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2b Inner, 2c Lower
The Slovenian Littoral (Slovene: Primorska, pronunciation (help·info); Italian: Litorale; German: Küstenland) is a traditional region of Slovenia. Its name recalls the historical Habsburg crown land of the Austrian Littoral which the Slovenian Littoral was a part of.
The region comprises two traditional provinces: Goriška and Slovenian Istria. The Goriška region takes its name from the town of Gorizia (in Slovene: Gorica), an urban center of former Austrian Littoral, now in Italy; while the Slovenian Istria comprises the northern part of the Istria peninsula and provides, at the port of Koper, the country's only access to the sea.
During the period of Austrian rule, the region was known as the Austrian Littoral, and was divided into Istria, the Imperial Free City of Trieste, and the autonomous Crown Lands of Gorizia and Gradisca.
In 1918, the area represented together with the western part of former Inner Carniola and the Upper Carniolan municipality of Bela Peč/Weissenfels (later Italianized to Fusine in Valromana, now a frazione of Tarvisio), that were altogether occupied by the Italian army, a quarter of Slovene ethnic territory and approximately 327.000 out of total population of 1.3 million Slovenes, that were in 1920 annexed to the Kingdom of Italy by the Treaty of Rapallo.
Forced Italianization of Slovene minority in Italy (1920-1947), which began in the first years of Italian occupation, intensified after the Fascists came to power in Italy in 1922 and lasted until 1943. The Slovenes in Italy lacked any minority protection under international or domestic law.
After World War II, the area was split between Yugoslavia, which received the majority of the region, and Italy, which retained the urban centres of Trieste and Gorizia. As a result, new urban centres in the Slovenian part of the border developed. Today, the main urban centers of the Slovene Littoral are Koper and the Nova Gorica–Šempeter conurbation.
After Ljubljana, the Slovene Littoral is the most developed and economically most prosperous part of Slovenia. The western part of the Slovenian Istria (the coast) is a bilingual region where both Slovene and Italian may be used in education, legal and administrative environments.
Photo gallery 
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Mount Krn in the Julian Alps
The Goriška Brda wine region
The town of Nova Gorica
Rural architecture on the Karst plateau
Landscape in Slovenian Istria
The Adriatic town of Piran/Pirano
- Cresciani, Gianfranco (2004) Clash of civilisations, Italian Historical Society Journal, Vol.12, No.2, p.4
- Lipušček, U. (2012) Sacro egoismo: Slovenci v krempljih tajnega londonskega pakta 1915, Cankarjeva založba, Ljubljana. ISBN 978-961-231-871-0
- Hehn, Paul N. (2005). A Low Dishonest Decade: The Great Powers, Eastern Europe, and the Economic Origins of World War II, 1930–1941. Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 44–45. ISBN 0-8264-1761-2.
See also 
- Battles of the Isonzo
- London Pact
- Treaty of Rapallo (1920)
- Morgan Line
- Free Territory of Trieste
- Treaty of Osimo
- Vipava Valley
- Slovenian wine
- Slovenian Riviera
- Venetian Slovenia