Slum tourism is a type of tourism that involves visiting impoverished areas. Originally focused on the slums of London and Manhattan in the 19th Century, slum tourism is now becoming increasingly prominent in developing nations, including India, Brazil, Kenya, Indonesia and others.
The Oxford English Dictionary dates the first use of the word slumming to 1884. In London, people visited slum neighborhoods such as Whitechapel or Shoreditch in order to observe life in this situation. By 1884 wealthier people in New York City began to visit the Bowery and the Five Points area of the Lower East Side, neighborhoods of poor immigrants, to see "how the other half lives".
In the 1980s in South Africa, black residents organized township tours to educate the whites in local governments on how the black population lived. Such tours attracted international tourists, who wanted to learn more about apartheid.
In the mid-1990s, international tours began to be organized with destinations in the most disadvantaged areas of developing nations, often known as slums. They have grown in popularity, and are often run and advertised by professional companies. In Cape Town, South Africa, for example, upwards of 300,000 tourists visit the city each year to view the slums.
Prior to the release of Slumdog Millionaire in 2008, Mumbai was a slum tourist destination. The concept of slum tourism has recently started to gain more attention from media and academia alike. In December 2010 the first international conference on slum tourism was held in Bristol. A social network of people working in or with slum tourism has been set up.
Slum tourism is mainly performed in urban areas of developing countries, most often named after the type of areas that are visited:
- Township tourism: in post-apartheid South Africa and Namibia. South African settlements are still visibly divided into wealthy, historically white suburbs and poor, historically black townships, because of the effects of apartheid and racial segregation.
- Favela tourism: in Brazil
- Jakarta Hidden Tours in Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia.
- Social or religious divisions: New York City and Belfast, Northern Ireland.
- Be The Local Tours: in Mumbai, Dharavi. Famed by Slumdog Millionaire movie, this tour actively breaks stereotypical depictions of slums. Dharavi – A look inside
A 2010 study by the University of Pennsylvania showed that tourists in Mumbai's Dharavi slum were motivated primarily by curiosity, as opposed to several competing push factors such as social comparison, entertainment, education, or self-actualization. In addition, the study found that most slum residents were ambivalent about the tours, while the majority of tourists reported positive feelings during the tour, with interest and intrigue as the most commonly cited feelings. Many tourists often come to the slums to put their life in perspective.
Slum tourism has been the subject of much controversy. Both critiques and defenses of the practice have been made in the editorial pages of prominent newspapers, such as the New York Times, Wall Street Journal, London Times, and others. A primary accusation that the advocates against slum tourism make is that it "turns poverty into entertainment, something that can be momentarily experienced and then escaped from." Kennedy Odede, a Kenyan, wrote in the New York Times Op-Ed section, "They get photos; we lose a piece of our dignity." Similar critics call the tours voyeuristic and exploitative. Slum tourism critics have also cited the fact that Christmas and Valentine's Day as common times for slum tourism further supporting the belief that Westerners often visit slums just to "feel better about themselves" during those holidays when most people are with families and significant others.
The tours provide employment and income for tour guides from the slums, an opportunity for craft-workers to sell souvenirs, and may invest back in the community with profit that is earned. As the debate over the ethics of slum tourism continues, studies are being done. Forums for discussion are being created to further the dialogue and provide reliable information.
- "Slum Tourism: A Trip into the Controversy". May 15, 2010. Retrieved 2011-07-25.
- "Slumming In This Town. A Fashionable London Mania Reaches New-York. Slumming Parties To Be The Rage This Winter. Good Districts To Visit. Mrs. Langtry As A Slummer". New York Times. September 14, 1884. Retrieved 2010-12-08. "'Slumming', the latest fashionable idiosyncrasy in London -- i.e., the visiting of the slums of the great city by parties of ladies and gentlemen for sightseeing -- is mildly practiced here by our foreign visitors by a tour of the Bowery, winding up with a visit to an opium joint or Harry Hill's. ..."
- Marc Saint-Upéry (October 21, 2010). "Left at the Crossroads: Ogling the poor". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 2010-12-08. "The word 'slumming' was first registered by the Oxford Dictionary in 1884, coinciding with a rising Victorian preoccupation that mixed philanthropy, social paranoia and voyeuristic titillation. Respectable middle-class Londoners would visit seedy neighborhoods such as Whitechapel or Shoreditch, while wealthy New Yorkers roamed the Bowery and the Lower East Side to see "how the other half lives". By the turn of the century, the tourist practice had begun to decline"
- Dondolo, L., 2002. The Construction of Public History and Tourism Destinations in Cape Town's Townships: A Study of Routes, Sites and Heritage, Cape Town: University of the Western Cape
- Manfred Rolfes, Poverty tourism: theoretical reflections and empirical findings regarding an extraordinary form of tourism, in GeoJournal, (Springer Science and Business Media, 26 September 2009), 421.
- "Destination Slum". 2014-05-16. Retrieved 2014-06-23.
- Slumtourism.net – Network for people working in or with slum tourism
- "Jakarta Hidden Tours". Realjakarta.blogspot.com. 2004-02-27. Retrieved 2014-06-23.
- Amelia Gentleman. ""Slum tours: a day trip too far? – The Observer, Sunday 7 May 2006". Guardian. Retrieved 2014-06-23.
- "Home". Be The Local Tours And Travels. Retrieved 2014-06-23.
- "Dharavi – a Look Inside.". YouTube. Retrieved 2014-06-23.
- Slumdog Tourism, Kennedy Odede, New York Times, August 9, 2010 http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/10/opinion/10odede.html, accessed 12/6/2011.
- Eric Weiner, Slum Visits: Tourism or Voyeurism?, New York Times, March 9, 2008, http://travel.nytimes.com/2008/03/09/travel/09heads.html?pagewanted=all, accessed 12/6/2011.
- Hanrahan, Mark (May 8, 2013). "Your Next Vacation Destination: A Slum?". Huffington Post.
- See http://slumtourism.net/about and University of the West of England. "Does slum tourism make us better people?", ScienceDaily, 28 Jan. 2010. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.
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