Slunj

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Slunj
Town
Road bridge in Slunj
Road bridge in Slunj
Map of Slunj municipality within Karlovac County
Map of Slunj municipality within Karlovac County
Slunj is located in Croatia
Slunj
Slunj
Location of Slunj in Croatia
Coordinates: 45°06′56.05″N 15°35′04.64″E / 45.1155694°N 15.5846222°E / 45.1155694; 15.5846222Coordinates: 45°06′56.05″N 15°35′04.64″E / 45.1155694°N 15.5846222°E / 45.1155694; 15.5846222
Country Croatia
County Karlovac County
Government
 • Mayor Josip Gračan (acting) (Ind.)
Area
 • Total 392.54 km2 (151.56 sq mi)
Elevation 258 m (846 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 5,076
 • Density 13/km2 (33/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Area code(s) 047
Website slunj.hr

Slunj (Hungarian Szluin, old German Sluin, Latin Slovin, archaic Croatian Slovin grad) is a town in the mountainous part of Central Croatia, located along the important North-South route to the Adriatic Sea between Karlovac and Plitvice Lakes National Park, on the meeting of the rivers Korana and Slunjčica (also called Slušnica by local people). Slunj has a population of 1,674, with a total of 5,076 people in the municipality (2011)[1] and is the cultural and social center of the region of Kordun in the vicinity to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Administratively, the town is part of Karlovac County.

History[edit]

An old fortification of the Frankopans, built during the wars against the Turks, Slovin was first mentioned in the 12th century. The old fort was property of the Frankopan (Hungarian Frangapán) family since the 15th century, joined by an old Franciscan monastery from the same period. Later, this town has been called Slunj. In the 16th century the town was ravaged by the Ottoman wars and turned into a military outpost of the Croatian Military Frontier, but by the end of the 17th century the settlement was rebuilt into the Slunj as it exists today. The castle has been developed to a fortress and served as headquarters for the commanding general of this area (see Stari grad Slunj). After the Treaty of Sistova in 1791 people increasingly began to re-settle in this area.

During the short French governance period from 1809 until 1813, Slunj encountered an economic boom as streets, storage facilities and mills were built and as vineyards and mulberry trees were planted. At this point of time, the Croatian language has become official language of the country. The residence of the former governor general of the French Illyrian Provinces, marshal Auguste de Marmont, still exists.

The town of Slunj was first mentioned in a written document by the chronicler Janez Vajkard Valvasor who reported about the fortified town of Slunj, a bridge and a mill in 1689. The first illustration of the mills of Rastoke dates back from 1789. It was a copper engraving that has been added to a description by Belsazar Hacquet. At the end of the 19th century, Stjepan Širola wrote the following about this place: "The surroundings of Slunj are downright romantic […]. They are crowned by the magnificent waterfalls of the Slunjčica river by which even not outspoken nature lovers will be captivated. Indeed, Slunj with its romantic surroundings and the silver waterfalls of the Slunjčica represent a true nature gem astonishing even to foreigners."

Until 1918, Slunj (named SZLUIN[2]) was part of the Austrian monarchy (Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, Modruš-Rijeka County, after the compromise of 1867), in the Croatian Military Frontier.[3] It was administered by the SZLUINER Grenz-Infanterie-Regiment N°IV before 1881. Slunj became a district capital in the Modruš-Rijeka County in the Kingdom.

The Cazin uprising of 1950, an armed anti-state rebellion of peasants, which mostly affected the Bosnian towns Cazin and Velika Kladuša, also affected Slunj to a lesser extent. All of the cities were a part of Communist Yugoslavia at the time.[4] Peasants revolted against the forced collectivization and collective farms by the Yugoslav government on the farmers of its country. Following a drought in 1949, the peasants of Yugoslavia were unable to meet unrealistic quotas set by their government and were punished. The revolt that followed the drought resulted in the killings and persecution of those who organized the uprising, but also many innocent civilians.[5][6] It was the only peasant rebellion in the history of Cold War Europe.[7]

In 1963, the Austrian writer Heimito von Doderer published the novel The Waterfalls of Slunj (German: Die Wasserfälle von Slunj) which features a climactic sequence set in this locality.[8] During the 20th century scientific research studies were carried out in the Slunj area and particularly its Rastoke district. During the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century Rastoke has been the center of social life in this region. With the development of the electric mill and massive emigration after the Second World War the economic significance of the mills in Rastoke has declined drastically.

