes for compound numerals in -jeden: not declined ; see Compound Numerals

dva (two): N: dvaja (masc. animate); dva (masc. inanimate); dve (otherwise) - G: dvoch - D: dvom - A: dvoch (masc. animate); dva (masc. inanimate); dve (otherwise) - L: dvoch - I: dvoma

  • Changes for compound numerals in -dva:
N: dvaja/dva (masc. animate); dva (otherwise)
A: dvoch /dva (masc. animate); dva (otherwise)
  • Also declined like dva: obidva / oba (both), and (with the above changes) the second part of the compound numerals 32, 42, … 92, if they are declined (see Compound Numerals)

tri (three): N: traja (masc. animate); tri (otherwise) - G: troch - D: trom - A: troch (masc. animate); tri (otherwise) - L: troch - I: troma / tromi

  • Changes for compound numerals in -tri, -štyri:
N: traja/tri (masc. animate); tri (otherwise)
A: troch/tri (masc. animate); tri (otherwise)
  • Also declined like tri: štyri (4), and (with the above changes) the second part of the compound numerals 23, 33, 43, … 93; 24, 34, 44, … 94, if they are declined (see Compound Numerals)

päť (five): N: piati / päť (masc. animate); päť (otherwise) - G: piatich - D: piatim - A: piatich / päť (masc. animate); päť (otherwise) - L: piatich - I: piatimi

  • Also declined like päť: the numerals päť (6) to 19 (19), and 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and the second part of the compound numerals 25–29, 35–39 … 95–99, if they are declined (see Compound Numerals)

100, 200, 300, … 900; 1000, 2000, 3000, … 9000: not declined, but 1000 can be declined like päť

Compound Numerals[edit]

  • if they end in -jeden (for example 21, 101):
    • not declined
  • otherwise:
    • 2 alternatives: not declined or declined; if they are declined, then each number making up the numeral is declined according to its own paradigm (for example 23 chlapov: dvadsiatich troch chlapov)

Ordinal Numerals[edit]

They are declined like adjectives (paradigms pekný and cudzí)

Note: Ordinal numerals are formed by adding adjective endings to the (slightly modified) cardinal numbers, for example

5: päť - 5th: piaty,
20: dvadsať - 20th: dvadsiaty

External links[edit]