Places of interest[edit]

Slunj is famous for its little waterfalls and the well-preserved corn mills (dating back to the 18th century) in the picturesque lower part of the town, called Rastoke (referring to the branching of the rivers). At Slunj, the Slunjčica river (also called “Slušnica“ by local people) flows over several waterfalls and cascades into the Korana river. Here is also the location of the 22 water mills of Rastoke.

Tourism[edit]

Tourism slowly begins to redevelop in this region of Croatia. Rastoke serves as a ground for the development of the town of Slunj and the surrounding region of Kordun. As a place of autochthonous ecologic and ethnographic significance, Rastoke is developing as a tourist center characterized by its traditional architecture, gastronomic pleasures and specific local cultural customs. Rastoke is again becoming an important inter station on the way to or from the Adriatic Sea worth visiting. The area around Slunj offers many activities for recreation, such as swimming, canoeing, rafting, fishing, hunting, mountain biking, hiking, riding, or even the visiting of caves (e.g. the karst caves Baraćeve špilje at nearby Rakovica). In the proximity to Rastoke there is a natural bathing site at the Korana river which is very popular among local residents. Children enjoy playing at the shallow cascades of the Korana river.

Population[edit]

Old fortification of the Frankopans, built during the wars against the Ottoman Empire

As of 2011, most of Slunj's population is Croatian (87.9%) followed by Serbs (10.5%) and a small number of other ethnic groups.[9]

Settlements[edit]

The list of settlements in the Slunj municipality is:[1]

Sport[edit]

Football[edit]

Although Slunj is very small, it has many sport clubs. Most famous are the football club NK Slunj and MNK Drenak. There are two football fields in Slunj. One is situated in the center of Slunj and popularly called Gradsko igralište (Town field) and the other is Zubac, which is the official turf of NK Slunj.

Koranski susreti[edit]

On the last day of "Dani grada Slunja" (festivity called Days of the city of Slunj), which usually takes place at the beginning of August, games are organized on main swimming area on the river Korana. Participating teams compete in many games like swimming and snorkeling and many other.

Notable people[edit]

  • Milan Neralić (famous fencer and winner of the Bronze Medal at the Olympic Summer Games in Paris in 1900

Twinnings[edit]

See also[edit]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Population by Age and Sex, by Settlements, 2011 Census: Slunj". Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012. 
  2. ^ Name of the Austrian post-office opened in 1864.
  3. ^ Handbook of Austria and Lombardy-Venetia Cancellations on the Postage Stamp Issues 1850-1864, by Edwin MUELLER, 1961.
  4. ^ "CAZINSKA BUNA 1950: Danas se navršavaju 62 godine od ustanka u Krajini". Cazin. 6 May 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2014. 
  5. ^ "Klanjana kolektivna dženaza žrtvama Cazinske bune iz 1950. godine". Haber. 11 May 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2014. 
  6. ^ "Vera Kržišnik Bukić i Cazinska buna". Radio Sarajevo. 4 May 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2014. 
  7. ^ "Rock and Hard Places: Travels to Backstages, Frontlines and Assorted Sideshows". Google Books. 2010. Retrieved 11 February 2014. 
  8. ^ Doderer Gesellschaft. Heimito von Doderer. Die Wasserfälle von Slunj.
  9. ^ "Population by Ethnicity, by Towns/Municipalities, 2011 Census: County of Karlovac". Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012. 

External links[edit]